HISTORY PAPER 1 JOINT EXAMS PLUS MARKING SCHEMES

SECTION  A  ( 25 MARKS)

  1. What evidence exists to prove that the Khoisan lived in Kenya in the Past (2mks)
    • Archaeologists have excavated their tools, stone bowls.
    • Remnants of the Khoisan exist in Kenya – the Sandawe, Hadza.
    • Their ancient dwellings in form of caves exist in Kenya.
    • Oral traditions among the early Bantu and Cushitic Pastoralists mention their presence.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks.

  1. Give two social reasons for the migration of the Somali into Kenya.                    (2mks)
    • Over population/population pressure
    • Spirit of adventure
    • Family and clan feuds

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. Identify two religious functions of the Orkoiyot of the Nandi during the pre-colonial period                                                                         ( 2 mks)
    • Mediating between God and the people /acted as a priest.
    • Offering sacrifices to God on behalf of the people.
    • Blessing people before they undertook special activities such as war/raids.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. Identify one contribution of Johann Krapt to the Spread of the Christianity in Kenya during the Nineteenth century.                                                                                     (1mk)
    • He built a church at Rabai
    • Translated the Bible into Kiswahili
    • Trained the first catechists who later spread the gospel
    • Encouraged other European missionaries to come to Kenya.

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk

  1. Give the main reason why the Portuguese were able to Conquer the Kenyan Coast during the Sixteenth Century                                                                         ( 1mk)
    • The Portuguese used superior weapons 1 x 1 = 1 mk
  2. Give one factor which enabled traders from Arabia to come to the Kenyan Coast before 1500                                                                                     ( 1mk)
    • The monsoon winds which facilitated transport to and from Arabia.
    • Possession of advanced Marine Technology at the time e.g making dhows.

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. State two ways in which the establishment of plantations along the coast led to the expansion of slave trade                                                                                                 (2mks)
    • Led to increased demand for farm labour that came from slaves
    • Plantation owners had a lot of capital which was used to buy slaves.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

  1. Give two reasons why the Africans were provided with education facilities during the colonial period in Kenya                                                                         (2mks)
    • To teach them how to read and write so as to assist in the spread of Christianity
    • Africans had to be trained to fill junior administrative posts.
    • To provide skills and vocational training for them to be practical oriented.

Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

 

  1. State two reasons why Britain used the Imperial British East Africa Company (I.B. E.A.C.) to administer her possessions in Kenya                                     (2 mks)
    • Absence of a clear policy on the administration of colonial possessions.
    • Lack of personnel
    • Lack of funds / the colonies were not economically viable
    • B.E.A.C’s long experience in the region. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

 

  1. Give the main functions of the Executive Council in the Colonial Kenya.             (1mk)
    • It advised the governor in the administration of the Colony/effected colonial policies.

1 x 1 = 1 mk

 

  1. Identify two labour organizations that fought for independence in Kenya. ( 2mks)
    • African workers union
    • Kenya Local Government Workers Union
    • Kenya Federation of Labour
    • The East African Indian Workers Union

( No marks for abbreviations)                                                Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks.

 

  1. Identify one way in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya.                                                             ( 1mk)
    • Sensitized workers about the importance of joining political parties that struggled for independence.
    • Contributed money to political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence
    • Organised strikes and boycotts to oppose some policies of the colonial government.
    • Provided relevant training ground for potential nationalist leaders.
    • Demanded for the release of political leaders e.g Harry Thuku.

Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk

  1. Name the missionary who was appointed to represent African interests in the Legislative Council in 1923                                                                         (1mk)
    • John Arthur                                                                                       1 x 1 = 1mk

 

  1. Give the main role of opposition parties in Kenya.                         (1mk)
    • To act as a check on the excesses of the government and the ruling party /upholding democracy                                                                                              1 x 1 = 1mk

 

  1. State two factors which can lead to a by-election in Kenya             (2mks)
    • When the current member of parliament dies
    • When an M.P ceases to be a Kenyan citizen
    • When a member of parliament receives a jail term exceeding one year or a death penalty from a court of law.
    • When a member resigns from his party or parliament.
    • If a member is declared bankrupt.
    • When a member commits an election offence              Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks.

 

  1. Give one occasion when the president attends parliament in Kenya.              (1mk)
    • During the opening of new Parliament
    • During the presentation of the national budget
    • During the election of the speaker

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Identify one way in which the chief maintains law and order in the location. (1mk)
    • Settling minor disputes between people in the location
    • Helps in apprehending those who break the law
    • Sensitizing people about anti-social behaviour
    • Issuing permits for all functions in the location.
    • Organising Barazas to explain government policies to the people Any 1 x 1 = 1 mk

 

SECTION B: 45 MARKS

 

  1. (a) State FIVE results of the settlement of the Gikuyu in the Mount Kenya

                   region during the Pre-colonial period.                                                             (5mks)

  • Led to inter-marriage with their neighbours e.g Akamba and Maasai.
  • It brought about the expansion of trade in the region
  • Some communities were displaced by the Agiguyu e.g the Okiek.
  • Led to increase in the population in the area
  • It promoted cultural interaction between communities e.g dressing and ceremonies.
  • Led to increased warfare/conflicts in the region over land and grazing areas
  • Some communities were assimilated /absorbed by the Agikuyu e.g the Okiek.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks

 

  • Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period.                                                             (10 mks)
    • The basic political unit was the family headed by the father.
    • Several families with a common ancestry were grouped together to form a clan/sub-clan which was called ‘ Mbari’ usually occupying/living in the same ridge.
    • Each ridge was under a Muthamaki (spokesman) who was the chairman of the council.
    • Each clan was ruled by a council of elders known as Kiama. The council performed religious, administrative and judicial functions.
    • Several elders formed a higher council called Kiama Kia athamaki which acted as a court of appeal and administered justice in the community.
    • There existed two generation sets ( Mariika) Mwangi and Maina with each performing leadership roles for a period of time
    • They had also an age-set system among boys who had undergone initiation or circumcision and they provided the warriors.
    • The warrior class was responsible for defence and was directed by a Council of war.
    • Other leaders such as the prophets, priests and diviners played important role in the society. Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks

 

 

  1. State three ways in which the introduction of Christianity undermined African Culture.                                                                                                 (3mks)
    • Conversion of Africans to Christianity led to the abandonment of African traditional beliefs and practices.
    • By encouraging Africans to settle at the mission stations, the Africans were uprooted from their traditional set-up.
    • Outright condemnation of some African Cultural practices as primitive and backward undermined African Culture.
    • Introduction of Western education by missionaries and its glitters made Africans abandon their culture.                                                             Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
  • Explain six factors that undermined Christian Missionaries as a threat to their beliefs and cultural practices                                                             (12 mks)
  • Hostility by believers of traditional religion who saw missionary activities in Kenya during the 19th                                                                                   (12mks)
  • Opposition by leaders of Islamic faith whose interest was to advance their religion in the region.
  • Harsh tropical climate and tropical diseases e.g Malaria.
  • Inadequate personnel to carry out missionary activities
  • Rivalry among different Christian groups
  • Communication barrier / lack of a common language of communication to facilitate interaction with and conversion of Africans.
  • Strict Christian doctrines which were not compatible with traditional beliefs and practices
  • Limited transport and communication facilities
  • Vastness of areas covered by individual missionaries
  • Hostility from African rulers who often identified missionaries with colonialism.

Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks

 

  1. (a) State three ways in which the construction of the Uganda Railway contributed to the development of settler farming in Kenya.                                  (3 mks)
    • Provided cheap and reliable transport network
    • Opened up the Kenyan highlands to settlers.
    • It facilitated the construction of feeder roads to link trading and settler agricultural centres with the railway line.
    • It led to massive land alienation where some communities like the Maasai and the Nandi were herded into reserves.
    • Promoted rapid movement of troops who provided security to settlers.

Any 3 x 1 =  3 marks

  • Explain six results of the development of railway transport in Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                         ( 12 mks)
    • It led to the loss of land among some African communities.
    • Facilitated the movement of goods and people.
    • Led to the development of trade between Kenya and the outside world.
    • Led to the development of agriculture as it provided easy access to the interior where large scale plantations were established.
    • Encouraged the coming of settlers to Kenya to establish plantation farming.
    • Promoted interaction between different African Communities.
    • It speeded up the development of industry and provided job opportunities to Africans
    • It led to settlement of the Asian community in Kenya who established business in urban centres.
    • It led to rural-urban migration.
    • It promoted Christian missionary activities as missionaries could easily access the interior.Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks.
  1. (a) Identify the role African elected members of parliament played in the    

                        struggle for independence in Kenya upto 1963.(5mks)

  • They formed a pressure group to demand for greater political rights for Africans.
  • They made known the grievances of the Africans in international forum as they networked with other African nationalists elsewhere e.g Ghana.
  • They sought for the release of Jomo Kenyatta and other detained Kenya
  • They formed the national political parties e.g KANU and KADU which led the country to independence.
  • They educated and created awareness among the masses to the nationalist struggle.
  • They popularized Kenyatta and made him be accepted as the nationalist hero.
  • They took part in the formulation of the independence constitution.

Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

  • Explain the political developments which hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963                                                 (10mks)
  • The return of ex-servicemen after the Second World War exposed the myth of white supremacy making Africans ready to fight to figure them.
  • Failure by the colonial government to reward the African – ex-servicemen on return embittered them.
  • Change of government from conservative to labour Party in Britain made Britain to adopt sympathetic attitude towards the nationalist struggle.
  • The formation of political parties by African Nationalists e.g K.A.U; K.A.N.U, K.A.D.U and A. P.P enhanced mobilization of the masses against colonial rule.
  • The MauMau uprising forced the British to realize the need of granting Kenya
  • Nomination and election of Africans to the Legco enabled them to use the House as a forum to agitate for independence.
  • Emergence of the trade union movement which helped to mobilize workers to fight for their rights.
  • Pan –African movement and other global bodies helped in the establishment of Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity organizations which supported the course of African nationalists in Kenya.
  • The return of Jomo Kenyatta from U.K in 1946 strengthened the nationalist movement in Kenya.
  • Independence of other countries e.g Ghana and India inspired African nationalists in Kenya.
  • The formation of the U.N.O and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize. Any 5 x 2 = 10 mks

SECTION  C  ( 30 MARKS)

  1. (a) Give five reasons why National integration is important to National development                                                                                                                           (5mks)
    • It promotes peace and prosperity
    • It encourages joint effort in solving individual and common development problems e.g education.
    • It instils a sense of nationalism and patriotism necessary for development.
    • Conflicts based on ethnicity, religion or race are avoided.
    • It enhances political stability and security hence foreign and local investment and tourism are encouraged.
    • It eliminates suspicion among citizens of different tribes, religion, political orientation and outlook as well as different social and economic classes.
    • It enables Kenyans to shed off their ethnic and tribal tendencies and begin to think and act as Kenyans and as one people, one nation.    Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks)

 

  • Explain five factors which have promoted national unity in Kenya since independence.                                                             ( 10 mks)
    • The use of a common language – this enables people of different ethnic groups to communicate.
    • Education which exposes students to the cultures of other communities hence creates understanding. Also establishment of national schools enables pupils from different parts of the country to meet and interact.
    • Intermarriages enable people from different ethnic backgrounds to live together peacefully and harmoniously hence promoting intercommunity understanding.
    • Fair distribution of resources which enables all parts of the Nation to

attain equal development.

  • Expansion of job opportunities which enables people of different ethnic backgrounds to meet and interact at their place of work.
  • The constitution – It is unitary hence does not give allowance for special treatment to any part of the country.
  • National flag and anthem which remind Kenyans of their united efforts in their struggle  for independence.
  • The presidency which is a unifying factor.
  • Development of transport network which has facilitated free movement of people from one region to the other.
  • Games and sports through which people of different ethnic groups interact.
  1. (a) Identify five sources of revenue for Local Government authorities in Kenya.(5mks)
    • Grants from the central government
    • Fees charges on services rendered by the councils
    • Sale of licenses
    • Fines imposed on offenders
    • Rates on property
    • Aid from donor agencies
    • Loans from financial institutions
    • Profit from council investments
    • Rents charged on Council houses and offices
    • From cess
    • Parking fee paid by motorists and hiring of council facilities. Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

(b)       Explain FIVE roles played by municipal councils in Kenya                      (10 mks)

  • Provide and maintain transport network within their areas of jurisdiction.
  • Provide educational facilities to the residents – they construct and maintain primary and nursery schools and employ nursery teachers.
  • They provide recreational facilities to the residents e.g social halls, stadium and parks.
  • Provide health service to residents – They construct and maintain hospitals and maternity facilities.
  • They promote business transactions by providing and maintaining markets and selling licenses and permits to businessmen.
  • Provide employment opportunities, for instance, as administrators, councillors and clerks.
  • Make by-laws which help to regulate activities and behaviour of the residents and law breakers are prosecuted.
  • They provide water and sewage services to residents.
  • They provide houses to residents and approve housing plans of individuals and companies.
  • They provide lighting                                        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

 

  1. (a) Identify three factors /issues that are addressed in the national budget in Kenya                                                                                                                                                  ( 3 mks)
  • The amount of revenue the government requires and plans to raise.
  • Sources from which the government intends to raise the revenue.
  • How the government intends to spend the revenue                  3 x 1 = 3mks

 

(b)       Explain the measures taken by the government of Kenya to ensure that public funds are properly used.                                                                                            (12mks)

  • All intended expenditure is approved by the parliament before any expenditure in undertaken.
  • Reports on expenditure must be presented to the public Accounts committee (PAC) which ensures that public finance is spent for intended purposes.
  • The comptroller and auditor general audit all ministries and government departments and report findings to parliament.
  • The permanent secretary in every ministry is given responsibility to ensure that government funds are well spent.
  • Government contracts are publicly advertised for tendering and awards are made on merit
  • Parliament approves supplementary estimates before they are utilized.
  • The Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission (KACC) investigate and prosecute officers involved in corrupt deals.
  • All money collected on Harambee basis for public prospects must be audited.
  • The accounts of parastatals are audited by the auditor general of parastatals.

Any 6 x 2 = 6 marks.




  1. Identify one archaeologist who discovered the remains of Australopithecus around Lake Turkana.

 

  • Dr Mary Leakey or
  • Dr Allan Walker.           (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Name any two highland Bantu communities who migrated into Kenya during the Pre-Colonial period.
    • The Agikuyu-the Ameru
    • The Akamba-the Aembu.       (2×1=2)

 

  1. State one main way in which the East African Coastal communities and the early

Visitors interacted.

  • Through Trade.                    (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Mention two roles played by Mekatilili Wa Menza in Agiriama resistance against the British rule.
    • She mobilized the Agiriana people.
    • She united Agiriana people through oath taking.
    • She acted as a Symbol of unity to Agiriama.           (21 = 2 mks)

 

  1. List two groups which were responsible for the development of education in Kenya during the

colonial period.

  • The Christian missionaries.
  • The colonial government.
  • The Africans themselves.      (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. State two main ways in which the World Wars contributed to political activist in Africa in Kenya.
  • Created a sense of unity among the African due to shared interest and problems.
  • Shattered the myth of white man superiority thus strived for equal rights.
  • Discrimination of African ex-soldiers like in land allocation and compensation this became dissatisfied.                                 (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Name the personality who led the Kenya African democratic Union delegation to the Second

Lancaster house conference in 1962.

  • Ronald Ngala.              (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. List any two pillars of the Nyayo philosophy advocated by the former president Daniel Moi.
  • Peace; – Love;- Unity (Any two)         (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. State two main political developments which happened in Kenya in 1990.
  • Death of Hon. Robert Ouko mysteriously
  • Abandoning of queue voting system by KANU delegates.   (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. State any one way in which the Kenya citizenship may be lost.
  • Denunciation by an individual.
  • Deprivation by the minister concerned                           (21 = 2mks)
  1. Give one way in which the Kenyan currency has promoted National unity.
  • The Kenya shilling is the only form of money used in carrying out business.

(1×1=1mk)

  1. What was the title of the head of government as per the 1963 independence?

                Constitution in Kenya?

  • Prime Minister.      (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Give the main feature of the Kenyan constitution.
  • It is written.     (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. State two ways in which the rights of a Child have been safeguarded in Kenya.
  • Publication of the children’s act of 2001.
  • Establishment of the family division in the High Court.      (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Identify two committees of the cabinet in Kenya.
  • Adhoc committee –development committee.
  • Foreign affairs committee –Manpower committee.                     (2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. How is the central government linked to the local authorities in Kenya?
  • Through the ministry of local government.         (1×1 =1mk)

 

  1. What is the meaning of National Budget?
  • It is an estimate of government revenue and expenditures and the financial plans.

For the ensuing fiscal year.                                                                 (1×1=1mk)

 

18        (a) Identify any three ranks of the clan elders among the Akamba people.

  • Junior elders (Anake)
  • Meduim elders (Nthele)
  • Full elders (Atumia Ma Kwalo)
  • Senior elders (Atumia Ma ithembo).                     (3×1=3mks)

 

(b)Describe the social organization of the Miji Kenda people during the pre-colonial period.

  • Believed in a God, called Mulungu.
  • Had prophets called Wafisi
  • Were organized into clans made up of several reacted families which were matrilineal.
  • Lived in fortified villages called Kayas or Miji which were nine.
  • Each Kaya was headed by a senior elder seen as the owners of all the property.
  • Organized into age group made up of people born during a certain period.
  • Also organized into age –sets, made up of people initiated at the same time.
  • Initiates later grouped into sub-set.
  • Had two age-set Marika and Kambi.
  • Had both junior and senior age-sets.
  • Had medicine men and women who treated the sick, exorcised demons and diagnosed the causes of demons?
  • Had ritual experts and Rain makers
  • Intermarriage between different clans allowed.
  • Practiced polygamy.
  • Social ceremonies were marked with song and dance.
  • Divisions of Labour practiced where Children looked after livestock, young men build houses, cattle sheds, hunted and cleared the bush.                          (12 x1=12mks)

 

19        (a) Outline five uses of fort Jesus by the Portuguese

  • As a watch tower-to spots an enemy.
  • A hiding place against attack.
  • A military base.
  • For food security and protection.
  • For storing armaments.
  • As a prison for captives.            (5×1=5mks).

 

(b)Explain five reasons why Seyyid Said relocated his capital to Zanzibar in 1840.

  • Had a desire to effectively control the East African Coastal towns.
  • Zanzibar had a pleasant climate-cool and wet unlike Muscat which was hot and dry.
  • Zanzibar had fresh water.
  • Zanzibar has adequate rainfall and fertile soils which favored the growing of cloves.
  • Had good Natural harbors which made anchorage of ships easy.
  • Zanzibar had remained loyal and supported Oman
  • As an Island Zanzibar was easily defendable.
  • Zanzibar was an ideal place from which to control and expand trade contact, with the interior of East Africa.
  • The E.A.coast was an important trade centre.   (5×2 =10mks)

 

20        (a) Give five problems experienced during the construction of the Uganda railway.

  • Tropical diseases like Malaria.
  • Infestation by jiggers.
  • Man-eating lions of Tsavo caused many deaths.
  • Scarcity of essential supplies food and water.
  • Hostility of some African communities like the Nandi.
  • Theft of construction materials.
  • Crossing of the rift Valley escarpment was problematic.
  • Adverse climatic conditions thro Nyika plateau and Taru desert.
  • Expensive building materials.
  • Inadequate manpower- was imported.                            (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)Explain the contributions of the trade union movement in the struggle for independence 

   in Kenya.

  • Were the first large scale organization with a national outlook.
  • Sensitized workers /political awareness was inculcated among workers.
  • Actively oppressed oppressive colonial policies through strikes and boycotts.

 

  • Contributed fields for political parties to enable them sustain independence straggle.
  • Leaders of trade union like Tom Mboya played an importance role in the political arena through exposing colonial injustices.
  • When political parties had been banned trade union kept nationalists activities alive.
  • Trade unions called for the release of political prisoners like Harry Thuku.
  • Trade unions protested against mass arrests and detentions.
  • Trade union mobilized their members to vote and make the first Africa general elections in Kenya a success.                                                                    (5×2 = 10mks)

 

21        (a) Mention five principles of African Socialism adopted as a National philosophy in Kenya.

  • Political democracy.
  • Mutual social responsibility.
  • Varies forms of ownership.
  • A range of control to ensure proper use of property.
  • Progressive taxes to ensure an equitable distribution of wealth and income.
  • Diffusion of ownership to avoid economic disparity.             (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)Explain the role of Oginga Odinga in the multiparty polities of Kenya in the 1990s.

  • In 1990 he linked up with Kenneth Matiba, Charles Rubia and son Raila Odinga among others to set up public campaign for change.
  • In July, 1990 made attempts to hold, a rally at Kamukunji, Nairobi but were denied permit.
  • In Feb 1991 he announced the formation of the National democratic party(NDP) but was denied registration.
  • In 1991 he teamed up with Masinde Muliro, Martin Shikuku, Philip Gachoka, George Nthenge and Ahmed Banation to form forum for the restoration ration of democracy (FORD) as a pressure group to fight for pluralism.
  • When section 2A of the constuition was repealed in December 1991, the FORD changed into an opposition party with Oginga as interims chairman.
  • When the multi -party general elections were held in December 1992, the opposition cost and Odinga become the leader of the opposition.
  • He later adopted the policy of co-operation with KANU which did not please other Ford Kenya officials like Paul Muite, Gitobu imanyara, Kiraitu Murungi and Farah Maalim. (5×2 = 10mks)

 

22        (a) Give any three political duties of a citizen of Kenya.

  • Participating in election.
  • Attending public meeting (Barazas)
  • Setting up democratic principles at all sections of the society.
  • Respecting the rule of law.
  • Allowing others to enjoy their rights.
  • Contributing to the building of democracy through political a activism.          (3×1=3mks)

 

(b)Explain any six methods used to implement a permanent solution to a conflict.

  • Use of guidance and counseling.
  • Policing to maintain law and order.
  • Peace keeping missions –involves the use of neutral military personnel or civilians drawn from the UN member states they are not allowed to use force.
  • Peace building –may involve the creation and strengthening of rational institution economic reconstruction Nomalising civilian life, monitoring actions promoting human rights etc.
  • Humanization assistance-people who are displaced internally (IDPS) and outside as refugees are given assistance in camps or settlement –food medicine etc.
  • Use of military force takes measures against a state/party to move it act or not to act even though it is unwilling to do so.
  • Use of social, economic and political sanction to enforce peace.  (6×2 =12mks)

 

  • (a) Name any three election officials appointed by the electoral commission of Kenya to assist  

          in Elections.

  • District election co-coordinators.
  • Registration officers.
  • Returning officers
  • Presiding officers
  • Polling orders
  • Security personnel
  • Counting clerks
  • Party agents.                 (3×1=3mks)

(b)Describe the function of the Armed forces in Kenya.

  • They defend /deter the country from external attack.
  • They help in preserving internal security when the police are fully overstretched or are likely to be overcome.
  • They participate in nation –building initiatives such as road and bridge construction.
  • They entertain the public during National holidays e.g. Madaraka Day and Jamhuri Day.
  • They are recognized internationally for their peace-keeping missions e.g. Namibia, sierra leone.
  • The Kenya Air force helps in the control of locust invasions
  • The Kenya Navy patrols Kenya’s territorial waters and is alert for sea-borne invasions.
  • The Navy also checks on illegal landings and departures and unauthorized fishing.
  • The Armed forces provide emergency services in national disasters e.g. floods, fire and collapsed buildings.                     (6×2 =12mks)

 

24        (a) Identify any three types of local authorities in Kenya.

  • City council
  • Municipal council
  • Town council
  • Urban council
  • County council.                (3×1=3mks)

 

(b)Explain the challenges facing local authorities in Kenya.

  • Lack of independence/autonomy to plain and implement internal programmers-must seek approval from the ministers of local government.
  • Inadequate funds to effectively finance their programmers.
  • Misappropriation of funds by unscrupulous workers and official.
  • Over-establishment resulting in poor and often delayed salaries.
  • Intolerance by influential personalities in the running of council affairs.
  • Rapid population increase stretches provision of of services like housing, garbage collection.
  • Duplication of roles with central Government e.g in provision of health services
  • Rising crime rates due to prevalence of street families, mushrooming of slums and unemployment.
  • Inadequate skilled manpower to provide efficient service.
  • Evasion of payment of land rates, and other levies by many residents.  (6 x 2 =12mks)

 





Kenya certificate of secondary education (K.C.S.E)

 

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

 

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

Answer all the question from this section.

  1. Two historical sites in nyanza (2mks)
  2. Fort Tenan
  3. Kanam
  • Rusinga Island
  1. Kanjera
  2. Urewe
  3. River yala

2×1 = 2mks

  1. Two limitation of linguistic as a source of Kenyan history                                                (2mks)
  2. Some words have different meanings in different communities and may confuse researchers
  3. Some words are difficult for researchers to interpreter
  • Some languages are extinct and difficult to use in reconstructing history
  1. It lacks date thus accuracy is compromised

2×1=2mks

  1. Two reasons for the decline of the Akamba long distance trade                                                (2mks)
  2. Competition from the Arabs and Swahili traders who penetrated into the interior
  3. Insecurity of the trade routes due to Oromo and maasai raids
  • Relactance of the Aembu and the Agikuyu to trade with the akamba instead traded directly with the coastal Arabs
  1. The abolition of slave trade
  2. The British colonization of Kenya
  3. Ivory was becoming difficult to obtain

2×1 = 2mks

  1. One natural phenomenan that enable the traders from Arabia to come to the Kenyan coast by 1000AD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (1mk)

– The monsoon wind                                                                                                                                     1×1 = 1mrk

5             Two ways by which colonial government controlled African population in urban centres

  1. Through head count
  2. Issuance of passes/kipande
  • Creating law which allow only Africans with employment to stay in town e.g.

vagrancy Act

  1. Designating specific African residential areas.                        (2 x 1 = 2mks

 

6             Two result of Lyttelton constitutional reforms of 1954                                   (2mks)

  1. Led to the establishment of multi racial council of ministers
  2. Allowed Africans to form districts based political organization
  • Appointment of the first African to the cabinet
  1. Led to the establishment of advisory council to discuss government policies 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Two reasons that may make a person loose citizenship acquired through registration (2mks)
  2. i) If the citizenship was acquired through fraud or corrupt means
  3. ii) If disloyal to the country through speech or actions

iii)       If giving the country’s secrets to an enemy country during war

  1. If one imprisoned for 12months or more within the 5 years of registration
  2. If one has been out of the country for 7 years and failed to register with the Kenyan embassy there
  3. If one holds dual citizenships and failed to denounce the other                    2 x 1 = 2mks

 

  1. Two problems encountered by trade unions during the colonial periods in Kenya (2mks)
  2. Colonial harassment of their leaders i.e arresting and detaining them
  3. Inadequate finance to manage their affair
  • Lack of knowledge and skills to manage the trade unions
  1. Inadequate membership as most of workers were farm labourers.
  2. Mass illiteracy among the Africans                                                                            2 x 1 = 2mks

 

  1. Two principles of democracy (2mks)
  2. People should be allowed to participate as a whole in their government/Govt should be a servant of people
  3. Freedom of speech, debate and inquiry
  • An open and accountable media
  1. Economic democracy / people should be able to create and control their wealth
  2. Equality before the law                                                                    2 x 1 = 2mks

 

  1. One principle of African socialism                (1mk)
  2. Promotion and respect of human dignity
  3. Equal opportunity for all
  • Justice to all Kenyans
  1. Equitable distribution of resources
  2. Democratic participation in the process of governance
  3. Peaceful coexistence of various communities                                                       1 x 1 = 1mk

 

  1. One special court in Kenya                                                                                                                                       (1mk)
  2. Industrial court
  3. Kadhis court
  • Court marital
  1. Juvenile court
  2. Rent restriction tribunal
  3. Business premises rent tribunal;                                                                            1 x 1=1mk
  4. One occasion when the president must attend parliament                                              (1mk)
  5. During state opening of parliament
  6. When budget is presented                                                                            1 x 1=1mk

 

  1. One way through the government spend its revenue
  2. Capital expenditures
  3. Recurrent expenditures                                                                                                  1 x 1=1mk

 

  1. Main role of the Kenya Anti-corruption commission                                                               (1mk)

– To safeguard the country resources from misappropotion or fraud                              1 x 1 =1mk

  1. One function of the sergeant at arm in the Kenyan parliament
  2. Enforcing all the orders made by the speaker
  3. Maintenance of parliament building
  • In charge of discipline within and around parliament
  1. Custodian of the mace which is the symbol of the authority of the House 1 x 1 =1mk

 

  1. One function of the Bill of rights in Kenya
  2. Provide freedom of assembly and association
  3. Safeguard life, freedom and security of the Kenyan citizens
  • Gives the citizens the freedom of worship and speech
  1. Protects ones properties i.e. if the government has to take the property for public use there must be compensation                                                                1 x 1=1mk
  2. Main function of prison department in Kenya                                                                             (1mk)

– reform or rehabilitate offenders                                                                                                  1 x 1=1mk

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

18 (a)      Five consequences of interaction between the southern cushites and the Bantus (5mks)

  1. Led to intermarriage between them
  2. Expansion of trading activities
  • Rise of conflicts over resources or grazing lands
  1. The Bantus acquired the taboos against eating fish from the cushites
  2. The Bantus acquired the idea of circumcision and age-set system
  3. Increase in population as the population swell
  • Cushites learnt the idea of iron working                                                     any 5 x1=5mks

(b)           Political organization of the Agikuyu in the pre-colonial period                                                    (10mks)

  1. It was a decentralized society
  2. Clan which was made up of related family was basic political unit
  • The clan lived in territorial units called mbari/ridge
  1. The clan was administrated by a council of elders known as kiama
  2. The kiama’s responsibilities included settling of disputes and maintaining law and order
  3. The kiamas was chaired by muramati i.e. caretaker
  • Kiama kia ndundu made up of senior elders was the highest court of appeal
  • The agikuyu practiced age-set system made up of initiated boys
  1. The age set provided the warrior class (riika) whose duty was for defend of the community against external attack.                Any 5 x 2 = 10mks
  2. (a) Five reasons which made Said Seyyid to move his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar in 1840
  3. Zanzibar had deep sheltered natural harbours which could accommodate big ships unlike Muscat
  4. Zanzibar had clean flesh water which could be used for domestic purpose
  • The central location of Zanzibar would enable him to trade with interior of                                                      Africa and Oman
  1. Suitable climate of Zanzibar unlike the hot dusty Oman
  2. Fertile soils of Zanzibar couple with good climate would enable him to practice clove growing
  3. During the conquest of Mombassa Zanzibar was legal and friendly to him
  • He wanted to effectively control the coastal area

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

(b)           Factors which contributed to the decline of Portuguese rule along to the Kenyan coast (10mks)

  1. Inadequate personnel – Portugal was a small country with small population thus could not produce enough administrators and soldiers
  2. Constant revolts by coastal people to free themselves.
  • Corrupt and selfish Portuguese officials who pocketed any profit made
  1. Lack of reinforcement given the distance between Portugal and east African coast
  2. Attacks by the Muslims and Turkish pirates.
  3. Annexation of Portugal by Spain which made the Portuguese concentrate on their liberation
  • Effect of tropical diseases on the Portuguese
  • Decline of trade in gold as coastal traders changed their trading centres
  1. The Portuguese concentrated only on the coast but they did not venture into the interior

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

20 (a)      Why nabongo mumia of wanga collaborated with British to the colonial period.

  1. To boost his personal image /prestige
  2. To be made the paramount chief
  • To get protection against the luos of ugenya, bukusu and the nandi
  1. To achieve territorial expansion
  2. To get modern firearms
  3. He felt militarily unprepared to tackle the British troops
  • He wanted to benefit from European civilization of western education and medicine.
  • He wanted to protect the independence of his kingdom

Any 5 x 1 =5mks

(b)           How the Wanga collaborated                                                                                                         (10mks)

  1. Mumia was made a paramount chief over communities
  2. The wanga served as served as missionaries and made converted to Christians
  • The wanga benefited from trade since wanga country became a trade terminus
  1. Wanga acquired firearms
  2. The wanga and other luhya developed acquired western education.
  3. Wanga offered white man lands on which they built administrative centres, schools mission stations etc
  • Wanga worriors used to pacify warring communities.

Any 5 x 2 =10mks

21 (a)      Five terms of the Devonshire whitepaper of 1923

  1. Kenya was an African country and African interests to be paramount
  2. Kenyan highlands were reserved exclusively for white settlers
  • Indians to elect five member to the legco on communal rol
  1. There was to be no segregation in residential areas and no restriction on immigration
  2. A Missionar to represent African interest in the legco
  3. European settlers were not to have self government neither constitutional privileges

Any 5 x 1 =5mks

(b)           Factors that hastened the achievement of independent in Kenya after 1994 (10mks)

  1. The experience of ex-servicemen in the 2nd world war made them aware of the changes in the world and exposed the myth of white supremacy hence rejected European dominance
  2. The constitutional changes which were initiated in Kenya by the labour government promoted nationalistic activities e.g. Lyttelton, Boyd constitution of 1954 and 1958 provided for the election of African to the legco.
  • The labour government which came to power in 1945 in Britain was more responsive to the demand for self rule in the colonies
  1. The U.N.O recommended self determination of the colonized countries have the rights and urged the colonial powers in liberate the colonized people.
  2. Attainment of independence of India in 1947 gave the nationalist a strong urge to fight for their own liberation.
  3. Kenya African Union (KAU) mobilized African against colonial rule
  • Radical movement like the mau mau proved to the colonial office that unless Kenya was granted independence it would be difficult to run the colony.
  • Lifting of barns in political parties in 1945, 1955 and 1960 led to the formation of nationalist party, KANU,KADU and APP which intensified the struggle as they struggle for independence.
  1. The emergence of U.S.A and the former U.S.S.R as two super powers boosted nationalists struggle as they urged other countries like Britain to decolonize.
  2. Pan-African movement inspired African nationalists in their struggle for independence
  3. The liberation of Ghana in 1957 was a big influence on other African colonies like Kenya
  • The African elected members to the legco put pressure on the colonial government to grip independence to Kenyans

Any 5 x 2 =10mks

SECTION C: 30 MARKS

Answer any two questions from this section.

22 (a)      Five roles played by Kenyan constitution governing the country                     (5mks)

  1. It protects the interest of the weak in the society from those who would like to dominate them
  2. It check the power of the would be dictatorial rules
  • It defines how to rise in power hence preventing unnecessary power struggle.
  1. It provides for the separation of powers between three arms of the government
  2. It defines the power of those in authority hence prevent misuse of power
  3. It define the relations with other countries
  • It specify how a government is to be formed

Any 5 x 1 =5mks

(b)           Step taken by the Kenyan government to promote national integration since independence

  1. Disbanding KADU to have a single partly to help consolidated the newly independent Kenya.
  2. Abolition of racial schools hence enrolling student of different background in same school has promoted intergration
  • Government has propagated unity through the mass media
  1. The government has tried to bridge the gap between the poor ad the rich through harambee policy
  2. The government decided on Kiswahili as the national language so as to promote communication between different communities
  3. The government decided on one economy and one currency and thus help into link various part of the country through trade
  • The government has legalized inter-tribal marriages as a way of enhancing unity
  • Employment people on the basis of qualification rather than background has brought various people together
  1. The government has encouraged games and sports at different level hence creating patriotic feelings in the people
  2. The government changed the constitution from federal to unitary to emphasize oneness
  3. The banning of ethnic as social by government e.g. Gema.

Any 5 x 2 =10mks

(b)           Measure taken by the Kenyan government to ensure that public funds and property used

  1. All intended expeditions is approved by parliament before any expedition is undertaken
  2. Reports on expedition must be presented to the public account committee (PAC) to ensure that they are used for the intended purposes
  • The controller and auditor general audit all the ministry and government department and reports its finding for parliament.
  1. The P.S in every ministry is given the responsibility of ensuring that government funds are well spent.
  2. Government contracts are advertised for tendering and award are made on merits.
  3. The Kenya anticorruption commission (KACC) investigate and persecute offenders involved in corrupt deeds
  • Parliament approves the supplementary estimates to deal with emergencies
  • All money collected on harambee basis for public projects must be audited
  1. Government officers who spent money while on official duties must prove their expenditure.

Any 6 x 2 =12mks

  1. (a) Five functions of the chief justice.
  2. Head of the Kenyan judiciary
  3. Swear in the president and the cabinet ministers
  • Chair the judicial service commission in Kenya
  1. Prescribe fee to be charged by court
  2. Determine the establishment of the kadhi court in consultation with the chief kadhi
  3. He or she has jurisdiction to exercise constitutional function vested in the high court and the court of appeal
  • Plays an advising role in the removal of president case of incapacitation
  • Has a wide range of discretion of power which are conferred to him under various act and the kadhis court act

Any 5 x 1=5mks

(b)           Factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair election in Kenya

  1. Ethnic loyalty / polarization /allegance
  2. Harassment of voters by rival group
  • Party loyalty
  1. Partisan election official
  2. Incompetent election official
  3. Transport difficulties
  • Inaccessibility of some poling station
  • Communication and coordination problem between poling stations and headquarter
  1. Illiteracy of some voters
  2. Extreme weather conditions
  3. Corruption / bribery of candidates and their supporters
  • Use of negative propaganda by party leaders and supporters
  • Insecurity / fear installed in the candidates
  • Use and misuse of the mass media
  1. Gender insensitivity
  • Inadequate facilities and equipments
  • Government interference / rigging by the government of the day
  • Inadequate funds

Any 5 x 2 =10mks




Kenya certificate of secondary education

History  PAPER 1

311/1

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Name one kenyan community that dispersed from Mt Elgon
  • Abaluhya
  • Abagusi
  • Abakuria                                                             1×1 mk

 

  1. Give two reasons why the Bantu Migrated from Shungwaya

– Invasion  of their settlement by the Cushites

– Internal conflict feuds

– Population increase

– Outbreak of diseases/ epidermis / natural calamities

2×1 mks

  1. Give two roles of the Portuguese captains in administering the Kenyan coast 

– To collect taxes

– levied  duties on imports and export

– Mobilized army to suppress rebellions

– Were administrators / supervised the  ruling families

2×1 mk

  1. State two ways through, mission station promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya 
  2. catechists were trained there / centers of learning
  3. Served as health centres where the sick were prayed

iii. Missionaries mixed freely with people and converted them.                        2×1 = 2 mks

 

  1. State two reasons why the luo of Ugenya resisted the British

– wanted to protect their land

– wanted to maintain their independent

– hated the British habit of attacking them for grains and livestock.

– were provoked by punitive expenditions  of mumia and the British                              2×1 mk

 

  1. State the main role of imperial British East African company Kenya during the colonial period

 

  1. Give two reasons why the colonial government encouraged white settlement in Kenya

– To establish large scale farming that could meet the cost of administration

– To help meet the cost of maintainace of the railway lines                                                2×1 mks

8.Give the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960

– To protect the rights / interest of the minority                                                                    1×1 mks

  1. State the main objective of political parties which were formed in Kenya after 1945

– To fight for Independence                                                                                                                     1×1 mks

 

  1. Identify two economic factors that led to the re- introduction of multipartism in Kenya in 1991.

– Rampartss corruption within the  government ranks

– Pressure from foreign donors to Kenya like the USA and Britain                                   2×1 mks

  1. State one circumstance under which violent methods may be used to resolve conflict.

– When public law and order is at state

– In case of serious social unrest                                                                                             1×1 mk

  1. Name one class of human rights

– Social / economic and cultural; right

– Solidarity rights

– Civil and political rights                                                                                                         1×1 mks

  1. Mention two disadvantages of representative democracy

– Ignores interest of the minority

– Encourages class struggle and corruption

– Longtime consultations before decisions are made

– Possibility of electing  incompetent leaders

– May lead to dictatorship of the  elected minority

– Elected leaders may have ethnic values                                                2×1 mks

 

  1. State one principal of the concept of natural justice

– One is presumed innocent until proven quilty  by a competent court of law

– The laws apply equally to all citizens                                                                   4×1 mks

 

  1. Give two roles of the sergeant at arms in parliament

– Responsible for all ceremonies and discipline within and around parliament

– Responsible for the maintenance of parliament buildings.                               2x1mks

 

  1. State the main functions of the court of appeal

To hear appeals from other court                                                              1×1 mks

 

  1. Name the lowest grade of local Authorities in Kenya

– Area council                                                                                                                             1x1mk

 

 

 

SECTION B (45 MKS )

 

Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

 

  1. Name any Five age sets amongst the Nandi traditional society

– Maina

– Chuma

– Sawe

– Korongoro

– Kipkoimet

– Kaplelach

– Kimnyinge

– Nyongi                                                                                                                                       5×1 mks

 

 

  1. b) Describe the socio – political organization of the Miji Kenda during the pre – colonial period                (8mks)

– They were organized into clans, each living in a village known as Kaya

– Young men joined age sets after circumcision

– Senior Ageset members formed the  governing council called Kambi

– Council of elders were responsible for administering the clans

– Headman chaired council meetings

– Junior age sets members made the warriors who defended the community

– They believed in the existence of God Mulungu

– They prayed and offered sacrifices to Mulungu

–  Had specialists e.g. Medicine men, diviners, etc

– Believed in spirits                                                                                                    5xq= 10 mks

 

 

 

  1. Describe the organization of the long distance trade in Kenya in the 19th century 7 mks

 

– The trade involved the Akamba, Mijikenda, Arabs and Waswahili

 

  1. a)
    • State five demands of the Kenya African Union in 1946
    • Self government for Africans
    • More seats for Africans in the Legco
    • Free and compulsory Education for Africans
    • Equality in wages and salaries among all races
    • Abolition of taxes
    • Abortion of forced labour and the kipande system
    • Improved housing and working conditions for Africans

 

 

  1. b) Explain five factors that led to increased nationalist activities in Kenya after 1945 (10mks)

– The return of Ex- servicemen after the 2nd WW

– Failure of the colonial government to reward the ex- servicemen on their returns

– The change of Government in Britain from the conservative to labour party

– The nomination and election of Africans to Legco

-The independence of India and Pakistan in 1947 and Burma in 1948

-The independence of Ghana in 1957

-The formation of UNO which supported decolonization

-The Mau Mau uprising forced the British to realize the need of granting independence

– The pan – African movement encouraged nationalism in Kenya

– Increased number of Educated Kenyans who were able to articulate their rights

– The emerged of USA or USSR as world powers

-The  signing of the Atlantic  charter in 1941 which supported the need for all subjects people to have right for self determination in Kenya

– It led to increase inter  national trade between Kenya and the outside world

– Slave raiding led to increased wars and instability in the region

– It undermined the local industries as many foreign goods which were, cheaper and better were introduced.

 

21 a)      State five reasons for the Maasai collaboration with the British in the 19th century (5 mk)

– Natural calamities e.g. drought and famine

– Human and cattle diseases that afflicted them and weaked them.

– Emergence of the Nandi as a threat

– Civil wars among the Maasai clans

– Succession disputes between lenana  and Sendeyo

– lenana wanted  British help in getting back Maasai women and children from the Agikuyu

– They feared British military superiority after Kidong Massacre

 

  1. b) Explain the results of the Maasai collaboration (10 mk)

– Lenana was recognized as paramount chief

– The maasai were employed as mercenaries against other communities

– the Purko were further divided into two sections ie Loita and Ngong

– Led to massive land alienation

– Led to the creation of reserves eg Liakipia and Ngong

– The maasai gained materially from the raids in terms of cattle

 

– The British helped the maasai in disease control and during famine and drought

– The British disrupted their cultural practices by curtailing their freedom to conduct their rituals

SECTION C (30 MARKS )

22 (a)     Identify five factors that may undermine free and fair elections in Kenya

– Ignorance of voters on their rights / inadequate civic education

– Inadequate civic education

– Inadequate time for voter registration

– Rigging by candidates

– Violence may scare away voters insecurity

– Illiteracy amongst voters

– Political interference

– Inaccessibility of polling stations / bad weather on voting day

 

  1. b) What are the functions of the electoral commission of Kenya

– Divide , create, name and mark constituencies

– Register voters and maintains voters register\

– Conduct civic education for voters

– Appoint and remunerate election officials

– Fix polling stations

– Responsible for the general administration of presidential parliamentary and civic elections

– Promotes free and fair elections

– Announces dates of general elections and by- elections

– Supervises nomination of candidates for elections country wide

– Conducts language proficiency tests for nominated candidates

– Prepares and distribute all materials equipment necessary for general and by election

– Announces election results

– Ensures provisions of security during elections

 

  1. a State three functions of the cabinet in Kenya

– Advice the president and assist him in governance

– Supervise government ministries

– Initiate new bills and table them in parliament

– Formulate government policies and programmes

– Defends government policies   in parliament

– Explains government policies to the people

– Formulates and prepares the budget.                                                      5×1 mk

 

  1. b) Explain six functions of the Kenya armed forces

– Defends the country from external attacks

– helps to restore internal security if needed

– Participate in nation building eg carrying our civil works

– Helps during emergency occurrence like flood

– Entertains the public during public functions

– Participate in international peace mission                                                           6 x 2 = 12 mks

 

  1. a) Identify five sources of government revenue

– Domestic borrowing

– Profit from parastatals

– Foreign aid

– Sale of treasury bills

– Fines

Taxes eg VAT

– charges for  government services

-Fees lincences                                                               5×1 mks

 

  1. b) Explain five challengers facing the Kenya government in her effort to raise revenue

– Tax evasion by some people and organizations

– Many people give wrong information on wealth declaration

– Negative attitude towards payment of taxes by many people due to ignorance

– Rich people keep their money in foreign banks denying the country need interest

– Unscrupulous Kenyans and tax officials collide and defraud the government of revenue

– inadequate information for local investors through treasury bills, post office bonds, and shares at the NSE

– Smuggling of goals into and out of Kenya

– High rate of inflation increased public expenditure / too many taxes             2×5 = 10 mks




Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

 

311/1

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

Paper 1

 

MARKING SCHEME

 

SECTION A

Give one religion reason for the migration of the Cushites into Kenya                   ( 1 mk)

  1. Introduction of Islam                                                              (1mk)

 

Give two social activities of the Somali in the lathe                                                            ( 2 mks)

  1. – Polygamies marriage

– Exercise between male and female circumcision.

– Prayed to one God – Waq.

– Had ritual for marriage and burial                                                                          (1 x 2 = 2mks)

 

  1. factors which favoured long distance trade
  • Dola of middlemen
  • Availability of porters
  • Presence of trade goods.
  • Market for goods./ Demand of ivory
  • Security from interior communities / some ducts support the trade                                                                (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

 

  1. Main event which marked end of Portuguese ( 1 mk)
  • Seizure of fort Jesus by Omari Arabs

 

  1. State two reasons which can make one to loose Kenyan citizenship (2 mks)
  • Disloyalty to the country.
  • Collaboration with Kenyan enemies.
  • Imprisonment for one 12 months within first four year of acquiring citizenship.
  • Being out of country for 7 yrs/ more without informing the embassy.
  • If citizenship lose through fraud.
  • Denunciation by parliament.                                                               (1x 2= 2 mks)

 

  1. Give own political factor that may cause conflict in Kenya             ( 1 mk)
  • Election dispute.
  • Incitement by politicians.           (1 x 1 = 1mk)

 

  1. What do you understand by the term constitutional Amendment

– Introduction of changes to the existing constitution.                                              (1 x 1= 1mk)

 

  1. Give two rules of leader of official opposition.
  • Check on abuse / excess use of power by the executive.
  • Provide alternative policies
  • Present main of the opposition
  • Work closely with PAC and PIC to check on government expenditure.   (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

 

  1. Give two type of lakes subjected in African during the colonial period
    • Hut tax
    • Poll tax
    • Own tax                                (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

 

  1. Give two features of missionary Education in kenya during the colonial period ( 2 mks)
  • Elementary education
  • Technical in approach
  • Denominational
  • Done at mission stations                          (1×2= 2 mks)

 

11        State two contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in Education System in Kenya between 1979 and 2002

  • It refers to a state where parliament stands automatically dissolved once a vote of no confidence in parliament and government is passed.

 

  1. Contribution of Moi
  • Government subsidy of education
  • Provision of business and scholarships.
  • Construction of schools and college.
  • Provision of school rule programme.       (1×2=2 mks)

 

  1. Name the first Kenyan prime minister.                                                                    ( 1 mk)
  • Jomo Kenyatta.

 

  1. Special court.
  • Court marital.
  • Industrial court.
  • Rent tribunal.
  • Juvenile court.

 

  1. Importance of National holidays.
  • To promote national unity and instill a sense of patriotism.

 

  1. Peaceful ways of resolving complicate.
  • Mediation
  • Negotiation
  • Conduction
  • Arbitration
  • Religions action.                                                                   (2×1=2 mks)

 

SECTION B (45 Marks)

  1. a) Groups related to Abagusii
  • Luhya
  • Abakuria
  • Suba       (3×1=3 mks)

 

  1. b) Similarities of Ameru and Agikuyu political organization.
  • In both the father is the head of the family.
  • Both had clan system and elder.
  • In both council of elders maintained law and order.
  • Both had age-set system.
  • In both communicate, junior warriors defended the community.       (5×2 = 10 mks)

 

  1. a) Stage in Portuguese conquest of the sect African coast.
  • 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral attacked Sofala.
  • 1502 Vasco da Gamma attacked Kilwa and demanded tribute.
  • 1503 – Lourensco Darasco attached
  • 1505 Fransisco d’Almeida conqeured Mombasa and Kilwa.
  • 1506 – 07 Tristao da Cunha conguered Lamu.
  • 1509 – Mafia, Dember Zanzibar were conguered.           (5×1=5 mks)
  1. b) Problems faced by missionaries.
    • Language barrier.
    • Inadequate
    • Poor transport and communication network.
    • Hostility from some African.
    • Resistance from slave trades.
    • Competition from Islam.
    • Tropical conditions – climate and disease.       (5×2 = 10 mks)

 

  1. a) Methods used in partition.
  • Treaty signing.
  • Hiring of chiefs.
  • Military conquest.
  • Divide and rule tactics.                    (5×1= 5 mks)

 

  1. Problem encountered by IBEA Co.
    • Lack of enough capital.
    • Scarcity of natural resources.
    • Poor transport network.
    • Lack of navigable rivers.
    • Poor co-ordination between local officially and head office in England.
    • Inexperienced administrators.
    • Hostility from locate.
    • Lack of enough administrators.
    • Tropical conditions.                                                                    (5×2 = 10 mks)

 

  1. a) Resolution of 1st Lancaster House conference.
  • Increase in African representation in Legco.
  • Legco to name 3 seat, 20 to be for minority and 33 for Africans.
  • Alteration in the composition of council of minister (4 officials, 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 African)
  • Africans to form political parties’ countrywide.
  • Introduction of election on a common roll.
  • Lifting of state of emergency. (3×1= 3 mks)

 

  1. Role of women.
    • Encouragement to men while fighting.
    • Provided food to the fighters.
    • Individualism direct military confrontation.
    • Acted as spies.
    • Conveyed arms to sightless.
    • Participated in demonstrations.
    • Led men in taking oaths.
    • Took care of homes as men fought.
    • Participated in liberation talks eg Priscah Abwao who participated in 1st Lancaster House conference.                                   (6×2 = 10 mks)

 

SECTION C (30Marks)

  1. a) – Lose of parliamentary seat.

– Loss of Kenyan citizenship.

– Imprisonment for a term exceeding six months/ death penalty

– When one is elected a speaker of national Assembly.

– When one is declared bankrupt.

– Unsound mind/ insane.

– Failure to attend of consecutive sessions of parliament without permission of the       speaker.

– Defection from one party to another.

– Resignation.                                                                                                 (5×1= 5 mks)

 

  1. Function of the speaker.
    • Swearing in of Mps.
    • Presides one all debates in parliament.
    • Guides debate.
    • Enforces parliamentary standing orders.
    • Spokesman of the National Assembly.
    • Declares a seat vacant.
    • Foreheads discussed bills to the president for Assent.
    • Receives Mp insectores from other countries to the National Assembly.

 

  1. a) Rights of a citizen.

– Life

– Expression.

– Association.

– Property ownership

– Conscience

– Movement

– Protection from arbitrary search

– Protection from discrimination.                                                                  (5×1= 5 mks)

 

  1. Elements of a good citizen
    • Loyalty to the state.
    • Patriotism
    • Observe law
    • Respect leaders
    • Justice for all
    • Give ideas on national matters
    • Report law breakers.
    • Mindful of other people’s properties.           (5×2 = 10 mks)

 

  1. a) Causes of multi party democracy.

– Corruption

– KANU’S unpopular policies.

– Recommendation of Saitoti committee

– Pressure from civil society.

– Role of religious groups.

– Influence from other countries eg Zambia.

– Pressure from western countries

– Rigging of 1988 election.

– Political changes in Soviet Union which leads to political reforms.

– KANU’S response to critism.                                                                      (5×1= 5 mks)

 

  1. Challenges of malt-party democracy.
    • Formation of very many parties.
    • There is lack of alternative policies among parties.
    • Personality differences among leaders.
    • Election of bogus politicians due to euphoric.
    • Extra expenditure by government on parties.
    • Leadership wrangles.
    • Establishment of coalitions.
    • It has encouraged ethnicity.
    • Harassment by the government of the day.
    • Most of the people are not well informed about mult-party democracy.
    • International community has continued to interfere with the running of the country.
    • Bribery of voters due to poverty.                   (5×2 = 10 mks)



 

Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

311/1

HISTORY

PAPER 1

 

MARKING SCHEME:

  1. Archeological sites found near Nakuru
  2. Kariandusi
  3. Gamble cave
  4. Hyrax hill
  5. Njoro River gate                                                                                             (2×1=2mks)
  6. Results of the interaction between the Kalenjins and Abaluyhia (2mks)
  7. Shared names e.g. Sambu.
  8. Borrowed some words,
  9. Bukusu learnt cattle breeding from Kalenjins.
  10. Adopted age-set system
  11. Led to intermarriage                                                                                             (2×1=2mks)
  12. Two occasions when a Kenyan is denied the Right to Life
  13. During a time of war
  14. During a time of rebellion, mutiny or riot and the forces are suppressing it,one can be killed in the process.
  15. When one is killed in defence of ones’ life
  16. In the process of preventing a criminal offence the police may shot armed suspects who  are not surrendering
  17. When a court of law convicts one of treason or any other capital offence, then one can be put to death.
  18. Court of law may find one quilt of murder and passes death sentence during Judgement.
  19. In the process of lawful arrest or preventing the escape of someone who is lawfully detained.

2×1 = (2mks)

  1. State the functions of the Kenyan constitution.
  2. It provides a legal ground which laws of the country are made.
  3. Spells out power of the arms of Government and its relationship with the governed
  4. Spells duties and rights of all Citizens/Alliens
  5. Provides the framework on election process.
  6. Spells out of duties, responsible and limits of those in power
  7. Protects individuals from arbitrary rule.
  8. It ensures equality of all Kenyans irrespective of their status, creed, race and ethnic background.
  9. Spells out sources of revenue for Government
  10. Spells out the structure of Government.

2×1 =2mks

  1. Give the meaning of term Referendum (1Mk)

– Expression of views on an issue by every adult voter through casting ballots

  1. State the name of the document that defines the rights of the child.

– United Nations Convection on the Rights of the child.

  1. Identify the role played by the senate in the Constitutional amendments at independence

(2mks)

  1. State of emergence could not be declared without prior authorization of the senate
  2. No amendment of the constitution could be made without ⅔ approval of the senator
  3. All bills had to get approval from both houses (Senate & House of Representative).

(2×1=2mks)

  1. Give the demand of the various groups represented in the First Lancaster House Conference. (2mks)
  2. African demanded true democracy- one man one vote.
  3. Europeans demanded creation of provinces on racial lines
  4. Arabs wanted to retain the ten mile coastal strip.
  5. Somalis wanted re-unification with Somalizi                                                       (2×1=2mks)
  6. State two reasons why the British Government used I.B.E.A Company (2mks)
  7. Did not have a clear policy on what to do with her colonies
  8. Lack of adequate funds for administration
  9. Lack of adequate personnel
  10. The Company had long experience in the region

2×1 = 2mks

  1. State two important reforms carried out in colonial Kenya in 1922 (2mks)
  2. Increased powers of Cabinet that reduced Parliamentary supremacy
  3. People’s customs and traditions –Parliament cannot pass a law against the customs and traditions of the people
  4. A law contrary to the constitution cannot be passed
  5. The President has power to declare state of emergency and in such case the parliament is over ruled.
  6. The application of International laws can limit Parliamentary Supremacy.
  7. Mention two ways in which the Imprisonment of Kenyatta was important in the history of

Kenya.

  1. It attracted International attention to the war of Independence that was going on in the country.
  2. b) Generated nation wide sympathy and support of Kenyatta, thus boosting respect and

popularity for him countrywide.

  1. c) made him acceptable to both militants and moderates by keeping him away

from main stream independence struggle                                      (2×1=2mks)

  1. State two problems facing the Kenyan Government in preparation of the budget (2mks)
  2. a) Limited resources
    1. Corruption
    2. Poverty
    3. Conflict views from the members of Parliament multi-party
    4. Criticism from opposing parties
    5. Some Government ministries delay to remit their budgets.
    6. Exaggeration of projected expenditure by individualism in the government.

2×1 = 2mks

  1. Identify two aims of Harambee philosophy (2mks)
  1. Mobilize people
  2. To Re-unite people
  3. To further the spirit of the National/ Self reliance
  4. Create the spirit of determination
  5. Keeps the tempo and the process of development going

x1 = 2mks

  1. Give one method of solving conflict peacefully in Kenya.
  2. Mediation
  3. Negotiation /Diplomacy
  4. Law courts
  5. Arbitration
  6. Compromise
  7. Collaboration
  8. Avoidance/ isolation
  9. Problem solving/ Tackling the root cause
  10. Legislation to criminalize certain activities
  11. Traditional; way by use of elders
  12. Religious action                                                  (1point x1mrk= 1 mrk)

 

SECTION B

 

15a. What were the results of the migration and settlement of the Somali into Kenya by 1800

(7mks)

  1. Resulted to increased conflicts between communities for resources
  2. They displaced other communities
  3. It led to cultural exchange during the interaction
  4. Their Settlement in Kenya intensified trading activities in the region
  5. It led to increased settlement in areas they settled.
  6. It led to intermarriage with the communities they came into contact with
  7. Population re-distribution to new places due wars
  8. Some converted to Islam and spread it to their neighbours   (7×1=7 mks)

 

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the colonial period (8mks)
    1. The clan was the basis of political system of government
    2. Each clan had its own territory / areas.
    3. The council of elders headed the clans and was in-charge
    4. The council of elders maintained law and order,  settling disputes and delt with the  day to day affairs of the clan
    5. Age set system was important
    6. Every male belonged to an age set who helped in defence
    7. Leader was called Sultan.
    8. The sultan discharged advisory role.
    9. They had warriors who were used in protecting community against external attacks and carrying out raids.
    10. They existed people with special skills and hence given more responsibility like the Shields and Medicine men/ Political consultants.
    11. Autonomous clans united against an enemy
    12. The position of Sultan was hereditary
    13. With the coming of Islam, the Somali adopted a political system based on Sheria laws.

(8point x1mk=8mks)

16a. Explain five factors which contributed to the establishment of British Colonial rule in Kenya (5mks)

  1. Some communities such as the Wanga and the Maasai collaborated with the British.
  2. Disunity among African communities made it possible for the British to subdue them.
  3. African communities employed inferior methods which could not match the superior weapons and tactics used by the British
  4. Civil, inter-community wars and succession disputes as well as epidemics had weakened some communities e.g. due Maasai hence unable to resist.
  5. The Missionaries had preached to many communities and had received some  degree of acceptance. To some communities the missionaries were not different from the colonialists.
  6. Activities of the Imperial British East Africa Company                                          (5 x 1 = 5mks)

 

  1. b) Describe economic development that took place in Kenya during the colonial period                (10mks)
  2. a) Transport & Communication system were developed e.g. Kenya-Uganda railway and

several roads/.

  1. ii)Settler farming was encouraged which in turn promoted agricultural production for export, trade and consumption
  2. Later Africans were encouraged to grow cash crops e.g. cotton, coffee and tea
  3. There was the introduction of money and the establishment of banking industry to facilitate economic transaction
  4. Promoted local and international trade/commerce
  5. Establishment of industries such as food processing industries promoted the expansion of agricultural activities
  6. Exploitation of mineral resources in the country e.g. soda ash at Magadi and gold in Kakamega in Kenya.
  7. viii)Development of Urban centres such as Nairobi, Nakuru, Mombassa and Kisumu
  8. Introduction of exotic breed of livestock e.g. sheep, pigs and cattle.
  9. Establishment of research centres to improve farming.
  10. Development of fishing industry e.g. use of better fishing methods. (10×1=10mks)

17a. Identify the roles played by political parties in the struggle for Indepence in Kenya between

1945-1963                                                                                                                                                    (7mks)

  1. They united freedom fighters
  2. They prepared Nationalists who were to take over leadership at independence
  3. The parties mobilized mass support for African nationalists in the struggle
  4. They gave moral and material support for the Mau Mau fighters
  5. They presented their grievances of the Africans in International fora and created awareness on the needs of the Africans
  6. They pressurized for constitutional changes from the British colonial office to enhance attainment of Independence
  7. They created awareness among the Africans on their rights and the need to fight for independence
  1. They participated in developing the Independence constitution / Lancaster House Conference.
    1. They pressurized for the release of the detained Nationalists (7×1=7mks)
    2. b) Explain why the British changed their attitude towards colonization of Kenya between 1945-1960                                                                                                                                                                      (8mks)
      1. The election of the British Labour party in 1945was on for the signs of evaporation of the imperial spirit
      2. Development of nationalist unrest after the second world war.
      3. The breakup of Mau Mau Movement forced the British government to agree with the principle of self-government under majority rule.
      4. Rise of the world super powers who were against colonialis e.g. U.S.A
      5. Formation of U.N.O that advocated for human rights and freedom
      6. Gaining of independence by India in 1947 and China in 1957.
      7. Colonialism was expensive
      8. Formation of trade unions
      9. Mau mau war had costed the British a great deal in terms of money, lives and prestige

(8 x 1=8mks)

18a. Outline any five principles of democracy                                                                              (5mks)

  1. Consent of the people – No dictation but people’s consent
  1. Equality- Born equal therefore treated equal
  2. Political tolerance – Divergent views of citizens must be tolerated
  3. Regular free and fair elections
  4. Control of abuse of power- Citizens prevent their representative from abuse of power by either corruption on excess
  5. Transparency- Inform the citizens of what is happening in their Government through public meetings or by media
  6. The rule of law – Universal law that all citizens adhere to.
  7. Balance- Power between the government & the governed ( citizens enjoy the law willingly without feeling that their liberty is curtailed.
  8. Patriotism – Citizens are integrated part of the government, defend the state & its well being – Positive criticism is encouraged.
  9. Leadership- Leaders with good qualities,wise morally upright
  10. Political awareness through civil education, national unity, multi- partism, Fair distribution of state resources (5×1=5mks)
  11. b) Explain any shortcomings of democracy (10mks)
    1. Majority rights are taken care of while the majority rights ignored(dictatorship)
  12. Encourage class struggle and corruption hence those with money remain in the team of power: Buy votes and also influence E.C.K by bribes
  13. Democratic process is time consuming, slow and also consumes resources to the many consultations
  14. There is no guarantee for good leadership through the will of the majority is followed in elections, leaders elected might not be of good character.
  15. Poor leader might be elected leading to incompetence.
  16. Through regarded in the rule of the majority in  practice to the rule of the minority elected modes
  17. Elected members may not represent the aspirations of the people.
  18. Leads to tyranny of the majority stress on quantity numbers not quality (5×2=10mks)

SECTION C

19a. Why is national integration a concern of many Kenyans in the 21st century (8mks)

  1. It enables Kenyans of different ethnic and racial background to live together in peace.
  1. It enables Kenyans to solve national problems like draught and famine as one people
  2. It enables Kenyans to jointly participate in the cultural activities like games and sports.
  3. It promotes political stability in the country
  4. It creates a sense of security among Kenyans
  5. It enables people to mix freely in place of work and educational institutions
  6. It encourages foreigners e.g. Tourists to visit our country.
  7. It promotes foregn investments in the country.
  8. It enhances nationalism / patriotism.                     8×1=8mks

 

  1. b) What factors have undermined the Government efforts of promoting national unity in Kenya? (7mks)
    1. Existence of different ethnic groups in the country tends to encourage tribalism in the allocation of national resources. This works against national unity
  2. ii) Political differences especially from the time multi-party politics was introduced in 1991 to date.
  3. iii) Religious difference. These have tendered to divide Kenyans along religious lines.
  4. iv) Corrupt practices e.g. Nepotism and mismanagement of key government resources (K.F.A, National Cereal and Produce Board, K.C.C)
  5. v) Economic disparities at both the individual and regional levels have tendered to undermine the government efforts to promote national unity.
  6. vi) International propaganda against the country which tends to gain support among Kenyans.
  7. vii) Poorly developed transport facilities in some parts of the country. This hinders people of different regions to interact easily with others.
  8. viii) Formation of tribal associations such as GEMA (Gikuyu Embu Meru Association)
  9. ix) Vernacular radio stations such as Kass fm, Inoro fm, Mulembe fm)
  10. x) Insecurity in some areas due to land and tribal clashes as Molo, Mt Elgon and Kuresoi (7×1=7mks)

SECTION C

  1. Mention five factors that make it important for a president to be elected by people (5mks)
    1. People give him mandate to rule the country and act on behalf and in their interest
  2. Makes the president accountable for the people
  3. Enables citizens to exercise their democratic rights
  4. Election through voting gives the president legitimacy of the office
  5. Shows the democratic nature of government system
  6. Compels the president to take the responsibility of his actions and those of his appointees. (5×1= 5mks)
  7. b) Describe the process of electing the speaker of the National assembly (5mks)
    1. One qualifies to be elected the speaker if he is eligible to contest and vote in election.
    2. A date is set for the election at the start of a new parliament after the general elections
    3. The candidate is proposed and seconded by members of parliament.
    4. If more than one name is presented the members vote through secret ballot.
    5. Swearing in ceremony is then conducted for the elected speaker.
    6. If the speaker is elected MP then his/her seat is declared vacant. (5×1=5mks)

 

  1. c) Outline Kenyatta’s shortcoming as a leader.
    1. Kenyatta was unable to unite K.A.N.U and K.A.D.U
  2. ii) He failed to maintain unity within K.A.N.U. itself and soon APP and KPU were formed.
  3. iii) He was accused of being unable to come up with an all inclusive cabinet that represented ethnic diversity in the country.
  4. iv) He was unable to fight corruption in the country prominent Kenyans dominated coffee smuggling at the Chepkube market.
  5. v) He failed to put in place a reform programme on the land re-distribution in Kenya a problem which has persisted to date
  6. vi) he was unable to explain assassinations of people like Tom Mboya, Gama Pinto and J.M. Kariuki.                                                                                                    (5×1=5mks)

 

21a) Name three types of Local authorities.

  1. County council
  2. ii) Municipal council
  3. iii) City Council
  4. iv) Town council         (3×1=3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain the duties of a Mayor of a Local Authority
  2. Political head of authority
  3. Promote peace, love and unity within the area of jurisdiction
  • Identify the needs of the people
  1. Identify the needs and resources available for satisfaction of the needs
  2. Plans for the development of their areas
  3. Ensure provision of law and order
  • Ensure adequate infrastructure
  • Carry out some ceremonial roles e.g. opening health centres
  1. Make by-laws
  2. Make appointments of some council workers
  3. Chair council meetings
  • Help in implementation of government politics.

(any 6 points x 2mks=12 mks)

(well explained)




Kenya certificate of Secondary Education

 

 

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

 

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A- 25MKS

 

  1. Historical sources of information on the East Africa coast
  • Ptolemy’s Geography
  • Periplus of the Erythrean sea
  • Christian topography
  • Greco- roman documentary
  • Excavated archeological sites
  • Coins and pottery

2×1 = 2 mks

  1. Communities whose ancestors settled on mt Elgon
  • Abagusii
  • Abakuria
  • Abaluhya

 

  1. Factors that facilitated contact between the coast and the outside the world by the end of the 16th century
  • Monsoon winds enabled the early visitors to travel to and from the coast
  • Advancement of the boats and ship building technology led to marking of stronger vessels
  • Availability of trade goods

1×1 =1mk

  1. The main economic activity of the Borana during the pre-colonial period:-
  • Livestock rearing

1×1 =1mk

  1. Omoni dynasities which ruled the coast of the Kenya before 18th century:-
  • Busaidi
  • Yorubi
  • Nabahan
  • Mazrui

2×1 =2 mks

  1. Ways in which Synnerton plan benefited Africans:
  • -Africans were issued with the title deeds
  • Africans were given loans
  • Africans were allowed to grow cash crops
  • It introduced special training and research centres

2×1= 2 mks

  1. Main feature of system of education in Kenya during the colonial period:-
  • It was organized a long racial lines / discriminations.                1×1= 1 mk

 

  1. Factors that facilitated development of urban centres during the colonial period:-
  • Trade
  • Construction of Kenya –Uganda railway / communication lines
  • Colonial administrative ports
  • European settlement in the white highlands.
  • Colonial land policies                                              2×1 =2mks

 

  1. Problems faced by the Africans who lived in the reserves between 1953and 1963:-
  • Overcrowding
  • Outbreak of diseases
  • Breakdown of cultural practices
  • Food shortages

2×1=2mks

  1. Roles of welfare organization in Kenya during the colonial period:-
  • They aroused political awareness among the people
  • They organized social activities eg sports and games burial and medical care.
  • They sponsored student to study abroad/ provided education

2×1=2 mks

  1. Role played by the civilians during the struggle for independence in Kenya
  • They supplied food for freedom fighters.
  • They supplies information to the freedom fighters /spies.
  • They gave moral support to the freedom fighters

1×1=1 mk

  1. How colonial land policies promoted settler agriculture in Kenya:-
  • The government policy of land alienation availed land for European settlement e.g. while highlands.
  • Creation of African reserves led to overcrowding forcing Africans to work in the settler farms.
  • Declaring some land as crown land denied the Africans access to its use.

2×1=2 mks

  1. Why the independent constitution of 1963 know as “majimbo”:-
  • The constitution provide for six regional government or federals.

1×1=1 mk

  1. Fundamental right of the individual which a person in prison is deprived of:-
  • Freedom of movement.
  • Freedom of association.
  • Freedom of expression and speech.

2×1=2 mks

  1. Reasons why the chiefbarasa is important in Kenya:-
  • It is used to communicate the government policies / decisions to the local people.
  • -Mobilization of local resources.
  • It acts as a forum for people to express their wishes to the government.
  • – It is used to address / resolve minor concerns of the people in the locality / settling local disputes

2×1=2 mks

SECTION B

 

  1. (a) Reason that led to the migration of the miji-kenda into Kenya:- (5mks)
  • Increase in population thus need for land for settlement.

 

  • They were looking for land for cultivation.
  • Internal conflict/ civil wars /fends.
  • Attack by hostile neighbours /external attack.
  • Outbreak of human and animals’ diseases /epidermics.
  • Drought and famine /natural calamities.
  • – Sprite of adventure                                                5×1=5 mks

 

(b) The political organization of the abaluhya.                                                                     10 (mks)

  • They had several families with common ancestral which formed the clan
  • A clan occupied a village ( Olukongo ) and its neighbour hoods and each clan was under a village elder.
  • They had a council of elders known as “Abanego” which settled dispute, distributed lands the final court of appeal.
  • The age- group and age- sets compose of people of the generation who were know by different names i.e. “likhula” oluse or “olubaka” which became worriors to defend the lands.
  • The religious leaders also played political roles among the luhya and also served in the council of elders
  • Political neighboring clans would form a Territorial Army and worriors to fight a common army.
  • By the end of 19th century other Aba luhya sub- groups later began having vassal chiefs (Abami) who clamed their authority from the nabongo of the Wanga.

5×2=10 mks

  1. (a) Reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the east Africa coast.
  • To trade with the coastal people .
  • To counter the growing Islamic influence by spreading Christianity.
  • To form an anti –Muslim alliance with the legendary Christian king prester john believed to have ruled the interior of north east of Africa.
  • To find a sea route to India
  • To explore the coastal of the east Africa
  • For adventure
  • To create a trading empire and colonize the East Africa coast
  • The east Africa coast was of strategic importance because of its deep harbours provided abase for the ships to anchor and fuel.

3×1=3mks

  1. (b) The Portuguese of the East Africa coast                                                                                  (12mks)

The decision to conquer the coast of east Africa after the return of Vasco da Gama from his voyage in 1499. He reported to the king of Portugal that the conquest of the coastal city states was   a must to enhance Portuguese domination of the Indian ocean trade. He therefore destroyed             Muslim strongholds on the coast as first step.

  • In 1502, Kilwa was conquered by the vasco da Gama who bombarded and Kilwa accepted to pay tribute to the Portugal.
  • In 150, Francisco de’ almeida who was Portugal first viceroy to India attacked sofala , Kilwa and proceeded northwards to destroy and loot much of Mombasa.
  • Between 1505 and 1507 most towns north of mombasa were claimed as part of portuga’ls far east empire.
  • By 1509, the island of pemba and Zanzibar were conquered by the Portuguese colony.
  • By 1515 the whole of the Indian ocean was controlled by Portugal.

5×2 =10mks

 

  1. (a) Factors that gave vise to urbanization in Kenya
  • The construction of Kenya Uganda railway led to the emergence of number of urban centers along the railway line
  • Asians established shops along the railway line.
  • Some of the colonial administrative posts became urban centres such as Nyeri and Kisii.
  • Some pre-colonial administrative centres such as Mumias also became urban centres
  • Mining activities led to development of urban centres such as Magadi.
  • Commercialization of farming also promoted the growth of towns e.g Eldoret.Nakuru and Nairobi

3×1 =3mks

(b) Impact of urbanization on the Africas in colonial Kenya.

  • People of different wthnic groups interacted. This was important for the development of national consciousness.
  • Africans from urban centres formed welfare associations that acted as good training ground for political leadership e.g the Luo union.
  • Many Africans got jobs in urban centres
  • Some became unemployed and turned to social evils e.g robbery and prostitution.
  • Poverty led to the establishment of slums.
  • Social structures in the rural areas were disrupted by the migration of men.
  • Racial segregation was most rampant in the urban centres
  • A number Africans acquired technical skills from the European and Asian employers.
  • Some Africans sold their produce to the urban communities and improved their income.
  • Some Africans in urban centres such as Nairobi and Mombasa converted to Islam

6×2 =12mks

19           (a) Reasons for the rise of independent churches and schools.

  • Africans were opposed to European cultural ways hence they wanted churches that would incorporate Africans cultural practices such as polygamy and circumcision.
  • They emerged as a reaction against colonial discrimination and exploitation
  • They were formed to enable Africans to provide leadership in their own churches and schools.
  • Some were formed by Africans leaders who claimed to have received a divine calling e.g. John Owallo of the Nomiya church.
  • -Some churches were established because of difference in the interpretation of the bible.
  • Mission churches were not accommodative to Africans ways of worship like dancing and drum beating. The independent churches allowed free worship.
  • The schools were to provide wider educational facilities and Africans and have control over what was being taught.
  • They sensitized on their rights and the evil of colonialism

1×5 =5mks

  • The trade union movement in Kenya played a role in mobilizing workers to fight for their rights in the absence of the parties; the union provided a forum for political agitation.
  • The National political parties , such as KANU, KADU inspired nationalists leaders to champion the cause for Kenyans independence.
  • Nationalist’s leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta and Tom Mboya provided political leadership to the masses.

 

 

  • The constitutional reforms such as the Lyterton, Lennox- boyd constitution and the lanchaster House conferences provided for increased Africans representation in the Legco.

10×1 = 10mks

20           (a) The functions of the chairman of the electoral commission in Kenya :-

  • Announcing election results
  • Announcing the dates of election and By- Elections
  • Publishing notices of election and nominations and arrange for printing of ballot papers.

3×1 =3mks

(b) Factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya:-

  • Ethnic loyalties/ polarization
  • Party loyalties
  • Harassment of voters by rival groups
  • Incompetent election officials
  • In accessibility of polling stations
  • Transport difficulties.
  • Communication problems between the head quarters and the polling stations
  • Extreme weather conditions
  • Illiteracy of some voters
  • Corruption of some candidates and their supporters.
  • Insufficient distribution of election materials
  • Use of negative propaganda by party leaders / supporters.
  • Insecurity / fear
  • Gender insecurity
  • Use and misuse of mass media

12×1 =12mks

21           (a) The local authorities in Kenya are:-

  • City councils
  • Municipal councils
  • County councils
  • Town councils
  • Urban and area councils

3×1 =3mks

(b) The powers of the minister for local government over local authorities:-

  • The minister caries out general supervision of the activities of the local authorities to ensure that they follow the regulation of the central government.
  • The minister streamlines local authorities affairs.
  • The minister can recognize local authorities through amalgamation of two or more local authorities
  • The minister can order for an inquiry and suspend or dissolve a local authority.
  • He has power to overrule the decision made by local authorities
  • The minister in conjuctio9n with the public service commission appoints senior officers of the councils e.g. the town clerk and the auditor general.
  • He approves the by-laws made by the local authorities.
  • He receives and assesses the annual reports on the performance of the local authorities.
  • He exercises financial control over local authorities by withdrawing grants , appointing inspectors to audit the local authorities and approving levies, rates, taxes and rent increases

6×2 =12mks

 

 

22           (a) Function of cabinet in Kenya:-

  • To formulate national and foreign policies to guide the country
  • To supervise the implementation of government policies by respective ministries
  • To initiate development projects by ministries in different parts of the country.
  • To initiate / approve government bills for discussion by parliament.
  • To discuss important national and international issues.
  • To prepare budgetary estimates for the respective ministries.
  • To collectedly defend government policies.

5×1 =5mks

(b) How the government of Kenya control public finances:-

  • All intended expenditure is approved by parliament.
  • All report on expenditure from ministries are scrutinized by the public accounts committee and public investment committee
  • The controller – and Auditors – general audits ministries and government department and report the findings to parliament. The auditor- General of state corporations audits expenditure of all state corporations.
  • The permanent secretaries in the ministries account for all the money allocated to their ministries.
  • The Kenya anti- corruption commission created in 2004 investigates corruption cases and recommends prosecution of suspects.
  • The government contracts are advertised and awarded according to the procurement procedures.
  • Supplementary expenditure by government ministries are approved by parliament.
  • Remove evasion being curbed by the use of x-ray scanners to verify cargo arriving at the port of Mombasa
  • Government formulated the public officers Ethics Act 2001 to compel Kenyans to shun completion. This encourages those handling public money to spend it for the intended purpose. Embezzlement of public funds attracts heavy penalties.

5×2 =10mks.




311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

 MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

1          -The meaning of the tem government;- The exercise of administrative authority over a political unit                             (1×1=1mk)

 

2          – Centre of political power;- Council of elders                                                                           (1×1=1mk)

 

3          One grade of elders among the Akamba

-Juniour elders/Anake

-Intermediate elders/Nthale

-Full elders/Atumia Ma Kivalo

-Senior elders                                                                                                                (1×1=1mk)

 

4          One reason why Seyyid encouraged Indian Banyans to come to East AfricanCoast

-To provide financial aid

-To assist the caravan traders                                                                                         (1×1=1mk)

 

5          Two problems which independent Churches schools faced during the colonial period

-Inadequate teachers

-Inadequate funds

-Lack of adequate facilities

-Constant harassment from the colonial government and missionaries                (2×1=2mks)

 

6          The engineer who was in charge of Uganda railway  -George White House                              (1×1=1mk)

 

7          The main reason why the British introduced the kipande system

-To control the desertion of African labour                                                                    (1×1=1mk)

 

8          Two demands made by AEMO

-Universal suffrage/franchise

-Kenyan Highlands to be opened to all races

-More members be elected to Legco

-Put an end to the state of emergency                                                                (2×1=2mks)

 

9          Founder president of APP       -Paul Ngei                                                                                (1mk)

 

10        Two national philosophies in Kenya

-African socialism

-Harambee philosophy

-Nyayoism                                                                                                                    (2×1=2mks)

 

11        Two reasons why colonial government provided technical education to Africans-

-To prepare them only for manual jobs as clerks

-Fear that educated Africans would become more politically active                                 (2×1=2mks)

 

12        Causes of maasai Civil wars

-Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo after the death of Laibon Mbatian

-Internal conflicts between different facilities of the Maasai

-Rivalry over the control of pasture land                                                                        (2×1=2mks)

 

13        Christian main motive behind the convening of the second Lancaster house conference in 1962

-To draft independence constitution

-To set a date for independence                                                                         (1×1=1mk)

 

 

 

14        One characteristic of human rights

-Universal

-Indivisible

-May be suspended at times                                                                                          (1×1=1mk)

 

15        One provincial administrator who is not on government payroll;

-Village elder                                                                                                                (1mk)

 

16        Two persons qualify to be Kenya citizens by birth

-Born in Kenya by parents who are citizens of Kenya

-Born outside Kenya by parents who are Kenyan citizens                                   (2×1=2mks)

 

17        The one who runs the government during the period between the dissolution of parliament and the

              announcement of election results is;

-The president and cabinet                                                                                           (1mk)

 

18        The way which a person becomes the speaker of the national assembly in Kenya is ;

-Election by members of parliament                                                                              (1mk)

19        One senior government officer who is an automatic member of JSC;

-Chief justice (C.J)

-Attorney General (A.G)           (1×1=1mk)

SECTION B (45MKS)

20(a)    (i)Abaluhya                  (ii)Abagusii

(iii)Abakuria                 (iv)Abasuba                                                                                          (3×1=3mks)

 

(b)        -Intermarriages from either side

-Out break of wars as they fought over scarce resources

-Increase in population as the two communities settled in the Western region

-Cultural exchanges e.g names became common

-Assimilation of some groups e.g Samia and Morana emerged

-Increased social activities e.g games

-Increased trading activities e.g many varieties of goods were introduced into the market

(any 6ptsx2=12mks)

21(a)    -To control the rich East African coast

-To establish political power over the Kenyan coast

-The coast had good climate (warm)

-There were fertile soils for growing of cloves

-To assist in ending the Portuguese rule

-There were deep natural harbours for ships to anchor

-There was adequate fresh water                                                                                    (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -He invited foreign traders to the Kenyan coast e.g Indian Banyans

-He signed trade agreements with European countries and U.S.A

-He created political stability along the E. African coast which was conducive for trade

-He established a well organized long distance trade into the interior of E. Africa which provided many commodities

-He established plantation agriculture clove plantation

-Consulate offices in Zanzibar were opened by the countries that had signed trade agreements  (5×2=10mks)

 

22(a)    -BA Ohanga was made minister for community development and African affairs

-Africans were allowed to form political organizations whose functions were restricted to district levels only

-Establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers made up of officials and non-official members

-Colonial government provided for an election of eight (8) Africans is the Legco

-Formation of an advisory council to discuss government policies                                  (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -Protested against the colonial government policy of separation of Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from other communities in Nairobi

-Protested against government arrest, detention and torture of African workers

-Solicited for moral and financial support for Kenya federation of labour from international trade unions and other organizations

-Protested the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops

-He organized and facilitated trade unions education in many parts of the community

-Was elected secretary general of KANU in 1960

-He participated in the Lancaster house conference (1960) which paved the way for Kenya’s independence

-He attended the second Lancaster house conference and participated in the drafting of the independence constitution

-He campaigned for the release of detained unionists and political leaders  e.g Jomo Kenyatta (5×2=10mks)

 

23(a)    -Needed protection from their enemies e.g Nandi, Bukusu and Luo of Ugenya

-Nabongo wanted to use the British to expand his sphere of influence

-Nabongo had insatiable desire for European goods e.g guns

-Need to protect and preserve his independence and position of the King

-Nabongo had learnt a lesson from other resistance-(knew the consequences of resisting a mighty power)

-Nabongo wanted his people to acquire western education and Christianity             (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        (i)Declared that Kenya was primarily an African country and incase of conflicts, African interests must

prevail

(ii)The highlands were reserved for European settlement only

(iii)Asians were allowed to elect five members to the legislative council on a communal rather than common

roll and representative in municipal councils

(iv)There was to be no racial segregation in residential areas

(v)Restrictions on Indian immigration was lifted

(vi)A missionary was to be nominated by the governor to represent African interest in the legislative council

(vii)The European demand for self government under European rule was rejected

(viii)The colonial office was to exercise close control of the colony                     (5×2=10mks)

 

SECTION C (30marks)

24(a)    -It is a constitutional requirement

-It enables Kenyans to have a new government

-It enables Kenyans to exercise their democratic right of voting

-It enables Kenyans to remove non-performing leaders

-It enables Kenyans to elect leaders

-It enables Kenyans to elect leaders of their own choice                                                             (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -Death of a sitting member of parliament

-Resignation of a sitting member of parliament

-If a member is declared bankrupt by a court of law

-If a member misses eight consecutive parliamentary sessions without permission and the speaker declares the sit vacant

-If the sitting members ceases to be a Kenyan citizen                                         (5×2=10mks)

 

25(a)    (i)As chief administration the C.J ensures and co-ordinate and monitor the activities of the court system in arbitration of justice

(ii)C.J participates in the adjudication  process in High and court of appeal -hear cases

(iii)C.J swears in new magistrates upon their appointment before undertaking official duties

(iv)As the chair person of J.S.C advices the president on the appointment, promotion in renewal of judges of court of appeal and the high court

(v)In the consultation with C.J determines the establishment of Kadhi’s courts

(vi)C.J swears in the president and cabinet ministers

(vii)C.J prescribes fees to be charged by the courts

(viii)C.J plays an advisory role in the renewal of a president on grounds of incapacitation

(ix)Ensures that professional ethics regarding the judiciary are preserved                        (5×1=5mks )

(b)        (i)Prior notice of the case. The accused persons are given adequate notice of all the allegations against them

(ii)The rights to be heard. They are given the right to state his/her position in the case

(iii)The persons charged are given the opportunity to consider, challenge any evidence given against them and

call their witnesses, make submissions and even cross examine witnesses called by the prosecutor

(iv)They are given the right to legal representation by a legally qualified person

(v)The courts are independent, impartial, and competent and expected to give fair judgement

(vi)One is assumed to be innocent until proven guilty through accepted legal procedures

(vii)The judicial decision are reached based on the law and legal procedure

(viii)Information on the decisions reached by the courts should be easily available to both parties in the case to

avoid being biased                                                                                                             (5×2=10mks )

 

26(a)    (i)The armed forces defend the country from external aggression/Attack through air, water or boundaries

(ii)Assist the police in the maintenance of law and order within the country e.g during inter ethic conflicts

(iii)They provide emergency services during natural disasters such as floods, fire outbreaks to rescue and save

lives

(iv)They assist in nation building activities, such as construction of roads, bridges, dams, parks

(v)They participate in international peace keeping missions where Kenyan troops work with UN in war torn

countries

(vi)They provide entertainment to visiting heads of state and dignitaries and to the public during special

functions e.g National Holidays

(vii)They check on legal landings or departures in liaison with airports. Also check on unauthorized fishing by

foreign vessels in Kenya waters                                                                   (5×1=5mks well explained )

 

(b)        -Keep watch over the behavior of suspected criminals whose cases are still pending in law courts

-Confine prisoners convicted by the court of law

-Enforces the decisions made by the courts regarding prisoners

-Rehabilitate prisoners’ e.g counseling

-Confine suspects who are a threat to the security of the community/state                 (5×2=10mks)




Section A (25 marks)

  1. Name one remnant of the hunter and gatherer community in Western Kenya.       (1 mark)
    • Okuro
    • Onguye

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  1.      State two economic results of the migration and settlement of the Kenyan communities during         the pre-colonial period.                                                                                        (2 marks)
    • Increased trading activities in the regions where they settled
    • Some communities adopted crop cultivation from their Bantu neighbours e.g. Luo and Masaai
    • They also learnt the skill of iron working from the Bantu

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      Give one main reason why the Portuguese conquered East Africa so easily?                (1 mark)
  • Due to superior weapons

  1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1.      State two ways in which East African slave trade undermined local industries.        (2 marks)
    • Competition from imported cheap manufactured goods
    • Skilled people who were making the local goods were taken into slavery

                                         Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      Name the treaty that marked the end of the scramble and partition of East Africa.   (1 mark)
    • Anglo-German Treaty 1890 / the Heligoland Treaty

 1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1. State two methods used by the colonial government to promote settler farming in Kenya.

(2 marks)

  • Alienating productive African land and putting Africans in infertile reserves
  • Providing settlers with labour,
  • Eliminating any possible competition from Africans for land, labour and markets by prohibiting them from cash crop production,
  • The building and maintenance of infrastructure such as railways, roads, bridges to facilitate movement of people and goods,
  • Reduction of freight charges in the importation and exportation of agricultural inputs and products,
  • The government encouraged the formation of cooperatives to help in processing and marketing produce,
  • Financial institutions such as Agricultural Finance Corporation (A.F.C.) and banks were established to provide settlers with credit facilities to buy farm inputs and equipment.
  • The Department of Agriculture and research stations were established to provide extension services for crop and animal farming in order to improve their quality,
  • Trade tariffs were also removed so as to encourage the settlers further.

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      What was the main outcome of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923?                   (1 mark)
  • That Kenya was an African country and the interest of the Africans were to be given priority in cases where there was conflict of interest among the races.                  

1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1.       Give two common characteristics of the political parties formed after 1945.         (2 marks)
  • The parties had a national outlook as members were drawn from different tribal groups.
  • Their main objective was to fight for independence/radical in nature.
  • They were led by educated elite.
  • They demanded improved conditions of African workers/ fair taxation and return of their alienated land.
    • They had large membership
    • They better organized,

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      State two ways in which the trade union movement contributed to the struggle for                                                                                                                     (2 marks)
    • They improved working conditions for workers by fighting for better wages and salaries.
    • They kept the spirit of nationalism alive following the ban of Kenya African union (KAU).
    • They secured international support for the cause of nationalism in Kenya.
    • They articulated African grievances in the absence of political parties.
    • They prepared some African nationalists for leadership positions e.g. Tom Mboya and Martin Shikuku.
    • They educated workers on their rights.
    • They contributed money to political parties to enable them sustain the struggle for independence.
    • They organized strikes and boycotts to oppose some policies of colonial government.
    • They promoted regional cooperation in the East African region by working together for the improvement of working conditions in the region.

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      What major political change was introduced during the Limuru Conference of 1966?                                                                                                                                                  (1 mark)
    • The amendment abolished the office of the K.A.N.U. Vice-President and in its place created eight Vice-presidents of the party.

1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1.      Give two militant ways of solving conflicts.                                                             (2 marks)
    • Subjugation
    • Policing
    • Use of the armed forces

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

 

 

  1.      Give the first step that is taken when solving conflicts by negotiation.                   (1 mark)
    • Fact finding

 1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1.      State how the citizens of Kenya participate in their government.                            (1 mark )
  • Through electing leaders of their choice to represent them

1 point @ 1 mark   (1 marks)

  1.      Give one political right of the youth guaranteed in the New Constitution of Kenya.                                                                                                                                                (1 mark )
  • They can stand for election to parliament
  • In the Senate, their interests are represented by one male and one female

Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)   

  1.      State two functions of the Judiciary in Kenya.                                                          (2 marks)
    • Interpret the constitution / laws
    • Administer justice

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      Identify two political events that threatened the stability of Kenya between 1975 and 1978.                                                                                                                                              (2 marks)
    • The assassination of Josiah Mwangi Kariuki (J.M.Karuiki) in 1975
    • Change the constitution debate
    • The passing on of the founder father of the nation Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in 1978

Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)   

  1.      Name the fund into which all government revenue is paid.                                      (1 mark)
  • The Consolidated Fund

1 point @ 1 mark (1 marks)

Section B (45 marks)

  1. (a)       Give five reasons for the migration of Somali into Kenya.                          (5 marks)
  • Escaping threats from the oromo.
  • Looking for pasture for their livestock
  • Escaping clan or family feuds.
  • Population pressure.
  • Fleeing outbreak of diseases that affected people and animals.
  • Escaping famine and drought.
  • To satisfy their spirit of adventure.

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)   

(b)       Describe the political organization of the Nandi during the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                                                                             (10 marks)

  • The smallest unit was the family headed by the father who dealt with internal matters like discipline, allocation of land, cattle and succession.
  • They had a decentralized system of government.
  • Above the family was a neighborhood council of elders called kokwet.
  • Above the Kokwet organization was the clan. The clan dealt with, among other things the matter of grazing right.
  • The clan was headed by the council of elders
  • Above the clan was large social political unit comprising of different war groups located in the same geographical zone called pororiet.
  • Pororiet was the highest in the judicial matter.
  • Pororiet could negotiate war and peace.
  • They had warriors from age sets who maintained law and order.
  • They borrowed the office of the Orkoyiot from the Maasai.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  1. (a)       State three functions of fort Jesus during the Portuguese rule .                   (3 marks)
    • To act as a hiding place against attacks by their enemies/protection.
    • To use it as an administrative base.
    • To use it as a base of sending expeditions against resisting coastal communities.
    • To store armaments/weapons.
    • To store trade items before exportation.
    • To use it as a watch tower.
    • To be used as a prison for war captives

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)   

(b)       Explain six positive effects of missionary activities in East Africa.                        (12 marks)

  • Spread of Christianity
  • Abandoning of harmful practices
  • Architecture was influenced i.e. Africans began to adopt European architecture
  • Introduction of western/formal education which improved African literacy
  • Created job opportunities among the educated Africans in mission stations, schools e.t.c
  • The elites later played a major role in growth of Nationalism and attainment of independence
  • Provided western medicine. They built hospitals and dispensaries where people were treated for dangerous diseases
  • Improvement of agriculture. The Roman Catholics developed modern methods of farming and introduced coffee growing near Nairobi.
  • Trained Africans in industrial areas gained skills such as carpentry and masonry
  • Missionaries campaigned against slave trade and established freed slave centres e.g. Frere town
  • Some missionaries like Krapf and Rebmann contributed to the exploration of East      Africa e.g. Jacob Ehardt drew a crude map of East Africa
  • Contributed to the political representation in Kenya e.g. Dr John Arthur was appointed to represent Africans in the leg co  

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

 

  1. (a)       Give three ways in which the Kenya Uganda railway promoted economic growth in              colonial Kenya.                                                                                        (3 marks)
  • It hastened the transportation of goods and services
  • It promoted growth of trade/commercial activities
  • It opened the interior for farming activities
  • It led to the growth of industries/mining
  • It led to the development of urban centers
  • It generated revenue to the colonial government
  • It created employment
  • It led to the development of other means of transport and communication

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

(b)       Apart from independent Churches and Schools, explain six other factors that speeded                       the achievement of independence in Kenya after 1945                                 (12 marks)

  • The experience of ex-servicemen made them realize that Europeans were not superior
  • Acquisition of western education by many Africans enabled them to understand political developments at international level and forcefully demanded for independence.
  • Realization by Britain that colonies were expensive to manage hence the need to grant them independence/the rise of Labour Party
  • Failure by the government to reward the ex-soldiers increased agitation for independence
  • The establishment of political parties by African nationalists like KANU, KADU, APP enhanced mobilization of the masses against colonial rule.
  • The Mau Mau uprising forced the British to realize the need of granting Kenya independence.
  • Nomination and election of Africans to the Legco enabled them to use the House as a forum to agitate for independence
  • Emergence of Trade Union movement which helped to mobilize workers to fight for their rights.
  • Pan- African movement and other global bodies helped in the establishment of Afro- Asian people solidarity organization which supported the course of Africa nationalists in Kenya.
  • Independence of other countries e.g. Ghana and India inspired African nationalists in Kenya to fight for their independence.
  • The formation of the UNO and the pressure exercised on the European powers to decolonize by the super powers
  • Signing of Atlantic Charter in 1941.

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

 

 

 

  1.      (a)       State three roles of Wangari Maathai in the history of Kenya.                    (3 marks)
  • She was the founder of the Green Belt movement to fight environmental degradation
  • She was involved in tree planting activities in the country. She encouraged the women to work together to grow seedlings and plant trees to bind the soil, store rainwater, provide food and firewood, and receive a small monetary token for their work.
  • She safeguarded Karura forest from destruction by private developers
  • She succeeded in stopping the proposed construction of a sixty storey Kenya Times Media Trust complex at Uhuru park
  • She served as an assistant minister for Environment, Natural resources and Wildlife after the 2002 elections
  • Chair of the Board, the Green Belt Movement (2002-2011)
  • She fought against land grabbing and the encroachment of agriculture into the forests
  • Addressed international networks like UN to seek support for environmental conservation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           
  • She held seminars to educate citizens to press the government to conserve the environment
  • While working at the University of Nairobi as an Associate Professor in 1977 she campaigned for the women members of staff to get equal pay and allowances with their male counterparts
  • For her efforts in different fields she won many national and international awards such as the Conservation Scientist Award. But the greatest of them all was when she made history by becoming the pioneer African woman and environmentalist to win the Nobel Peace Prize  for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace
  • She participated in several NGOs like the Red Cross which supports victims of calamities and from the experiences gained from working with all these organizations she began to encourage women to plant trees so as to take care of the home needs of their families as well as raise money for medication and the education of their children

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)   

(b)       Explain six reasons why the Nandi resistance to the British was protracted.            (12 marks)

  • They used guerrilla warfare as their land was covered with forests, caves and hills and therefore the British forces could not use their guns effectively,
  • The British forces were not familiar with the mountainous and forested terrain and this slowed down their movement while the Nandi warriors were familiar and therefore very mobile.
  • The age-set system provided young, disciplined and experienced warriors due to the many successful raids against their neighbours,
  • Their mixed economy ensured a steady supply of food even when the British applied scorched- earth policy, the Nandi could still get food from their livestock,
  • The wet and cold climate caused respiratory diseases to the invading British forces thereby greatly slowing down their advance while the Nandi warriors were strong as they used to the climate,
  • The orkoiyot who was their symbol of unity inspired the warriors to fight with determination and courage
  • The earlier successful raids against their neighbours had made them feel superior to them and so they fought the British with determination so as to preserve their dominant position in the region

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

  1.     (a)       Identify three importance of democracy in Kenya.                                      (3 marks)
  • The leaders cannot ignore the people from whom they get power to govern them/the interests of the citizens are paramount.
  • It fosters equality and unity among all people regardless of their colour, gender or religious beliefs.
  • It has moral and educative value as it helps individuals to develop their personality and sense of responsibility.
  • It balances the liberty of the individual with the power of the state.
  • It promotes patriotism and nationalism among the citizens and thus reduces the chances of a revolution.
  • It promotes peace and stability in the country.
  • It promotes international harmony.

Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

(b)       Explain six rights of an accused person in Kenya.                                        (12 marks)

  • The accused person is presumed innocent until proven guilty.
  • One should be given adequate time to consult with the advocate or witness.
  • One should be informed of the charge with sufficient detail so as to prepare a defence in a language one understands.
  • One should be present when court proceedings are taking place.
  • One should be given a chance to plead leniency.
  • One must have free assistance of an interpreter if they cannot understand or speak the language.
  • One should not be forced to give evidence.
  • One should be allowed to be heard or remain silent and not testify during proceedings
  • To refuse to give self- incriminating evidence
  • One should be allowed to appeal against the ruling/ challenge the evidence.
  • One has the right to legal representation.
  • To have trial begin and concluded in the shortest time possible.

Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  1.       (a)      State five features of the Independence constitution of 1962.                      (5 marks)
  • A federal government was adopted with six regions each retaining considerable powers through the central government.
  • The National Assembly was bicameral consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • It spelt out the powers and responsibilities of central and regional governments.
  • It created the post of the Prime Minister to head the Government.
  • It created the post of the Governor General representing the Queen of England as the head of state.
  • It safeguarded the interests of the minority groups like the Europeans and Asians.
  • It provided for an independent and impartial judiciary to ensure that justice is done.
  • It led to the formation of an Independent Electoral Commission that would ensure impartiality and honesty during elections.
  • It provided that the party with majority seats could form the government which would comprise of the Prime Minister and Cabinet ministers.
  • A bill of rights spelling out the fundamental rights and freedoms of all citizens was included in the constitution.

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)   

(b)      Explain five functions of the Cabinet in Kenya.                                            (10 marks)

  • Advising and assisting the president in the day to day running of the government.
  • Discuses matters of national and international concern.
  • It formulates government’s domestic and foreign policies.
  • Initiates bills and tables government bills in the house.
  • They give direction to their respective ministries.
  • They appear before a committee of the National Assembly or the Senate when required by the committee and answer questions pertaining to the various ministries.
  • They expound government policies.
  • They ensure that the government policies are implemented by the civil servants.
  • Members of the cabinet represent the president at functions or meetings in and outside the country i.e. they perform delegated duties.
  • The Minister for Finance formulates and prepares the Budget which he or she then presents to the National Assembly.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)   

  1.    (a)       State five reforms which have been introduced to improve the conditions of                               Correctional Services.                                                                              (5 marks)
  • Provision of better food and improved medical services
  • Provision of sufficient clothing and bedding.
  • Efficient transport as new vehicles has been purchased.
  • Direct involvement of the national government in the affairs of those receiving correctional services. This has raised the morale of those who held and Kenyans.
  • The release of death-row inmates. Some inmates who had been in jail for over 10 years were released.
  • The release of a record 11,500 prisoners in December 2003 was aimed at reducing congestion and enhances the provision of better correctional services.
  • Streamlining of the hearing of cases with a view to keeping inmates in remand for a short period before sentencing them.

Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)   

(b)       Explain five factors which undermine free and fair elections in Kenya.      (10 marks)

  • Inadequate civic education.
  • Ethnic and party loyalties.
  • Harassment of voters
  • Biased election officials
  • Incompetent election officials
  • Inaccessibility of polling stations owing to transport and communication difficulties or due to extreme weather conditions
  • Illiteracy of voters
  • Election rigging
  • Corruption in elections e.g. impersonation, cheating or bribery
  • Use of negative propaganda by parties in an attempt to outwit one another
  • Gender insensitivity
  • Misuse of the mass media
  • Election violence and consequent chaos can mar elections
  • Poor distribution of election materials.

Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)   




HISTORY & GOVERNMENT 311/2  MARKING SCHEME

  1. Name one group in Kenya belonging to the Southern Cushites 1mk

-Dahallo/ Sanye

  1. Two economic ways in which the Abaluhya and the Luo interacted during the pre-coolonial period

(I) Through trade

(ii) Through raids for livestock

(iii) Iron working 2mks

  1. Give ONE archaeological evidence of contact between E.African coast and the outside world (lmk)

– Remains of pottery

– Remains of Chinese coins

  1. One way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan

coast and the outside work;

  1. The Monsoon winds facilitated transport of goods to and from Arabia.
  2. Facilitated movement of traders who established themselves along the Kenyan coasts. Any2xI= 2mks

5          Give two reasons why the missionaries promoted legitimate trade in Kenya in the 19th  century.

  1. to replace the illegal trade in slaves
  2. To supply Europe with raw materials
  3. To help the missions become self sufficient Any 2 x I = 2mks
  4. What was the main challenge faced by the education sector in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i) Organized along racial lines /discrimination                                                   Any 1 x 1 = lmk

  1. Name two communities in Kenya that showed mixed reaction to colonial rule.
  2. the Agikuyu
  3. the Akamba
  4. Luo                                                 Any 2 x 1= 2mks
  5. State the main reason why Africans established Independent Churches in Kenya during the colonial period (1mk)

– To protect African culture e.g. female circumcision (1×1=1mk)

  1. State two duties of African Chiefs during the colonial period.
  2. Collected taxes for the colonial government
  3. Settled petty disputes
  4. Recruited labour for the settlers or colonial government
  5. Administered justice on behalf of the colonial government
  6. Agents of the colonial governments. 2×1 =2mks
  7. State two ways in which the Synnerton plan affected the African farmers during colonial  period in Kenya.

(i) Fertile African land begun to be surveyed and enclosed while Title deeds were issued to land owners

(ii) Africans were allowed to grow cash crops.

(iii) Training and research institutions were established in such fields as Foresty, Agriculture, veterinary and

water department.

(iv) African were allowed to borrow loans using title deeds as security.               (2×1 =2mks)

  1. Give two ways in which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to urban centres.

(1) Taking head counts of those who were supposed to live in urban centres

(ii) Introducing the Kipande system

(iii) Enacting strict rules about migrations into urban centres /creation of reserves.

(iv) Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centres lived  there.                                                                                                                              (2 x I= 2mks)

  1. State one way in which the office of the presidency promotes national unity in Kenya.
  2. All Kenyans are united under one president and therefore minimizes conflict/Act as a symbol of national

unity.

  1. creates one centre of power Any I x I= lmk
  2. List one type of direct democracy

(i) Referendum

(ii) Recall

(iii) Initiative

(iv) Plebscite                                                                                                     Any I x I =Imk

  1. Identify One agency of justice in Kenya apart from the court systems

(v) The Law society of Kenya

(vi) The public Law institute

(vii) Law Reform commissions

(viii) Rent Restriction Tribunal

(ix) The industrial court

(x) Business Premises Tribunal                                                                          2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Name one ex-officio member of the local authority.

(1) District commissioner

(ii) The clerk                                                                                                                 Any I xl = lmk

  1. Name the temporary committee appointed by the president to deal with issues of disagreement in the cabinet
  2. Ad hoc committees Any 1 x 1= lmk
  3. (a) Identify one constitutional change introduced by section 15A that was passed by the 10th parliament in 2008

Creation of the post of a Prime minister and two deputy Prime ministers                                    I x I= lmk

  1. (a) State five factors for the migration of the cushites into Kenya (5mks)

-Outbreak of diseases

– In search of pasture for their animals

– Over population

– Drought and famine

– External attacks

-Internal conflicts

– Spirit of adventure

  1. b) Describe five political features of the Somali during the pre-colonial period
  2. i) The basic political unit was the clan
  3. ii) It clan was under a council of elders

iii) The council of elders maintained law and order among’ other duties

  1. iv) They developed an age set system from which they derived their warriors
  2. v) The warriors defended the community against external attacks
  3. vi) They had a leader called sultan whose role was mainly advisory

vii) Later they developed sheikhs as community leaders

viii) With the coming of Islam, their political system was based on Islamic shariah laws (5×2=10) mks

  1. (a) Outline five economic consequences of the long distance trade in Kenya durwç the precolonial period
  2. i) Towns like Mombasa, Kilwa and Lamu developed into commercial centre
  3. ii) The volume of local and regional trade increased as variety of new goods were introduced

iii) A class of wealthy Africans emerged both along the coast and in the interior e.g Chief Kivoi

  1. iv) Foreign goods were introduced
  2. v) New crops were introduced at the coast
  3. vi) Development of plantation agriculture in Malindi and Mombasa as a result of availability of slave labour

vii) Led to development of trade routes and market centres in the region

viii) Led to the development of money economy                                                            (5xl=5mks)

 (b) Explain five results of the collaboration between Mumia of Wanga and the British

(i) The Wanga people lost their independence

(ii) Mumias capital, Elureko became the administrative headquarters of the British in Western

Kenya.

(iii) The Wanga people gained some territory in parts of Samia, Busoga and Bunyala.

(iv) Mumia officially became a paramount chief in 1909

(v) Mumia obtained firearms and manufactured goods e.g. cotton cloth.

(vi) The Wanga Princes and Relatives were used to administer the surrounding communities as

headmen.

(vii) Mumia was largely relied on by the British when it became to appointments of African chiefs

and headmen.

(viii) The British were able to establish their rule over Western Kenya with the assistance of Wanga

soldiers. The soldiers were used to subdue the Nandi, Bukhusu and Luo.

(ix) Mumia and his people acquired education and religion.

(x) The rule of Wanga agents in other parts provoked hostility and resentment from their

neighbours.                                                                                                             (5×2= I0mks)

 

  1. (a) State five reasons for the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway (5mks)
  • To establish effective control over British East Africa
  • TSo facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region
  • To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade
  • Facilitate the movement of troops and government administrators into the interior.
  • To link Uganda with the Coast and the outside world.
  • To make it possible for Britain to effectively protect the strategic interests in the region (5×1=5mks)

(b) Explain Five challenges facing land policies in Kenya since independence

  • Issuing of bogus title deeds some influential personalities allocated land which earlier

had been sold off to other people, lowering the economic value of title deeds.

  • Land grabbing public utilities e.g schools has been grabbed by influential personalities

in the government.

  • Current inequalities in land ownership. A few families own huge pieces of land in the country while the majority of the poor are starved of land.

(iv)     Communal land rights

  • Conflicts over use of land between the pastoralists communities and farming communities in many parts of the country over the use of water resources become scarcer.
  • Use of forested land. There has been consisted conflict between some conservationists communities living around the forests and the government over the use of land.
  • Lack of capital for demarcation                                                                  5 x 2= l=mks

 

  1. (a) State Five characteristics of the political organizations which were formed in Kenya prior to 1939.

(i) They were all ethnic —based tribal based

(ii) Most of them were led by missionary educated Africans.

(iii) Most of them were supported materially and morally by Asian community.

(iv) Most of them demanded an end to European oppression and exploitation rather independence

from colonial rule.

(v) They co-operated closely although they were confined to single ethnic communities. 5×1=5 mks

 

(b) Describe political contributions of Oginga Odinga in Kenya between 1957 and 1992.

(i) In 1957 he was elected to legislative council and helped in the formation of AEMO.

(ii) In January 1960, Oginga participated in the first Lancaster House conference, plans for

Kenyan’ s independence were discussed.

(iii) Oginga was a founding member of KANU in 1960. The party helped regain’s independence.

(iv) Odinga participated in the second Lancaster House Conference. That was in 1962 when final

preparations for Kenya’s independence were made.

(v) When Kenya became independence on December 12, 1963, Oginga Odinga was appointed

minister for Home Affairs.

(vi) He with the Luo Thrift and Trading Corporation built the Maseno Store and Ramogi Press which

published newspapers.

(vii) He with some others like Kaggia sought for the compensation of Mau Mau fighters and give

land to those who didn’t have.

(viii) He formed Kenya’s People Union ( KPU) in 1966 but was banned in 1969.

(ix) In 1980 he was appointed the chairman of the Cotton Lint and marketing Board.

(x) He with others formed FORD in 1992 during the multi-party era.

(xi) He published the book ‘Not yet Uhuru which urged Kenyans to do away with neocolonialism

(xii) He spearhead the struggle for the re-introduction of pluralism in Kenya in the 1 990’s leading to

the repealing of section 2A of the constitution in December 1991.             10×1=10mks

 

 

SECTION C:

  1. (a) State FIVE circumstances which may force the government to limit different rights and

                  freedoms of the individuals.

(i) One’s freedom of expression be denied if he uses it to incite people against the government

(ii) If one is convicted of murder, he or she can be denied the right to life

(iii) In terms of curfew and public emergencies freedom of movement can be restricted in order to

restore law and order.

(iv) Freedom of Assembly can be denied if one uses it to threaten the security of the state.

(v) Freedom of worship can be deprived if one uses it to divide or to undermine the government.

(vi) Freedom of liberty is denied to the criminals who are confined to ensure public security is

upheld.

(vii) Incase the government would want to use ones property for public utility e.g road construction

he/she can be denied right to own property but with compensation.

(viii) Bankruptcy may deny one’s right to be voted be for.                                             Any 5 x I = 5mks

 

 

 

 

(b) Discuss five effects of the Harambee philosophy to national development since its inception.

(i) The movement enabled the collection of funds to build hospital, health centers and the

establishment of specialized units in government hospitals.

(ii) The movement has led to the development of Education in Kenya e.g it has seen the construction

of schools, raising funds for schools fees and construction of colleges of technology.

(iii) It has enabled the collection of funds for the improvement of infrastructure such as roads, rural

electrification and provision of water.

(iv) Harambee projects donors especially NGO’s (Non-government Organizations) which have been

given a lot of aid to support their projects.

(v) It has made collection of funds possible to help the less fortunate members of the society

(vi) The Harambee spirit has promoted international, continental sporting and cultural activities

(vii) Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development. For example construction of

cattle dips and purchasing of agricultural farms, irrigation schemes has been built.

(viii) There has been collective participation in development programmes by different groups which

has promoted unity.

(ix) It has helped inculcate hard work in people Kenya.

(x) Transport facilities have been improved and expanded through Harambee efforts e.g collective

buying of buses and matatus.                                                                                  (5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a) Outline the structure of the court system in Kenya (5mks)

– District magistrate’s court is the lowest court in the structure and is at the same level as Kadhis court.

– The resident magistrates court is second lowest but is the highest court in the province.

– The chief magistrate court is the highest court in the land.

– The high court is above the chief magistrates court and is headed by the chief justice.

– The court of appeal is the highest court in the land.                                                                 5 x l5mks

 

  1. b) Explain how judicial independence is promoted in Kenya. 10mks

– The constitution provides for the judiciary as a separate organ of government.

– Judges enjoy security of tenure.

– The tenure of office for judges is longer than that of other employees in the civil service. The judges retire at 70-74 years.

– Judicial officers are appointed by the judicial service commission and not the public service commission.

– Judges and magistrates are not answerable to the executive. They are protected from any form of victimization.

– The Oath of allegiance requires them to perform duties without fear or favour.

– They are paid adequate salaries to maintain reasonable standards of living in order to avoid the temptation of taking bribes.

– The judiciary has a separate system of command unlike other government departments headed by permanent secretary (ps), the judiciary is headed by chief justice (C.J)                        5 x 2=I0mks

 

 

  1. a) Identify THREE uses of government revenue in Kenya.
  2. i) For infrastructural development
  3. ii) Establishment of institution of learning, dams, irrigation schemes etc

iii) Provision of social services e.g. health and education

  1. iv) Wages and salaries
  2. v) General repair and maintenance of government property
  3. vi) Debt servicing

vii) Contribution to international organizations.

viii) Grants and bursaries

  1. ix) Maintenance of embassies abroad Any 3 points (3 x 1) mks
  2. b) Explain how the government controls its revenue and expenditure
  3. i) Parliament has to approve all the expenditure of the government
  4. ii) Scrutiny by various parliamentary committees of all financial reports.

iii) The controller and Auditor general audits ministries and government departments

  1. iv) Permanent secretaries in each ministries are responsible for all money allocated to their ministries
  2. v) All government contracts are publicly advertised for the awarding of tenders
  3. vi) Establishment of the Kenya Anti corruption to investigate all corruption cases(KACC)

vii) Only certain government officers have been invested with power to incur expenditure

Any 6points (6 x2)= 12mks




HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 311/1 MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. • Some words have different meanings in different communities and may confuse researchers.
  • Some words are difficult for researchers to interpret
  • Some languages are extinct and difficult to use in reconstruction of history.
  • It lacks date thus accuracy is compromised. (any 2×1=2mks)
  1. • Ameru
  • Pokomo
  • Agikuyu (any 1×1=1mk)

 

  1. • Abaluhyia
  • Swahili
  • Abasuba (any 1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Both were ruled by the Council of elders             (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. • For protection against Arab attacks.
  • To act as a military base
  • For storing food and other supplies
  • As a prison for war captives (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. • The monsoon winds facilitated transport
  • Advanced Marine technology

– Existence of natural harbours                                                          (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Prevalence of Islam at the coast             (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. • 53 elected members and 20 seats for minority groups in the legislative council
  • Elections would be based on a common roll.
  • Governors would nominate their ministers 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 Asian (any2x1=2mks)
  • The bill of Rights was included in the constitution.

 

  1. • There be a uniform system of educational government and missionary schools.
  • Sufficient training for teachers and related personnel be enhanced.
  • Schools to be built in rural areas. (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. • Introduction of 8-4-4 system of education
  • Increase of Public universities.
  • Expansion of tertiary institutions
  • Introduction of cost sharing in education (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. • The right to liberty (freedom%)
  • The right to movement (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. • The Agikuyu

– The Luo

– The Akamba

  • The Abaluhya (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. • To act as a watchdog of the ruling party
  • To check the excesses for the government /ruling party (any 1×1=1mk)

 

  1. • Industrial court
  • Restriction tribunal
  • Business premises tribunal
  • Kadhi courts (any 2×1=2mks)

 

  1. To give legal advise to government                                                 (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. After the Limuru Conference scrapped the position of deputy president. (1×1=1mk)

 

SECTION B

  1. a)
  • Running away from internal conflicts
  • Running away from external conflicts
  • Population pressure in their cradle land
  • Looking for grazing land/pasture
  • Outbreak of diseases(animal /human)
  • Drought and famine
  • The spirit of adventure (any 5×1=5mks)

b)

  1. i) SOCIAL ORGANISATION
  • Organized in clans
  • Believed in existence of one God
  • Had religious leaders mediating between people and God
  • Duties /rolesare carried out depending on gender
  • Practiced polygamy
  • Practice exogamy
  • Later they adopted Islamic religion and culture
  • Boys and girls were initiated through circumcision and clitoridectomy (any 5×1=5mks)
  1. POLITICAL ORGANISATION
  • Was based on clan
  • Headed by a council of elders
  • Council of elders-presided over religious ceremonies

Settled disputes

Acted as ritual experts

Maintained law and order

  • Had age-set and age group system.
  • Had warriors who defended the community. (any 5×1=5mks)

18.

a.

  • Zanzibar had deep sheltered natural harbours which could accommodate big ships
  • Zanzibar had clean and fresh water for domestic use
  • Zanzibar was centrally positioned for trade with Africa.
  • Good climate compared to hot and dry Muscat
  • Zanzibar had good soil for agriculture
  • Zanzibar was friendly to his rule
  • It was strategically poisoned for the control of East Africa. (any 5×1=5mks)

b.

  • Inadequate personnel-being a small country the population could not produce enough personnel

to man it.

  • Constant rebellions by the coast people
  • The Portuguese officials were corrupt and selfish
  • The distance of Portugal did not allow for reinforcement.
  • Attacks from Turkish pirates and Muslims
  • Effect of Tropical disease on Portuguese.
  • Decline of trade in gold as traders changed trading system centres.
  • Their concentration at the coast without venturing into the interior (any 5 well explained x 2=10mks)

 

19.a.

  • loss of African land
  • Poor working and living conditions of Africans
  • They were against taxation, forced labour and low wages
  • Condemnation of African culture by whites
  • Failure of government to make constitutional reforms
  • Brutality against African workers.
  • Unemployment of African in favour of whites.
  • Racial discrimination in health and education.
  • Brutality of police and chiefs
  • The veterans of World War II returned and were not compensated with land and employment.

(any 3 x1= 3mks)

b.

  • They participated in the armed struggle
  • Provided provisions needed by the fighters
  • Acted as spies
  • Composed songs to mobilize people
  • Participated in oathing ceremonies
  • Were tortured by colonial authorities but did not reveal
  • They were imprisoned and detained.
  • They took care of families as husbands fought (any 6 well explained x2=12mks)
  1. a.
  • They had been weakened by long civil war.
  • Emergence of the Nandi had further weakened them by constantly attacking them
  • Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo forced Lenana to seek British assistance
  • Fear of consequences incase they resist
  • Natural calamities had weakened them – drought, famine and diseases (any 5×1=5mks)

b.

  • Loss of independence
  • Loss of land
  • African leaders were recognized and made paramount chiefs
  • African warriors were employed by the British as Mercenaries.
  • Africans were rewarded with cattle looted from resisting communities
  • Collaborators were protected from their enemies. (any 5 well explained x2=10mks)

SECTION C

21.a.

  • Heads the Judiciary
  • Swears in the President and Cabinet ministers
  • Chairs the Judicial service commission
  • Prescribe the fee to be charged by court
  • Determine the establishment of Kadhi Court.
  • Has the Jurisdiction to exercise constitution function vested in the high court and court of appeal
  • Advises ’on the removal of the president incase of incapacitation (any 5×1=5mks)

b.

  • Ethnicity /polarization
  • Harassment of voters by rival groups
  • Party loyalty
  • Partisan election officials
  • Incompetent election officials
  • Transport difficulties
  • In accessibility of polling stations

-Communication and coordination problem between the polling station and Head quarters

-Illiteracy of some voters

-Existence of poor weather conditions

Corruption /bribery of voters

  • Negative propaganda by party leaders
  • Insecurity
  • Misuse of mass media
  • Gender insensitivity
  • Inadequate facilities and equipment
  • Government interference/rigging
  • Inadequate funds. (any 10 x1=10mks)

 

  1. a. (i)
  • When the life of parliament has expired
  • When parliament passes vote of no-confidence in the government
  • When the president wants to call a snap election (any 3×1=3mks)

 

(ii)During the official opening of parliament

  • During the presentation of the annual National Budget. (any 2×1=2mks)

b.

  • After a successful election
  • If he is in ill health/mentally or physical incapacitated.
  • If he is declared bankrupt by court of law.
  • If he president fails to be elected as a member of parliament for his constituency
  • If he resigns voluntarily
  • If parliament passes a vote of no-confidence in the government
  • If he losses an election to a rival presidential candidate. (any 5 explained x 2=10mks)
  1. a.
  • First reading where the bill is introduced in parliament.
  • Second reading —debate is initiated on the bill
  • Committee stage —recommendations by members are incorporated.
  • Third reading —limited changes and a vote taken on the bill.
  • Presidential assent and becomes Act of Parliaments.
  • Gassettement of the act. (5 in order x1=5mks)

b.

  • Making amendments and repealing laws
  • Can pass a vote of no confidence in president
  • Can limit the power of the executive
  • Holds ministers accountable for their activities
  • Bills prepared by the cabinet have are legislated by the parliament
  • Approves the budget. (any 5×1=5mks)

 

C.

  • Increased powers of the executive can reduce the parliamentary authority
  • Peoples traditions and customs can limit supremacy
  • Parliament cannot pass laws that contradict the constitution.
  • Application of international laws can also limit the power of parliament
  • By laws made by local authorities can limit the supremacy of parliament. (any 5×1=5mks)



HISTORY 311/1 marking scheme

 

  1. Give two reasons which led to the migration of the Luo into Kenya.
  • Over population.
  • Internal conflicts.
  • External attacks.
  • Spirits of adventure.
  • – Overstocking hence the need for new grazing land.                                (1×2 = 2mks)

 

  1. Name an institution among the Maasai similar to the Orkoiyot among the Nandi.
  • –                                                                                                   (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. What was the main economic activity of the River lake Nilotes
  • – Pasturalism/livestock keeping                                                                   (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Name the dispersal area of the Western Bantu’s in Kenya.
  • – Mount Elgon.                                                                                             (1×1= 1mk)

 

  1. One treaty signed between the British and the Arab rulers to end slave trade along the Kenyan Coast.
  • Moresby treaty.
  • Hermatton treaty.
  • – Frere treaty.                                                                                                  (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify the main way in which Islam spread in the interior of Kenya.
  • – Through the influence of the Arab and Swahili traders who were Muslims.        (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. State one short coming of the Anglo-German agreement of 1886.

–  It left the Western boundary (Uganda) undermined.

–  It created pockets of German territories in British E. Africa                                (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Give two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • Small scale farming was practiced .
  • Africans mainly grew food crops.
  • – Traditional methods of farming were used.                                                             (2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. State two duties of the colonial chiefs in Kenya.
  • Solving petty cases.
  • Maintaining law and order.
  • Recruiting labour.
  • Collecting taxes.
  • Mobilizing labour.
  • – Clearing foot paths and roads.                                                                                 (2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. List two features of the Lennox-Boyd constitution.
  • African seats increased by 6 i.e 8-14.
  • The Legco, as a special electoral body was to elect 12 specially. Elected members in the order of 4 Africans, 4 Europeans and 4 Asians.
  • Doubled African minister from 1 – 2.
  • Introduced multi-racial representative in the Legco. (2×1 = 2mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Name the founder of “Green Belt movement in Kenya.”
  • – Wangari Maathai.                                                                                              (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. The process through which the citizens of Kenya would vote to either accept or reject a proposed        constitution.
  • –                                                                                                                (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Give two types of cases handled by the Kenyan Judiciary.
  • Civil
  • – Criminal                                                                                                                      (2×1= 2mks)

 

  1. Who is the head of government in Kenya?

–  President.                                                                                                                     (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify two peaceful methods of conflict resolution in Kenya
  • –                                                                                                                      (2×1= 2mks)
  1. State two principles of Devalued Government in Kenya.
  • Country government will be based on democratic principles and the separation of powers.
  • County government shall have reliable source of revenue to enable them govern and deliver services effectively.
  • – Not more than two thirds of the members of a representative body in each country government shall be of the same gender.                                                                                         (2×1 = 2mks)
  1. Identify two non-military functions of the Kenya Defense force. 
  • Participating in development projects e.g building roads, budges.
  • Entertaining the public and guests during public holidays.
  • Providing emergency relief services during disaster e.g floods accidents or locust invasion. (2×1= 2mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

 

  1. a) FIVE reasons why the Omani Arabs were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan Coast.
  • To control trade.
  • To establish political control over the Kenyan Coast.
  • Cost had a pleasant climate compared to Muscat which was hot and dry.
  • Good fertile soils for growing of crops.
  • Deep natural habours for ship to anchor.
  • – Adequate water.                                             (any 5×1= 5mks)
  1. b) Explain the factors which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule by 18th
  • Portugal was a small country with a small population and could not supply enough administrators and soldiers to administer her overseas territories.
  • The coastal communities organized constant rebellions against them which made them weak.
  • Portuguese administrators were corrupt greedy and inefficient. They embezzled funds meant for administration.
  • Trade along the Kenya coast declined due to constant wars and heavy taxation imposed on trading goods by the Portuguese.
  • They locked revenue.
  • Their settlements were attached by the Zimba from dthe lower Zambezi valley who coasted property and killed people.
  • The distance between Portugal and the coast was another problem, if delayed reinforcement.
  • They were attacked by tropical disease e.g malaria which killed many of them.
  • Gold trade which had attracted them declined as traders directed their route away from Portuguese controlled areas. These meant lack of revenue.
  • They were further weakend by commercial competition between them and other Europeans e.g Dutch, Britain.
  • The coastal communities obtained support against them from the Tails.
  • – The final blow was the attacked by the Omani Arabs.  They sailed fort for 33 months finally forcing the Portuguese to surrender due to hunger and disease.                         (any 10x 1 = 10mks)
  1. a) State Five problems that independent schools in colonial Kenay faced.
  • Organization and planning e.g problems of quality of buildings teaching materials and teaching staff.
  • Opening of more schools had been prohibited by the colonial government.
  • The level at which to start the teaching of English in primary schools.
  • Which syllabus to follow.
  • Lack of teachers.
  • Lack of co-ordination                                                      (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Five factors that fed to the establishment of the independent churches and schools in Kenya.
  • Cultural preservation – Africans were opposed to European attempt to eradicate essential cultural practical.
  • Paternalism – Africans were regarded as incapable of leadership in church administration, education etc they were considered immature and had to be led. They resented there king of attitude.
  • Discrimination/segregation – Missionaries betrayed the Christian principle of love – by considering Africans as punitive backward purpers and needing salvation.
  • Denominationalism – Africans received in already divided church.
  • Nationalism – They wanted to regain their lost independence and cultural heritage which had been eroded.
  • They resulted land grabbing.
  • Doctrinal difference leading to many divisions especially in protestant churches encouraged Africans to start their own.
  • Taxation growing of cash crops and kipande system.
  • – Africans were forced to work for Europeans at low wages                            (any 5×2 = 10mks)
  1. a) Five reasons which made the Nandi resist the imposition of British colonial rule in their territory.
  • They wanted to main their independence.
  • They wanted to protect their land.
  • They wanted to reserve their culture.
  • They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their territory.
  • They did not want strangers to pass through their territory.
  • They wanted to protect their livestock.
  • – They hated the white people because they thought they were a bad omen.     (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Discus the factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi.
  • The British were supported by some of the local communities e.g Somali and Maasai so the Nandi warriors were out numbered.
  • The British used superior weapons such as rifles white Nandi used spears.
  • The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous methods e.g October 1905 the commander of the British troops in Nandi territory, captain Mcimertichageb arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi Orkoiyot, Koitalel Arap Samoei kill him. The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood this demoralized the Nandi.
  • The British used scorched earth policy they burned counfisticated their livestock. The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission.
  • Natural calamities e.g small pox which broke out in the 1890’s killed many of them.
  • Lack of support from the neighbrouring communities e.g Abaluhyia and Luo. (any 5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a)  Five political development that hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between           1945 and 1963.
  • The return of ex-servicemen who had military expertise to organizer colonial resistance. They were in forefront in the Mau Mau resistance.  Ex-servicemen were not rewarded hence they were ready to resist the British.
  • The formulation of political parties by African nationalists e.g KADU and KANU.
  • Formation of trade unions.
  • Change of government from conservative to labour party in Britain labour party was sympathetic towards nationalists in colonized countries.
  • The return of Jomo Kenyatta from UK strengthened the nationalists in Kenya.
  • Independence of other countries e.g Ghana.
  • The formation of UNO which pressured for decolonization.
  • – The formation of independent churches and schools.                  (any 5×1 = 5mks)

 

 

  1. b) Explain any Five challenges facing industrial sector in Kenya.
  • Poverty which since implies limited purchasing power, power investment, insufficient capital.
  • Poor communication and transport systems.
  • Limited industrial power and high cost of fuel.
  • Mismanagement, nepotism, corruption, poor planning and execution of plans by the government.
  • Competition from developed industrial powers.
  • Poor technological advancement, limited skilled labour.
  • Shortages of raw materials, natural resources.
  • External degradation and its accompanying problems e.g famine and drought.
  • – Post election violence.                                                     (any 5×2 = 10mks)

SECTION C  30 MARKS)

  1. a) Identify five categories of people whose personal liberty is limited in Kenya.
  • Convicted criminals.
  • A person suspected of having committed or about to commit a felony criminal offence.
  • A drug addict.
  • A vagrant
  • A person of unsmud slind
  • A young person under 18 years may be denied for purposes of education and welfare.
  • A person with an infection or contagious disease be detained to stop spreading it. (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) What are the rights of a child as contained in the Kenya
  • Not to be detained.
  • To a name from birth.
  • To a nationality from birth.
  • To free and compulsory basic education.
  • To basic nutrition, shelter and healthcare.
  • To the protection from abuse, neglect, harmful, cultural practice, all forms of violence or exploitative labour.
  • To parental care and protection including equal responsibility of both mother and father.
  1. a) State five reasons that explain why parliamentary elections are held regularly in Kenya.
  1. To give citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional right of participating in the democratic process.
  2. To give citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in.
  3. To enable the people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.
  4. To “inject new blood” into parliament and government.
  5. To enable sitting mps to be responsible to the development needs of the electorate and be alert.
  6. As stipulated by the constitution.
  7. To replace unwanted mps.                                                (any 5×1= 5mks)
  1. b) Why is parliament an important institution in Kenya?
  2. It is the supreme law making body.
  3. It is made up of elected representatives hence represents the interests of the people.
  • It checks on possible abuse of power by the executive thus promoting good governance and accountability.
  1. It controls government revenue collection and expenditure. The annual budget is discussed and approved by parliament.
  2. It ensures government revenue is spent properly. The controller and auditor General checks on the spending of ministries and produces comprehensive report for discussion by parliament.
  3. Parliament is empowered to investigate the activities of any public servant if mps feel that he/she is not doing his/her work well.
  • It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of the day. (any 5×2= 10mks)
  1. a) Identify Five sources of Public revenue in Kenya.
    • Domestic borrowing.
    • Profit from Parastals.
    • Foreign aid.
    • Sale of treasuring bills
    • Court fines.
    • Taxes e.g VAT.
    • Charges of government services .
    • – Licence fees                                     (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Explain Five challenges facing the Kenya Government in her efforts to raise revenue.
  • Tax evasion by some people/organizations.
  • Many people give wrong information in their wealth declaration.
  • Rich people keep their money in foreign banks denying the country interest.
  • Negative attitude towards payment of taxes by many people due to ignorance.
  • Unscrupulous Kenyans and tax officials collude and defraud the government of revenue.
  • Inadequate information for local investors through treasuring bill, post office bonds and shares at N.S.E.
  • Smuggling of goods out of Kenya.
  • High rate of inflation increases public expenditure/too many taxes. (any 5×2 = 10mks)



EVALUATION TEST

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT – PAPER 1

 

MAKING SCHEME

 

  1. Two communities in Kenya who belong to the Western Bantu.
  • Abaluhyia
  • Abagusii
  • Abasuba
  • Abakuria 2 x 1 = 2mks

 

  1. Two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and the Abagusii of Kenya in the 19th century.
  • The clan formed the basic political unit
  • Leadership was by the council of elders.
  • Both had age set system.
  • The council of elders settled disputes.
  • They had worriers who defended their communities.

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

 

  1. One reason for the migration of the Boran from Ethiopia into Kenya.
  • External attacks
  • Internal conflicts
  • Drought/famine 1 x 1 = mk

 

  1. One factor that facilitated contact between the coast and the outside world by the end of the 16th century.
  • The monsoon winds which enabled the early visitors to travel to and from the coast.
  • Advancement in boats and ship building technology led to making of stronger vessels.
  • Availability of trade goods in Indian Ocean trade.                                           (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. The missionary society that established a home for freed slaves at the coast of Kenya in the 19th century.

(i) The church missionary society (C.M.S)                                                  (1×1=1mk)

  1. Two cultural aspects the coastal people of Kenya borrowed from the foreigners during the 16th Century.
  • Religion
  • Dressing styles.
  • Eating habits
  • Building styles (Architecture)                                       (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two causes of Bukusu resistance to the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya.
  • Resented use of Wanga agents to rule Bukusu.
  • Hated cultural influence through the missionaries.
  • Against taxation
  • Had a strong military organization (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two political parties which were formed in Kenya between 1960 and 1963.

KANU – Kenya African National Union.

KADU – Kenya African Democratic Union

APP    –  African People Party.                                                                   (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two reasons for formation of Taita Hills Association in 1939.
  • To fight for the return of their alienated land
  • To protest against destocking policy.
  • To protest against taxation.
  • To protest against the Kipande system.
  • Protest against forced labour.

(2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • Unemployment led to poverty
  • Low morality e.g prostitution
  • Increase in crime
  • Development of shanties/slums
  • Congestion leading to epidermics.
  • Break up of family set up.
  • Deprived rural areas of man-power.
  • Development of Kipande system.       (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Main role of opposition parties in Kenya.

To act as a check on the excesses of the government and the ruling party/upholding democracy.

(1×1=1mk)

  1. One reason why the government of Kenya may limit a persons freedom of speech

(i)        If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another.

(ii)       If one publishes seditious documents/reveal government secrets.

  • If one incites others against government/other people.
  • If one talks ill against the president. (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. The main function of the Executive arm of government in Kenya .

(i)  To implement government policies.                                                  (1×1=mk)

 

  1. Two principles of the developed government in Kenya
  • Based on democratic principle for separation of powers.
  • County government shall have reliable sources of revenue – to govern and deliver services

effectively

  • More than 2/3 of representative bodies shall not be of the same gender.

(2×1=2mks)

 

  1. The body in charge of executive duties in a county government in Kenya.

– County executive committee                                                                       (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Two ways in which the rule of law is applied in Kenya.

(i)  By ensuring that all citizens are subjected to and governed by the same law.

(ii)  By ensuring that matters are handled according to the law of land.

  • By ensuring that all suspected criminals are assumed innocent on the proved guilty/fair harms or trial.

(2×1=2mks)

 

SECTION B  (45 MARKS)

  1. (a) Three Bantu communities which had settled at coast of Kenya by 1800 AD
    • Pokomo
    • Mijikenda
    • Segeju
    • Taita    (3×1=3mks)

 

 

 

 

 

  • Results of the migration and settlement of Bantu speakers in Kenya.
    • Increased trading activities
    • Increased population
    • Cultural borrowing
    • Intermarriages
    • Assimilation of smaller communities
    • Spread of Iron-technology
    • Conflicts with neighbours
    • Clearing forests for settlement and farming
    • Displacement of some communities. (6×2=12mks)

 

  1. (a) State five grievances of Africans in Kenya voiced by Kenya African Union   (K.A.U)
  • Inadequate African representation in the legco.
  • Lack of education opportunities for Africans
  • Land alienation
  • Racial discrimination
    1. Imposition of taxes/forced labour
    2. Kipande system.

(5×1=5mks)

 

  • Explain five ways in which Kenyatta contributed to the nationalistic movement up to 1963.
    • The founder of kikuyu central association K.C.A that fought for African rights.
    • He wrote a newspaper “Muigurithania” through which he articulated African grievances.
    • During his study in Britain (1929-1946) he presented African grievances in many international forums.
    • He became president of K.AU in 1947 and endeavoured to make it a mass party.
    • His detention by colonial government turned him to a national hero and future leader.
    • 1961 Kenyatta was elected to the Legco and he attempted to reconcile KANU and KADU.
    • In 1962 he led KANU delegates to the 2ndLancaster house conference to plan for constitutional changes.
    • He became prime minister of Kenya in 1963. (5×2=10mks)

 

  1. (a) Three reasons why British government encouraged white settlement in colonial

Kenya.

  • To carryout farming in order to meet the

administration costs of the colony.

  • The climate of the white highlands was suitable for white settlement.
  • There were large tracts seemingly unutilized land.
  • Settlers were to carry out farming in order to produce goods to be transported by the railway (meet cost of maintaining the railway)
  • The government did not want the Asians to take control of the colony.
  • The whites would be loyal to the colonial government as opposed to the Africans.

(

  • Six problems experienced by European settlers in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • They were subjected to constant raids by the Africans whose land had been alienated.
  • They lacked essential agricultural skills as many had not practiced farming before.
  • They had inadequate labour force as many Africans refused to work for them.
  • They were not familiar with the seasons and therefore could not predict when and what to plant/natural calamities-drought.
  • They had inadequate capital to invest in farming
  • They were unable to market their produce during the world wars.
  • The economic depression affected the market prices.
  • There were inadequate transport and communication net-work which affected the movement of people and goods     (6×2=12mks)

 

 

  1. (a) Five reasons why the government of Kenya adopted the sessional paper No.10 of 1965.

(i)      To ensure equal opportunities for all citizens.

(ii)    To ensure that resources are used for the

benefit of society and its members.

  • To encourage various forms of ownership of property
  • To promote democracy.
  • To promote freedom from disease, ignorance and poverty.
  • To promote freedom of conscience and humandignity       (5×1=5mks)

 

  • Social effects of national philosophies on development in Kenya.
  • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans.
  • They have encouraged Kenyans to actively participate in development projects.
  • Through the philosophies education has been promoted by building schools, colleges and universities.
  • They have encouraged mutual social responsibility among Kenyans.
  • They have helped improve medical services by constructing dispensaries, health centres and hospitals.
  • Plight of the disadvantaged people has been addressed by the philosophies through organizing harambees to assist them.
  • They have promoted African culture through borrowing of positive African traditions
  • They have promoted spiritual wellbeing through building of churches. (5×2=10mks)

 

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1. (a) Three challenges that have faced the re-writing of Kenyan constitution
    • Financial constrains
    • Political interference
    • Selfish ambition of leaders
    • Political differences on the mode to be followed
    • Illiteracy on the masses.                   (3×1=3mks)

 

  • Six objectives of devolution of government in Kenya.
    • Promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
    • To foster national unity by recognizing diversity
    • Give powers of self-governance to the people and enhances participation of the people in decision making.
    • Recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and further their development.
    • Protect and promote interests and right of minorities and marginalized communities.
    • Promote social and economic development and provision of proximate (near) easily accessible services throughout Kenya.
    • Ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya.
    • Facilitate decentralization of state organs, their functions and services from the capital of Kenya.
    • Enhance checks and balances and separation of powers. (6 x 12=12mks)

 

  1. (a) Five levels of conflict.

(i)       Individuals versus Individuals

(ii)       Group versus group

  • Individual versus state
  • Group versus state
  • State versus state.       (5×1=5mks)

 

  • Survival rights of a child.
  • Entitled to life – no one can terminate or endanger the life of a child
  • Right to name and identify within a nation
  • Good medical care/vaccination against polio, TB, measles and other diseases.
  • Good clothing
  • Good shelter
  • Good food-not starving nutritiousuise (5×2=10mks)

 

23.(a)  Five principles of democracy

(i)     Consent of the people e.g should accommodate needs and aspirations of the people.

(ii)    Equality to all people regardless of colour, sex or creed.

  • Enlightenment e.g has moral and educative values
  • Peace-
  • The rule of the law
  • Balance- liberty of the individual with power of state
  • Openness – transparency and accountability.
  • Competition – Survives in a situation where there are several ideas that compete for participants attention and opinions.
  • Patriotism – reduces ability and revolution
  • Co-existence – sense of Co-operation, compromise, love, sympathy and self sacrifice for large interest of community.
  • Education – cornerstone and democracy, through education citizens understand their rights and duties.
  • National unity – prerequisite for stability and democracy.
  • Free press
  • Economic equality
  • Leadership
  • Tradition – it thrives on democratic traditions and practices. (5×1=mks)

 

  • Factors for Re-introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya.

(i)  Riggins of elections in 1988

(ii)  KANU’S failure to listen to criticism.

  • Influence from Eastern Europe for soviet union.
  • Events in Zambia in 1991
  • Pressure from multi-party activists, civil society, political and legal fraternity.
  • Failure by the government to adopt all recommendations forwarded by the public to Saitoti Review commission (1990)
  • Pressure on the government from donor community to democratize as a condition for aid resumption
  • Repealing of sec 2A of constitution to allow multipartism. (5×2=10mks)

 




HISTORY & GOVERNMENT – PAPER 1

MAKING SCHEME

 

 

 

  1. Basis of the political organization of pre-colonial African communities

– Clan                                                       (1mark)

  1. Main reason why Arabs were interested in Kenyan coast

– Trade                                                      (1mark)

  1. Major exports from the Kenyan coast by 1500

– Slaves, Gold, ivory                                  (2marks)

 

  1. 2 economic activities of the Maasai

– Some Maasai (Kwavi) became agriculturalists

– Some Maasai become traders                      (2marks)

 

  1. Factors which influenced the Abaluyia to become farmers by the beginning of the 19th century

– Possession of iron & iron working skills

– Settlement in areas with suitable climate

– Existence of indigenous crops                     (2marks)

 

  1. Why rivers were not used as a means of transport in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • Some were seasonal
  • Others have rocky bends and waterfalls and therefore are not navigable             (2marks)
  1. Give two reasons why the Africans were denied equal educational opportunities with other races duringthe colonial period
  • Europeans aimed to produce and maintain a semi-skilled labour force.
  • Fear of competition from educated Africans                   (2marks)
  1. Incident that prompted the declaration of the state of emergency in 1952

– The murder of senior chief Warihiu            (1mark)

 

  1. Main problems facing African traders in colonial Kenya.

– Lack of funds

– Competition from Asian Traders   (2marks)

 

  1. Two types of parliamentary communities in Kenya’s parliament

– Committee of the whole house

– Select committee                                       (2marks)

 

  1. Name two social basic problems that the government of Kenya has tried to solve since 1963

– Poverty

-Diseases

-Ignorance

 

  1. Two occasions when the president always attend the National assembly

– When the budget is being read

– Other elections                                          (2marks)

 

  1. Give one reason why parliament is regarded as supreme

– Law making body

-Power to pass a vote of no confidence

– regulates other arms of government            (1mark)

 

  1. The treaty which marked the colonial spheres of influence in East Africa in 1886

– Berlin Treaty

 

  1. Give one function of the judiciary in Kenya

– Interprets the constitution

– Administers justice

 

  1. Name the process through which the citizens of Kenya would vote either, adopt constitution

– Referendum                                          (1mark)

 

  1. Name the first British commissioner who declared Kenya a British protectorate during the 1895

– Sir Arthur Hardinge                                        (1mark)

 

SECTION B – 45MARKS

  1. a) What were the reasons for the construction of the Kenya Uganda railway during the Colonial period.
  • The establish effective control over the British East Africa
  • To stop slave Trade and promote legitimate trade
  • To facilitate the movement of troops and a government administrators
  • To link Uganda with the East Africa coast
  • To exploit the enormous economic potential in the region they had to put up a proper infrastructure.
  • To spread Christianity
  • To respond to the British invasion                                 (1×3=3marks)

 

  1. b) Explain six effects of the construction of the Kenya Uganda railway
  • The coolies who constructed the railway settled in Kenya. They set up shops to serve the interest of the interior; they were referred to as Dukawallas.
  • Indian Rupee was introduced as the first modern currency.
  • Led to the growth of towns e.g. Nairobi, Kisumu, Nakuru, Voi, Eldoret.
  • Its completion led to the coming of white settlers in Kenya.
  • The settlers led to the development of modern plantation farming and introduction of cash crops e.g tea, coffee, etc.
  • African land was alienated for the construction of the railway and European settlement.
  • A number of Africans found employment to supplement the Indian and European employees.
  • The railway stimulated the development of telecommunication systems to the interior.
  • It made social interaction among the African possible.
  • It provided the government with steady source of income
  • It eased transportation it made government control quicker and much more effective.
  • Transfer of the capital to Nairobi this was mid way between Mombasa and L. Victoria
  • It encouraged Christian missionaries to work in Kenya.
  • Construction of the railway line went hand in hand with construction of other means of transport.
    • Led to the growth of African nationalism                         (2×6=12marks)

 

  1. a) Why did the Nandi resist British invasion of their territory between 1896 – 1905
  • Resisted against hut tax.
  • Due to forced labour
  • Alienation of their land
  • Building of the Kenya – Uganda railway, across their territory
  • Wanted to retain the independence
  • The Nandi considered Europeans as devils due to their pale colour & cloths that they wore.
  • The viewed the arrival of the British as a threat to their dominance over the region.
  • Kimnyole an Orkoyo of the Nandi had prophesied that the Nandi would be subdued by foreigners.
  • Successful raids against their neighbours made them to be economically stable.
  • They saw Europeans as competitors who would take away their land.
  • With the death of Koitalei Arap Samoei the Nandi fought more determinedly than before to revenge.                                                   (1×5=5marks)
  1. b) Explain five factors which enabled the Nandi to resist the British invasion for along time
  • Nandi used guerilla tactis
  • The mountainous forested landscape was suitable for the Nandi warriors.
  • They had a very well organized army called pororiet.
  • The army was well disciplined
  • Their mixed economy ensured a reliable supply of food
  • The Nandi got help from the Kipsigis for 6 weeks in 1900.
  • The Nandi had gained valuable military experience from wars with the Maasai and raids on the neighbouring communities
  • The regular supply of food & war equipments sustained thewarriors.
  • They were united.
  • Had able leader called Orkoiyot who was a religious leader and he united them.
  • The Nandi had some knowledge of weapons manufactured, iron smiths repaired weapons & also made others with stolen railway material.
  • Nandi were naturally war life which gave them a lot of self-pride. They were determined not to loose this position of superiority.
  • The regimental age – set system supplied the Nandi with young men who were experienced in battle. (2×5 = 10marks)

 

  1. a) list three factors facilitated urbanization in colonial Kenya
  • The construction of the Uganda railway led to the emergence of a number of urban centres along the railway line
  • Aslains established shops along the railway line.
  • Some of the colonial administrative posts became urban centres such as Nyeri and Kisii
  • Some pre-colonial administrative centres such as Mumias also become urban centres.
  • Mining activities led to the development of urban centres such as Magandi
  • Commercialization of farming also promoted the growth of towns e.g. Eldoret, Nakuru and Nairobi.                                                   (1×3=3marks )
  1. b) Explain six reasons as to why Africans moved to urban centres.
  • People of different ethnic groups interacted. This was important for the development of national consciousness.
  • Africans in urban centres formed welfare associations that acted as a good training ground for political leadership e.g. the Luo union.
  • Many Africans got jobs in urban centres.
  • Some became unemployed and turned to social evils e.g robbery and prostitution.
  • Poverty led to the establishment of slums.
  • Social structures in the rural areas were disrupted by the migration of men.
  • Racial segregation was most rampant in the urban centres.
  • A number of Africans acquired technical skills from the European and Asian Employers
  • Some Africans sold their produce to the urban communities and improved their income.
  • Some Africans in urban centres such as Nairobi and Mombasa converted to Islam.

                                                            (2×6=12marks)

 

  1. a) State five roles played by the Kenya federation of habour during the colonial period
  • Improved the working conditions of workers by lighting for better wages and housing.
  • It kept the spirit of nationalism alive by lighting following the ban on Kenya African union.
  • It secured international support for the cause of nationalism.
  • Following the ban of political parties the trade union articulated the grievances of the Africans.
  • It prepared African nationalists for the struggle for independence e.g. Tom Mboya and Martin Shikuku
  • It educated Africans on their rights.                   1×5=5marks

 

  1. b) Explain five ways through which Thomas Mboya contributed to the struggle for independence in Kenya
  • In 1952 he became a member of the Kenya African Union which was struggling for independence.
  • The ace entrance of dock workers union was his greatest achievement in trade unionism. It made him to be recognized as a national leader.
  • In 1957 he formed the Nairobi people’s convention party through the party he was elected to the legco.
  • In 1958 he and others in legco rejected the lennox-Boijd constitution which had inadequate reforms for Africans.
  • In 1955 he went to study in Ruskin college in England while there he published “The Kenyan question”. An African Answer” in which he argued for egalitarian democracy in Kenya.
  • He traveled in America where he managed to get American trade unionist prvide money to build a Kenyan labour centre.
  • He was party to the formation of KANU and was elected its secretary general in 1960.
  • He in 1960 him and other African leaders attended the first Lancaster house conference.
  • In 1961 in Feb Mboya stood as a KANU candidate for Naiorbi east and won a seat in legco.
  • In 1962 Mboya attended the second Lancaster house conference. It led to a coalition government of KANU & KADU.
  • Mboya became the minister for labour.
  • 1963 Mboya was victorious as a KANU candidate under Kenyatta’s leadership.

(2×5=10marks)

SECTION C

  1. a) Give five advantages of written constitution.
  • They are available
  • They protect the people
  • They provide a legal base for newly independent nations to refer to.
  • They enhance unity in multi-ethnic societies
  • They cannot be changed by those in authority to satisfy their whims / interests                                                                             1×5=5marks
  1. b) Features of the Kenyan constitution.
  • It provides for the independence of the judiciary
  • It provides for the separation of powers in government between the executive, legislative and the judiciary.
  • It provides for the rule of the law i.e. all legal matters are handled in accordance with the law. All citizens are governed by the same law.
  • It provides for the bill of rights i.e. the entitlements of every individual.
  • It can only be amended with parliamentary approval. All constitutions amendments must therefore go through parliament                                                 5×2 = 10marks

 

  1. a) Why are general elections conducted in Kenya every five years
  • To give the citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional right of participating in the democratic process.
  • To give the citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in.
  • To enable people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.
  • Inject new blood into parliament and government
  • To enable sitting M.P’s to be responsible to development needs of the electorate.

–       It is requirement by the constitution.                                                                                1×5=5marks

  1. b) Describe the circumstances which may lead to a by-election in Kenya
  • Death of the current M.P
  • The member ceases to be a Kenyan citizen
  • When a member receives a jail term exceeding 12 months or receives a death penalty from a court of law.
  • The member is proved to have committed an election offence.
  • If a member fails to attend 8 consecutive parliamentary sessions without a valid reason.
  • If a member is declared bankrupt by a court of law.
  • If a member is elected as the speaker of the National assembly.

 

  1. a) Give five symbols of National unity in Kenya
  • The Kenyan flag
  • Constitution
  • Court of arms
  • Kenyan anthem
  • Loyalty pledge
  • National awards                 1×3=3marks
  1. b) Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya
  • Tribalism favours people from one ethnic group in such areas as employment, admission of schools and colleges and allocation of resources.
  • Religious conflicts – people get divided along religious lines and refuse to co-operate due to different beliefs and practices.
  • Racism – it is practiced when one or more races are favoured more than others.
  • Nepotism – favours relatives in the provision of public resources as opposed to reason merit or need.
  • Corruption – misuse of public office for private gain
  • Uneven economic development where some regions are more developed than others. These developed a sense of dissatisfaction and division.
  • Poverty hinders unity because the poor can be exploited by the rich and powerful thus creating a class society where the down trodden are hostile to the elite.
  • Intolerance of divergent views can limit unity especially based on cultural diversity. Those in power molest harass, intimidate or even kill their opponents or critics.                                                                                              2×6=12marks



HISTORY 311/1 marking scheme

 

  1. State two disadvantages of relying on oral traditions as a source of history.

(i)  ability to remember facts may fail.

(ii)  information may be distorted.

(iii)  It may have biases.

(iv)  Information may change over a period of time                    (2×1  =2mks)

  1. Identify two cultural practices which the Agikuyu acquires from the Kamba

(i)  Circumcision.

(ii)  Age set.                                                                                 (2×1 =2mks)

  1. What was the original homeland of the Eastern cushites.

Ethiopian Highlands.                                                                                            (1mk)

  1. What is the basic of the classification of the Nilotic communities in Kenya?

The type of environment each group preferred.                                                    (1mk)

  1. Give two evidences which suggest that there were trade links between East African coast and the outside world.

(i)  Remains of Asratic items e.g pottery.

(ii)  written evidence e.g periplus of the erythrean sea.

(iii)  Remains of Greek and Chinese coins.                                   (2×1 =2mks)

  1. State two economic benefits of the Omans rule along the Kenyan cost during 19th century.

(i)  led to expansion of trade.

(ii)  led to establishment of clove plantations.

(iii)  led to increased Arab settlement.

(iv)  led to expansion of trade in the interior.                                (2×1 =2mks)

  1. Name the missionary society that established a home for feed slaves at the Kenyan coast in the 19th century.

The church missionary society.                                                     (1×1)               (1mk)

  1. Give one way in which rural to rural migrations in Kenya contribute, to national unity.

(i)  Promotes inter ethnic integration.

(ii)  Promotes peaceful coexistence                                               (1×1)               (1mk)

  1. Identify the main reason why the British government brought in the Indian coolies to construct the Kenya – Uganda railway.

Africans lacked technical skills.                                                   (1×1)                (1mk)

  1. Give two reasons why independent schools were established in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i)  Give more opportunities for formal education to Africans

(ii)  Preserve African cultural identity.

(iii)  Facilitate introduction of a more academic curriculum for Africans.

(iv)  Provide job opportunities for African teachers.

(v)  Address discrimination in education system.                   (2×1)                    (2mks)

  1. What ws the main ideological difference between KANU and KADU before independence in 1963?

KANU favored unitarism while KADU favoured federalism.         (1×1)           (1mk)

  1. State two provisions of the independence constitution of Kenya.

(i)  Provided for a federal government.

(ii)  Provided for the position of a prime minister.

(iii)  provided for an executive president.

(iv)  provided two houses of parliament.

(v)  Interest of the minorities were to be safeguarded.           2×1                            (2mks)

  1. Give one way in which a person may become a member of parliament in Kenya

(i)  Through election.

(ii)  Through nomination.

(iii)  Through holding exofficial office.                                  1×1                            (2mks)

  1. State one contribution of the Harambee movement to the development of Health services in Kenya.

(i)  led to construction of health centers.

(ii)  Mobilized people to purchase drugs for the needy.

(iii)  Helped people to seek for specialized treatment.

(iv)  Motivated medical personnel to offer free medical services.   1×1 =1mk)

15.

 

  1. Who is the head of the judiciary in Kenya?

The chief justice.                                                                              1×1                    (1mk)

  1. Give two factors which may undermine the effectiveness of the traffic police in Kenya.

 

  • large number of vehicles on the roads.
  • Poor conditions of many vehicles.
  • Poor remuneration.
  • Corruption/bribery.
  • Lack of public support/confidence.
  • Inadequate facilities.
  • Poor conditions of roads. 2×1                    (2mks)
  1. a) State three ways through which communities in Kenya interacted during the pre-colonial period.

 

  • Exchanged goods/through trade.
  • Raided each other.
  • Fought wars
  • 3×1                    (3mks)
  1. b) Describe the social organization or the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period.

 

  • Smallest social unit was the family.
  • Related families formed a clan (mbari)
  • Practiced circumcision for boys or girls.
  • Had an age – set system (irika) made up of bouss/cirb initiated at the same time.
  • Members of an age set worked together.
  • Marriage was highly regarded.
  • Believed in the existence of a supreme God.
  • Prayed 8 made offerings/sacrifices to God.
  • Believed in the existence of ancestral sprit,
  • Had sacred places of worship.
  • Had specialists such as prophets.             6×2                 (12mks)
  1. a) Outline the stages in the Portuguese conquest of the coastal towns upto 1510.

 

  • In 1500 pedro Aluares cabial attempted to enquirer sofala.
  • In 1502 vasco da Gama attacked Kilwa and demanded tribute.
  • In 1503 Zanzibar and other towns conquered by Ruy hourencho Rauasco
  • In 1505 Mombasa and Kilwa were conquered by Francisco D’
  • Between 1506 – 7 Lamu was conquered by Tristao da Gunha.
  • 1509 Mafra, Pemba and Zanzibar were brought under Portuguese rule. 8×1   (8mks)
  • Explain five factors that led the decline of the Portuguese rule on the Kenya

 

  • Decline of Indian Ocean trade denied them revenue.
  • Official were corrupt.
  • Officers were cruel and useless to the Africans.
  • There were constant rebellions against the Portuguese.
  • Combined attacks from the Persians, Arabs and Turias proved formidable for the Portuguese.
  • Stiff competition from British and the Dutch.
  • They had inadequate personnel to effectively manage expansive coast.
  • They lacked capital to pay the administrators
  • They lacked administrative skills.
  • Her forceful union with spain reduced her autonomy. 6×2                       (12mks)
  1. (a) Three economic reasons why Britain colonized Kenay.

(i)  Establish a reliable market for their manufactured good.

(ii)  To invest surplus capital.

(iii)  To secure source of raw materials.                1×3                                            (3mks)

(b)  Explain Six reasons why Kenyan communities were defeated by the British during the establishment of colonial rule.

 

  • The communities were not united hence easily defeated.
  • They had inferior weapons compared to British superior weapons.
  • The soldiers had little knowledge about the British military tactics.
  • They had been weakened by catastrophes such as famine.
  • The leaders lacked adequate organizational skills of mobilizing people.
  • The British used treachery.
  • The Kenya – Uganda railway facilitated movement of soldiers.
  • African soldiers were demoralized when they saw others being captured and killed.
  • The economic base of the communities was destroyed. 6×2                  (12mks)
  1. (a) Give five factors led to the development of mult-party democracy in Kenya in the 1990s

(i)  International pressure on the government for reboms.

(ii)  Pressure from individuals who had been expelled from KANU

(iii) Existence of people who were ready to push for reforms.

(iv)  Introduction of multi-party democracy in other African countries.

(v)  Discontent within KANU.                                                    3×1                           (3mks)

(b)  Explain how the existence of many parties promotes democracy in Kenay.

  • It promotes freedom of association by providing alternative parties for people.
  • Provides a forum to express their views about how the country should be managed.
  • Makes the country more accountable to the people through constant criticism.
  • Provides checks and balances to abuse to misuse of power by leaders.
  • Provides a system of scrutinizing government expenditure.
  • Makes people feel free to contribute ideas to any aspect of development.
  • Enables people to form political parties without fear.                     (6×2 =12mks)
  1. (a) Name three groups which monitor human right abuse in Kenya.
  • Law enforcement officer.
  • Lawyers and judges.
  • Trade unions.
  • Religious organizations.             (3×1 =3mks)

(b)  Explain Six circumstances which may face the government to limit the rights and freedoms of the individuals.

 

  • if one is convicted of murder or robbery with violence one will be denied right to life.
  • One can be denied freedom of movement if one is suspected to planning to commit a crime.
  • One can be denied freedom to own property if the government wishes to develop public utilities.
  • Freedom of worship can be limited if one uses it to create disunity.
  • Freedom or assembly can be limited is poses a threat to the state.
  • Ones freedom of speech many be limited if one public false accusations.
  • Ones freedom of movement can be limited if one internal security is threatened.
  • If one has an infection disease one can be denied personal liberty. (6×2 =12mks)

 

  1. a) Identify three parliamentary duties of president.

  

  • Forms government after elections.
  • To summon parliament.
  • To open parliament.
  • To give assent to bill
  • To dissolve parliament.
  • To prorogue parliament.          (  3×1 =3mks)
  • Six difficulties Jomo Kenyatta faced after becoming the president of Kenya.
  • Persistent lack of funds to run the country.
  • Widespread poverty disease of ignorance.
  • Many Kenyans lacked skill, to provide sufficient manpower.
  • Poor transport and communication system in the country.
  • Divided opinions on land policy.
  • Opposition from KADU over unitary state verses federal state,
  • Political assassinations e.g Tom Mboya.
  • Existence of banditry in Northern frontier .
  • Divided cabinet.
  1. a) Three types of taxes paid by Kenyans.
  • Service charge.
  • Income tax
  • Withholding tax
  • Custom duties/Airport tax
  • Excise duty.
  • Sales tax/V.A.T            ( 3×1 =3mks)

(b)  Six ways in which the government uses its taxes.

  • Maintaining government facilities.
  • Initiates new developments/projects.
  • Financing recurrent government expenditure.
  • Subsidies public services e.g education.
  • Servicing loans borrowed by government.
  • Financing security expenditure.
  • Paying subscriptions to international bodies.
  • Meeting emergency needs.                              ( 6×2 =12mks)



HISTORY 311/1 marking scheme

 

  1. State two disadvantages of archaeology as source of information on history and government of Kenya.
  2. i) Time consuming.
  3. ii) Too expensive.
  • iii) Hard to locate ideological sites.                      (2mks)

 

  1. Name two communities that belong to the western Bantu speakers.
  2. i)
  3. ii)
  • iii)
  1. iv) (2mks)

 

  1. State two ways through which iron technology assisted in the migration and settlement of the Bantu.
  2. i) Weapons – conquer other communities.
  3. ii) Tools – clear land/way for settlement/migration/farming. (1mk)

 

  1. Why did seggid said more in capital from Muscat to Zanzibar.
  2. i) Zanzibar was royal to him.
  3. ii) Zanzibar had fertile soils.
  • iii) The climate of Zanzibar was warm and cool.
  1. iv) Zanzibar was centrally placed – to control trade. –                         (2mks)

 

  1. Identify two communities that showed mixed reaction towards the British as they occupied Kenya
  2. i) Agikuyu
  3. ii) The Luo
  • iii) The Akamba. (2mks)

 

  1. Who was the first representative of the Africans in the Legco during colonial period.

–  Dr. Arthur.                                                                                                                          (1mk)

  1. What made the East African Association different from the other early associations that were formed in Kenya during colonial period. (1mk)

–  It was nation wide.

 

  1. Identify two educational Associations that were formed in central Kenya during colonial period.

(2mks)

KISA – Kikuyu  independent schools association.

KKEA – Kikuyu karinaga Educational Association.

 

  1. State two roles that were played by the Africans in the medical field during colonial period.(2mks)
  2. i) Africans who were Christians were trained as dressers.
  3. ii) Chiefs campaigned for western medicine through Baraza’s.
  • iii) Taxes were obtained from the local people to improve medical field.

 

  1. Why did KANU refuse to form a government after the 1961 elections in Kenya (1mk)

–  On condition that Jomo Kenyatta be released first.

  1. Name the central oathing committee that was set up to co-ordinate oathing activities of the male freedom fighters. –  Muhimu                                                                                       (1mk)
  2. Identify one types of citizenship in Kenya.

–  Birth right citizenship.

–  Dual citizenship                                                                                                                               (1mk)

  1. Which body supervises the electrol process in Kenya.

IEBC – Independent Electoral and Boundaries commission.

  1. What in meant by devolution of power in Kenya.

–  Decentralization of power.

  1. What are the roles of Director of Public prosecution in Kenya.
  2. i) Investigate any in formation.
  3. ii) Institute or undertake criminal proceedings commenced in any court.
  • iii) Discontinue a case before judgment is delivered.
  1. iv) Safeguard public interest of abstract and met to avoid abuse. (2mks)

 

  1. Give one achievement of the local nature councils formed in Kenya in 1924
  2. i) Collection of taxes.
  3. ii) Maintain basic intrastate.
  • iii) Provision of basic social needs e.g water, cattle dips.
  1. iv) Restated African activities e.g political agitation. (2mks)
  2. What is promulgation of constitution? – Passing of the new constitution in public.

 

SECTION B

Answer any three questions from the section in the answer booklet provided.

  1. a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Bantu from their original homeland into Kenya.
  2. i) Population increase/pressure.
  3. ii) External attacks.
  • iii) Internal conflicts.
  1. iv) Adventure/Exploration.
  2. v) Nature calamities e.g drought.
  3. vi) Epidemics e.g diseases.
  • vii) Were formers – in search of fertile lands.
  • Iron workers – weapons – to attack other communities.

–  Tools – to clear land for settlement.                                             (5×1 = 5mks)

  1. b) Explain the political organization of the Akikuyu.
  2. i) Were organized in clans – ridges.
  3. ii) Clans were autonomous – but came together incase of a common enemy.
  • iii) Mad council of elders-
  1. iv) The council of elders played roles like maintaining law and order solving disputes etc.
  2. v) Under went initiation and formed age-sets that were forces of warriors who protected the community.
  3. vi) Council of elders formed a higher council called kiama kia Athamaki – acted as a court of appeal.
  • vii) Senior elder (Muramati) co-ordinate the activities of the clan or ‘Mbari’
  • Had a decentralized form of government. (10mks)

 

  1. a) State three reasons why the Akamba were involved in the long Distance Trade in Kenya
  2. i) They were centrally positioned to act as middle men.
  3. ii) Unfavourable climatic condition – only economic activity therefore was trade.
  • iii) Availability of trade goods.
  1. iv) Existence of trade routes.
  2. v) Demand for some commodities of trade.
  3. vi) Existence of enterprising local traders among the Akamba. (3×1 = 3mks)
  4. b) Six effects of the long Distance Trade between the East African coast and the interior of East Africa.
  5. i) Welfare among communities intensified due to the need to obtain slaves.
  6. ii) It attracted European visitors, who ultimately colonized East Africa.
  • iii) Emergence of a class of wealthy merchants along the coast and interior e.g Kivoi of Ukambani.
  1. iv) Introduction of new crops to East Africag rice.
  2. v) Increased volume of local and regional trade in the East African interior.
  3. vi) Growth of towns e.g Mombasa, lamu, pemba, kilwa.
  • vii) Spread of Islam into the interior by Arab trade area.
  • Development of a money economy that replaced barter trade.
  1. ix) Led to the development of plantation agriculture.
  2. x) Emergence of strong kingdoms e.g wanga, Yao and Nyamwezi. (12mks)

 

  1. Give five reasons why the Maasai collaborated with the British.
  2. i) Need for protection from enemies – Nandi.
  3. ii) Civil wars – Purko/Kwavi – had weakened them.
  • iii) Succession disputes.
  1. iv) Natural calamities, drought and famine weakened them.
  2. v) Lenana wanted to consolidate his position and that of his kingdom by collaborating with the British.
  3. vi) Lenana needed food to save his people from starvation.
  • vii) Wanted to be helped to get back their women and children taken by Agikuyu during the 1891 famine.                                                                                                                      (5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) What were the results of the Maasai collaboration with the British?
  2. i) Land alienation.
  3. ii) Loss of independence.
  • iii) Masaai – used by the British to conquer the resisting communities.
  1. iv) Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief of the Maasai economic activities were destructed.
  2. v) Purko Maasai were divided into two sections Loitai and Ngong.
  3. vi) Their freedom to conduct rituals was limited.
  • vii) Were rewarded with livestock taken from other communities.
  • Good relationship existed between the Maasai and British. (10 mks)

 

  1. a) What were the demands of AEMO during colonial period in Kenya.
  2. i) More Africans to the Legco.
  3. ii) Against racial discrimination.
  • iii) Release of nationalists who had been detained.
  1. iv) Independence be granted.
  2. v) Voting rights – be given to all adults of 21 years and above.
  3. vi) Release of datelines.
  • vii) Increase in wages.
  • Separates rule for Africans and Asians to be abolished.
  1. ix) Abolition of discrimination based on races.
  2. b) Explain five constitutional changes leading to independence in Kenya.
  3. i) Election of Africans to the legco e.g Eliud mathu 1944, B.A Ohango 1946, 1957 elections etc.
  4. ii) The lyftleon constitution.
  • iii) Multi-racial council of minister 1st African minster.
  1. iv) Elections – 1957 – Africans elected to Legco.
  2. v) The lennox Boyd constitution – Africans increased 8-14 special members to Legco.
  3. vi) The 1st Lancester House conference increased Africans 14-33 1960 – emergency lifted – National parties allowed – KANU – KANDU
  • vii) The second Lancaster house conference drafted the independence constitution.
  • 1961 – 1st General election – KANU won-refused to form the government till Kentatta was release. KANDU did so with Ngala as leader of government business.
  1. ix) KANDU/KANU formed a coalition government – Ngala and Kenyatta became leader.
  2. x) 1st June 1963 – self government Kenyatta – 1st prime minister.
  3. xi) December, 12th 1963, Kenya attained full independence.

 

  1. a) state three ways of becoming a Kenyan citizen
  2. i) Citizenship by birth.
  3. ii) Citizenship by marriage.
  • iii) Citizenship by naturalization.
  1. iv) Children found in Kenay and adopted children.
  2. v) Dual citizenship. (3mks)
  3. b) Explain any Six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen
  4. i) Acquire a basic understanding of the provisions of the constitution and promote its ideals and objectives.
  5. ii) Respect, uphold and defend the constitution and the law.
  • iii) Promote democracy, good governance and the rule of law.
  1. iv) Vote in elections and refenda.
  2. v) Faster national unity and live in harmony with others.
  3. vi) Co-operate with law enforcement agencies for maintenance of law and order.
  • vii) Pay taxes.
  • Not to engage in corruption.
  1. ix) Engage in work for common good and contribute to national development.
  2. x) Develop skills through acquisition of knowledge, continuous learning and the development of skills.
  3. xi) Contribute of welfare and advancement of the community.
  • xii) Promote family life and welfare and act responsibly in the context of family. (12mks)

 

  1. a) Give three symbols of National unity.
  2. i) National Anthem.
  3. ii)
  • iii) Court of Arms.
  1. iv) National awards. (3mks)
  2. b) Explain the importance of National unity in Kenya.
  3. i) Promotes political stability.
  4. ii) Reduces fear, suspicion and civil strife.
  • iii) It gives the country a sensor of national direction enabling citizens to develop national goals.
  1. iv) Creates a conducive climate that attracts foreign investment.
  2. v) It facilitates efficient communication through out the country.
  3. vi) It promotes nationalism, patriotism, loyalty and food citizenship.
  • vii) Promotes collective responsibility when tackling issues of national importance e.g calamities – floods.
  • Promotes peaceful – co-existence of different tribes and races/tolerance on one another.
  1. ix) It fosters socio-economic development by creating an enabling environment e.g tribalism.
  2. x) Development of national unity by crating a state of being together in spite of the diversity pf the communities.
  3. xi) Protect and safeguard public property from waste and miscue.
  • xii) Protect the environment and conserve natural resources.
  • Understand and enhance the republic’s place in international community.            (12mks)

 

  1. a) State five factors that make it difficult for the prisons department in Kenya to work effectively.
  2. i) Congestion leading, to out break of diseases.
  3. ii) Inadequate food, medical facilities and clothing for inmates.
  • iii) Some inmates have become hardened thus difficult to rehabilitate.
  1. iv) Corruption in prisons has forced some prisoners to pay so as to get better services.
  2. v) Shortage of trained counselors to assist in reforming the inmates effectively.
  3. vi) Inadequate number of prison warders leads to over working hence brutal handling of prisoners.
  • vii) Inadequate finances has led to poor services such as food.
  • Increased number of prisoners has led to poor living conditions.
  1. ix) Political interference.
  2. x) Inadequate facilities e.g vehicles. (5mks)
  3. b) What has the government of Kenya done to improve the situation in prisons?
  4. i) Prisoners have decent uniform.
  5. ii) There has been a change and improved diets in prisons.
  • iii) Improved living and sanitary conditions.
  1. iv) Allowing visits by spouses among married prisoners.
  2. v) An allowance of Kshs. 60 per day for work done while in prisons to be given to prisoners.
  3. vi) Prisoners watch, read and listen to news.
  • vii) Distance learning from Strathmore collage to enable them study accounts etc.
  • Provision of computer technology to the prisoners.
  1. ix) for KNEC examinations Pr. Sec.                                                                (10mks)



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT – PAPER 1

 

MARKING SCHEME

 

SECTION A (25MARKS)

  1. Give two limitations of using archeology as a source of history and Government
  2. It is very expensive eg to excavate and laboratory analysis
  3. Dating methods eg carbon is inaccurate hence unreliable
  • It is time consuming
  1. It is difficult to locate historical site
  2. There are very few archeological experts in Kenya (2 x 1)

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. State two reasons for Akamba active participation in the long distance trade
  2. Ukambani is geographically centrally located between the coast and the interior
  3. Akamba had long trade experience eg those of Machakos and Kitui
  • Most of the ukambani land is dry and with low rainfall and since the agriculture was not productive they opted for trade.
  1. Had enterprising merchant leaders eg chief Kivoi (2 x 1 mks)

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. State the theory which explains the origin of the Kenyan communities

Mythical theory (1 x 1= 1mk)

  1. Name two examples of the Southern cushites who settled in Kenya
  2. Dahallo (sanye)
  3. Boni

Any 2 x 1 = 2mk

  1. Give two pre-historic sites in Kenya where cremated remains of human beings were discovered during the late stone age period
  2. Hyrax Hile
  3. Njoro River cave

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Give the most significant aspect of the Nandi social organization

Age set system

  1. Which two trade items were obtained by the Romans in the Kenyan Coast by 1500AD
  2. Ivory
  3. Rhinocerous Horns
  • Slaves

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Which was the main negative result of plantation agriculture during the sultan-ship of Seyyid Said

Increased slave trade as slaves were used in the plantation (1 x 1 = 1mk)

  1. State two reasons that may lead to deprivation of freedom of expression to a Kenyan citizen
  2. If one uses the freedom to incite others against the government
  3. If one discloses states secrets
  • If one defames others eg propaganda
  1. If one uses insultive or obscene language in public

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Which is the main disadvantage of using negotiation as a method of conflict resolution
  • It is time consuming to reach an agreement (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  1. Give two aims of Taita hills association during colonial period
  2. To get back their land taken away by the colonial government
  3. To eradiate forced labour on coffee plantations

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Identify the main source of national philosophies adopted at independence

African socialism

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Who is the chief executive officer of the county government

The governor (1 x 1= 1mk)

  1. Name the parastatal in charge of tax collection in Kenya

Kenya revenue authority (KRA)

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Why was Prof. Wangari Maathai awarded the Nobel peace prize in the year 2004

Because of her contributions to sustainable development, democracy and peace

(1x 1 = 1mk)

  1. State the document that contains the rights of the child

United Nations convention on the rights of the child           (1 x 1 = 1mk)

 

  1. State the two oaths administered during the Agiryama resistance to foster unity
  2. Mukushekushe oath – women
  3. Fisi oath – men

2 x 1 = 2mks

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. a)Identify three cultural practices which the Bantu acquired from the cushites
  2. Circumcision
  3. Cliteridectomy
  • Ceremonial dances
  1. Age set system
  2. Not eating fish (1 x 3 = 3mks)
  3. b) Discuss six social organizations of the Agikuyu in the 19th century
  4. The family was the most important basic social unit
  5. Several families made a clan
  • Boys and girls were initiated into adulthood at puberty through circumcision
  1. They worshipped one God (Ngai)
  2. They had diviners and medicine men
  3. They had special places of worship eg under a mugumo tree
  • Priests offered prayers through ancestral spirits
  • Offered sacrifices to their God

(2 x 6 = 12mks)

  1. a) Give five reasons which led to the coming of the Oman Arabs to the East African Coast
  2. control the coastal towns/establish political control
  3. Trade
  • Enjoy pleasant climate
  1. Place was secure eg Zanzibar is an island
  2. Good fertile soil for growing cloves
  3. To assist in ending Portuguese rule
  • Deep natural harbours
  • Adequate water
  1. To spread Islam

1 x 5 = 5mks

  1. b) Describe how Seyyid Said contributed towards development of international trade along the Kenyan Coast in the 19th century
  2. He encouraged foreign traders to trade along the coast
  3. He signed trade agreements with Europeans and USA to promote foreign trade
  • He invited Indian Banyans to settle along East African coast and trade
  1. He created political stability along the coast conducive to international trade
  2. He established and organized long distance trade to the interior to provide items for international trade
  3. He financed some Arab and foreign traders who participated in the international trade
  • He established plantation Agriculture which produced commodities for international trade eg cloves
  • He provided security for slave traders thus intensified trade with outside world (5 x 2 = 10mks)
  1. a) State five grievances of the Africans in Kenya during the colonial period
  2. Land alienation
  3. Forced labour
  • Heavy taxation
  1. Lack of representation in legco
  2. Poor quality education
  3. Kipande system
  • Description in all field (1 x 5 = 5mks
  1. b) Explain five reasons why Nandi resistance failed
  2. The British were supported by some local communities eg maasai and Somali
  3. The British had superior weapons compared to the Nandi
  • The British used tricks against the Nandi eg tricked samoei and killed him
  1. Use of scorched earth policy by the British against the Nandi
  2. Natural calamities like small pox and drought weakened the Nandi
  3. The killing of their leader Koitale Arap Samoei demoralised the Nandi
  • The Nandi neighbours like luo and luhya did not help them.
  1. a) State five external factors that accelerated struggle for independence in Kenya between 1945-1963
  2. The grantic of independence in India and Pakistan in 1947 motivated Kenyan nationalists to struggle for independence
  3. The Atlantic charter signed during the world war II advocated for self-determination of all subject people
  • The spirit of pan-Africanism spearheaded by pan-Africanists encouraged African nationalists to claim for political independence
  1. The labour party that came to power in Britain after world war favoured decolonization
  2. The emergence of the united states and former USSR also encouraged decolonization
  3. The establishment of united nations after world war II advocated the grading of independence
  • The participation of Africans in the 2nd world war helped them to discover feelings of European and that Europeans are not superior to Africans 1 x 5 = 5mks
  1. b) Explain the methods used by the colonial government to discourage the activities of mau mau
  2. Many people were arrested
  3. The armed forces were used to suppress the increment
  • They killed/executed the activitist / mau mau leaders
  1. They used traitors and spies to reveal hiding grounds of the fighters.
  2. People were put in concentration camps to curtain their movement
  3. Kenya African Union (KAU) was banned
  • Independent schools were closed down
  • State of emergency was declared
  1. The government tortured mau mau supporters (5 x 2 = 10mks

 

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1. a) Why is national integration encouraged in Kenya
  2. For promotion of peaceful co-existence
  3. It enhances the achievement of national goals
  • It reduces ethnic tension and suspicion
  1. To facilitate national development
  2. It enhances easier and efficient communication in the country
  3. It facilitates equitable distribution of resources in the country (1 x 5 = 5mks
  4. b) Explain the methods of conflict resolutions applied by the Kenyan society today
  5. Negotiation – dialogue between two warning parties and solve their conflict
  6. Arbitration – A neutral person is chosen to solve the conflict                                   Helps reach an acceptable decision
  • Mediation – a person who is not involved in the conflict tries to help them
  1. Cart settlement process
  2. Reconciliation bring the waving parties together to resolve their conflict
  3. Out of court settlement – Agreeing to settle the conflict outside court system eg use of traditional methods
  • Administrative machinery process/use of leaders/government officers eg Chiefs, D.Os ets
  1. a)identify three ways through which one can become a member of parliament in Kenya
  2. Election
  3. Nomination
  • Ex-official (1 x 3 = 3mks)
  1. b) How is parliamentary supremacy exercised in Kenya
  2. Parliament is the law making body of the land. It makes amends and repeals law
  3. It can pass a vote of no confidence in the president and the government
  • Can limit the powers of the executive by amending the constitution
  1. Ministers are accountable to parliament for the activities of their ministries
  2. Bills prepared by the cabinet have to be legislated by parliament
  3. Approves government revenue and expenditure. (6 x 2 = 12mks)
  4. a) Which five factors are likely to undermine the performance of the county government
  5. some are too poor to raise their own sufficient revenue
  6. The high population in some countries will strain the available resources
  • Many individuals and organizations evade payment of required levies
  1. Misappropriation of funds and corruption
  2. Conflicts among elected county leader
  3. Too much control by the central government
  • Some counties are too small to operate effectively

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. b) Explain five demerits of democracy
  2. It promotes dictatorship by majority
  3. It encourages class struggle and corruption
  • A democratic government is often slow and wasteful. Consultations have to be made when making decisions
  1. It is not easy to find an honest and sincere man of good moral character being elected
  2. It may perpetuate incompetence. The leadership qualities that a candidate seeking elections may posses are not usually taken into account
  3. Although democracy is regarded as the rule of majority, un practice it is the elected minority who rule, hence dictatorship of minority

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks




HISTORY 311/1  

Marking scheme

 

SECTION A 25 MARKS.

 

  1. What is political history? 1 mk

It is the study of famouls political leaders and their systems of government.

1×1 = 1 mk

 

  1. State two disadvantages of Anthopology as a source of hispirical informations. (2mks)

 

  • Difficulty in adapting fully to the (community being studied.
  • Risk of loosing one’s own culture.
  • Some people may behave differently in the presence of the anthropologist.
  • It is costly/involves too much traveling.
  • It is time consuming.

 

Any 2×1 = 2mks.

  1. Identify the main economic activity of the cushites during the pre-colonial period.

 

  1. i) Pasturalism /livestock keeping. 1×1 = mk

 

  1. Name the dominant Kenya community in the long distance trade.

 

  1. i) The Akamba. 1×1 = 1mk

 

  1. Identify two European Natrons that vivalled the Portuguese for the control of the Kenyan Coast in the 16th Century

 

  1. British
  2. Dutch
  1. Gemans
  2. Tusks

 

Any 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. State two negative effects of missionary activities in Kenya.

 

  1. Erosion of African culture.
  2. It enhanced colonial activities in Kenya.

2×1 = 2mks

  1. Name two communities which resusted the British occupation of Kenya.

 

  1. Agiriama
  2. Bukusu
  • Somali

 

Any 2×1 = 2 mks

 

  1. State the main reason why poll tabe was introduced in Kenya during the colonial period.

 

  1. i) To force the Africans to work on European settles farms/forced labour.

 

1×1 = 1mk

  1. Give two demands of African created members organization (AEMO).

 

  1. Increase of African representation in the Legco.
  2. They demanded that every African of 21 yrs old be allowed to vote.
  • Demanded that registration of voters be done on common will.
  1. They called for an end to the state of emergency.

 

2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Name the personality who was behind the formation of Kavirondo tax payers Association.

 

  1. i) Archdeacon/Bishop owen                                        1 mk

 

  1. Give two methods used by trade unionists to demand for their rights during the colonial period.

 

  1. Strikes/viots
  • Go –slows/sit ins
  1. Demonstration

 

  1. Outline two roles played by the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU) in the struggle for independence in Kenya.

 

  1. It united the smaller communities in Kenya.
  2. It educated/mobilized Africans against colonial domination.
  • It pressed for the release of Jomo Kenyatta and other political detainees.
  1. It participated in the drawing up of the independence constitution.(Majimbo constitution) 2×2 = 2mks.

 

  1. State two social challenges facing the implementation of free Education in Kenya.

 

  1. Over enrollment in school
  2. In adequate facilities.
  • In adequate personal/teachers.
  1. Corruption (mismanagement of funds)
  2. Cultural practices and beliefs e.g female circumcision and early marriages.

 

Any 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. How many countries are there in Kenya

 

47 (fourty seven countries.)

1×1 = 1mk

  1. Mention any two basic functions of prison sentence.

 

  1. Rehabilitation of offenders.
  2. Punishing the offenders.
  • Temporal removal of those who pose threat from the society.
  1. Retribution/justice/revenge.

 

Any 2×1 = 2mks

16  Who appoints the head of the civil service in Kenya.

 

  1. i) The president.

1×1 = 1mk

 

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

 

Answer any three questions in the section.

 

  1. a) Give three reasons which led to the migration of the Cushites from their original homeland into Kenya during the pre-colonial period.

 

  1. They moved in search of pasture and water for their livestock.
  2. There was drought and famine in their original homeland.
  • The out break of diseases and epidemics in their original homeland.
  1. Clan /family fends/conflicts/disputes.
  2. To escape from external attacks from their neneighbours.
  3. Due to population pressure hence search for land for settlement.
  • They moved due to spirit of adventure.

 

Any 3×1 = 3mks

  1. b) Explain Six results of interaction between the Bantu, and the Cushites during the pre-colonial period.

 

  1. Intermarriages
  2. Some Bantus copied customs from the Cushites e.g circumcision and age set systems.
  • Some Bantu adopted Islamic religion from the Cushite e.g coastal Bantu.
  1. Bantu and Cushites rounded each other for cattle, hence loss of life and property/warfare.
  2. The cushites attacked the Bantu which led to further migration(displacement).
  3. Cushite and Bantu exchanged goods which led to the development of trade.
  • Some cushites were absorbed assimilation by the Bantu.

 

Any 6 points x2 = 12mks.

  1. Identify any five positive impact of the Portuguese role along the Kenya Cost.

 

  1. Enriched Kiswahili language by adding some words e.g mirinyo, meza etx.
  2. Introduced Christianity along the coast that led to the foundation of future spread of Christianity.
  • Introduced cuchitectural designs along the coast e.g Fort Jesus.
  1. Introduced new crops e.g yellow maize guavas.
  2. Introduced the use of manure.
  3. Introduced new foreign goods into Kenya.
  • Opened Kenya to the outside world.
  • Construction of hostrocal monuments e.g Fort Jesus and Vasco da Gama pillar.                      5×1 = 5mks

 

  1. b) Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule along the Kenya

 

  1. Decline of Indian Ocean trade denied them revenue to support their administrative activities.
  2. Portuguese official were corrupt and pocketed funds meant for managing their trade empire.
  • Portuguese officers were cruel worthless to Africans and Arabs who resented their rule.
  1. There were constant rebellion against the Portuguese rule that weakened their control.
  2. The attacks from persons, Arabs and Tucks weakened them militarily.
  3. Faced stiff competition from the British and Dutch which reduced their profits.
  • The portugue had inadequate personnel to manage their last trade empire.
  • Portugal lacked capital/inadequate to pay administrators demoralized them.
  1. They lacked administrative stalls hence unable to rule effectively.
  2. Portugal was forcefully united with Spain that reduced her autonomy.
  3. They were attacked by wazimba that reduced their population..   5×2 = 10mks
  4. a) Identify three communities who had mixed reactions to the colonial government.

 

  1. Kamba
  2. Luo
  • Kikuyu
  1. Luhya

 

3×1 = 3mks

 

  1. b) Explain why Kenyan communities were rejected by the British during the establishment of colonial rule.

 

  1. Disunity among the community hence easily defeated.
  2. Communities had inferior weapons as compared to the British superior weapons.
  • Soldiers had little knowledge about the British military tactics.
  1. Their population had been reduced by carastrophens e.g famine, rindepest and civil strifes.
  2. Their leaders lacked adequate organization skills to mobilize people.
  3. The British used theachery when dealing with some communities/collaboration.
  • The economic bade of communities destroyed by the british thus making them weak.
  • Soldiers were demoralized when many African warriors were captured/scotched earth policy.
  1. Kenya Uganda rawlway facilitated faster movement of the British troops.

 

Any 6×2 = 12 mks

 

  1. Give five reasons why Africans started independent schools and churches in Kenya during the colonial period.

 

  1. To provide more educational opportunities for Africans.
  2. To have asay/control of what was taught in their schools.(offer quality educations.)
  • Keep aiway European missionary influence in their schools.
  1. Preserve their cultural heritage/values.
  2. Create job opportunities for educated Africans.
  3. Sensitise Africans on the evils of colonialison.
  • Provide African leadership in African independent churches and schools.

 

Any 5×2 = 10 mks

 

  1. b) Explain five challenges by African independent churches and schools during the colonial era.

 

  1. Lack of funds for providing facilities and services in both schools and churches.
  2. They exposed opposition from main stream churches from Europe.
  • I.S lacked reaching facilities since Africans were poor.
  1. African independent schools lacked enough personnel (trained teachers)
  2. The colonial government was against African independent schools and churches hence bad colonial policies against them.
  3. Tribalism/ethnicity also interfered with African independent churches and schools since they were tribal based e.g Nomiya.

 

Any 5×2 = 10mks.

 

SECTION 30 MARKS.

Answer any two questions in this section.

 

  1. a) Identify five principles of Democracy.

 

  1. Citizen participation in gorvernance of the state is the essential role of citizens in a democracy.
  2. Equality of all people before the law.
  • Freedom of speech, debate and enquiry.
  1. An open and accountable mass media.
  2. Economic democracy ie. Decentralization of economic power to individuals and communities.
  3. Control of abuse of power it should be possible to perish abusers of power.
  • Accountability i.e elected and appointed officials have to be accountable to the people.
  • Regular free and fair elections.
  1. Pheralism g political parties.
  2. Transparency i.e government has to sisclose information.
  3. Recognition and respect of human rights, rule of law and individuals freedom.

 

Any 5×1 = 5mks.

 

  1. b) Explain five methods of resolving conflicts in Kenya

 

  1. Negotiation
  2. Arbitration
  • Mediation
  1. Court settlement
  2. Diplomacy
  3. Traditional African resolution
  • Religious actions.
  • Policing is used in serious conflicts.

 

Any 5×2 = 10 mks

  1. a) What weree the three main features of the independence constitution of Kenya.

 

  1. It provided for the establishment of a federal government.
  2. It spell out that the party with majority to form the government after genral election.
  • It spelt out the rights and obligations of individual
  1. It provides for the establishment of national assembly consisting of the senate and house of representatives.
  2. It provides for a position/post of prime minister to head the government and a governor general to head the state.
  3. It spelt out power and responsibilities of the central government and regional government.
  • It established regional government with regional assemblies and predients.
  • It divided responsibilities between regional and central government.

 

Any 3×1 = 3mks

  1. b) Describe the political developments in Kenya since Independence

 

  1. Kenya became a republic with president as the head of state and government in 1964.
  2. KANU and KADU merged to form one political party in 1964.
  • In 1966 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga formed Kenya peoples union KPU i.e adoption of multi parism.
  1. In the same year parliament introduces public security Act that allows president to detain people in public interests.
  2. In 1965 pints pio Gama was assassinated that there aterned the security of the government of Kenya.
  3. In 1978, Kenya died and Moi succeeded him as the second president of the republic of Kenya.
  • In 1982 coup de tat overtarowned the government of Moi and Kenya became a single party state by law.
  • In 1987 number of constituencies were increased from 158 to 188 and constituency boundaries were also changed.
  1. In 1969 Tom Mboya was assassinated that excretive of security of Kenya
  2. In 1975 TM, Kariukai was murdered and this mutilated body found in Ngeng forest that threatened the security of Kenya
  3. In 1990 Hon John Rouks was murdered that rsulted strikes and xlashes between people and police in major towns in Kenya.
  • In 1991, Re introduction of muti particism by the repeal of section 2 A of Kenya constitution.
  • In 1992 first multi party election was held that attracted 23 presidential aspirants but KANU won the election of 1992.
  • In 2002, elections KANU was defeated by NARC that formed the new government.
  1. In 2005, Kenya held their first constitutional referendum which was defeated.
  • In 2007, General elections resulted in violence that resulted in death of over 1500 people that was mediated by Kofi Anan hence the signing of the national Accord that led to the formation of a coalition government between Kibaki and Raila as president and prime minister.
  • In 2010 August 24th, second Referendum was held that approved the new constitution that come up written devolve government and power.

 

Any 12×1= 12mks

 

  1. a( Identify five functions of the police force in Kenya

 

  1. To arrests the respected criminals and prosecute them.
  2. To entertain the public during the public holidays.
  • To offer security to important people and public.
  1. To guard national boarders post.
  2. To involves in rescue missions and relied operations.
  3. To control the flow of the traffic i.e police traffic.
  • To investigate criminal activities.
  • To maintains law, peace and order in the country.

 

Any 5×1 = 5mks

 

  1. b) Explain five factors which make it difficult for the prison department in Kenya to work effectively

 

  1. poor living conditions of intonates
  2. poor equipments/vehicles etc.
  • congestion in prisons/inadequate number of prison warders.
  1. High crime rates/escape of inmates from the prisons.
  2. Corruption in prisons/increase in the numbers of prisoners.
  3. In efficiency in judiciary that resulted in the increase in reminders.
  • Poor remuneration of prison waders.
  • Poor housing and working conditions of prisons waders.
  1. Increase in deaths due to HIV/AIDS/typhoid that claimed the lives of inmates.
  2. Some intonates have become hardened hence difficult to rehabilitate.

Any 5×2 = 10mks




HISTORY& GVT 311/1 MARKING SCHEM RACH

SECTION A – 25 MKS

 

  1. Functions of council of Elders among the Akamba.
  • Maintained law and order.
  • Settled disputes.
  • Presided over religions functions.
  • Declared times of social functions e.g initiation.
  • – Declared war and made peace with other communities                                          2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Economic activities of the Khoisan
  • Hunting
  • Gathering

 

  1. Functions of the orkoiyot in the pre-colonial Nandi community.
  • Presided over religions functions like sacrifices.
  • Blessed worriers before going to war.
  • He was chief medicine man in the community
  • He was seen in the community.
  • He was chief rainmaker in the community. 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Reasons why chief Baraza is important in Kenya
  • It was where the government policy concerning the people were spelt.
  • It was where elders discussed matters affecting their areas.
  • Was used to mobilize local communities to support local projects.
  • Was used to settle minor disputes in communities. 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Occasions when the president must attend parliament.
  • At the initial opening of parliament after mps elect a speaker.
  • When Budget is being read.

 

  1. Main Role of the Kenya  Anti-Corruption commission.
  • To investigate to recommend for prosecution of corruption cases/To combat corruption in the country.

 

  1. One Kenyan community that dispersed from Mt. Elgon.
    • The Luhya
    • The Abagusii
    • The Abakuria
    • The Abasuba.                                                                                                1×1 = 1mk
  1. Ways in which the British controlled the movement of Africans to the Urban areas during the colonial period.
  • The use of Kipanole that restricted them to urban areas.
  • The use of Forced labour that confined them in reserves. 2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. The document that defines the rights of the child.
  • United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child.                                                          1×1 = 1mk

 

 

 

  1. One External source of government Revenue in Kenya.
  • Foreign Aid i.e Bilateral/multi-lateral Aid.
  • Grants from donor countries.
  • Loans from IMF, world bank and friendly countries.                                                       2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Counties Kenya is divided into under the new constitution are:- 47 (Forty Seven).               1×1= 1mk

 

  1. one parliamentary committee
  • Public Accounts committee (PAC)
  • Public investment committee (plc)
  • Committee of supply
  • Committee of ways and means
  • Committee of Lord and Natural Resources.
  • Committee of Foreign affairs and Defence.
  • Committee of Agriculture.
  • Committee of Fironice
  • Legal committee
  • Budget committee                                                                      2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. Functions of African welfare organizations in the colonial perod.
  • To fight for the wellbeing of Africans.
  • To fight for the economic empowerment of Africans.
  • To cater for their social needs e.g entertainments.                          2×1 = 2mks
  1. Meaning of the term ‘Referendum’
  • It’s the expression of views on an issue by every adult voter through casting ballots/votes. 1×1=1mk

 

  1. Two Economic factors that led to the re-introduction of multi-partyism in Kenya in 1991
  • Rampant corruption in the government.
  • Pressure from foreign donors e.g USA, Britain etc.
  • Economic hardship in the country.                                    2×1 = 2mks

 

  1. a) Outline three reasons why there was an increased demand for slaves.
  2. Establishment of more plantation e.g clove/coconut at the coast.
  3. Need for more domestic labourers by Arab coastal dwellers.
  • Demand for slave labourer in Arab/Persia and in Islamic world.
  1. Due to expansion of sugar plantation in Indian Ocean Islands.
  2. Slaves is ever self-transporting and highly profitable. Any three above, 3×1 = 3mks

 

  1. b) Explain Six effects of the slave trade on African communities in Kenya.
  • The raids for slaves by traders led to insecurity and fear making people abandon economic activities.
  • Able bodied people were taken away as slaves leaving the weak who could not work effectively.
  • It led to death of family members denying the family the much needed work force.
  • It led to loss of skilled labour force e.g iron smiths.
  • Methods used in acquiring slaves such as burning of houses led to destruction of the environment and human suffering.
  • Slave raids and sale of people led to depopulation/displacement of people/detribalization.
  • It promoted interaction between African communities e.g the Akamba and Agikuyu.
  • It led to the spread and use of Kiswahili in the interior of Kenya.
  • It led to the spread of slam and Islamic culture in the interior.
  • It opened up the interior of Kenya for European penetration. 12mks

 

  1. a) State why the colonial government encouraged white settlement in Kenya.
  • To make Kenya a white man’s country by encouraging white setters to form the backbone of the economy.
  • To finance administrative expenses of the colony without involving the British tax payers.
  • It was hoped the setters economic activities would help the colonial government pay for the constriction costs of the railway and maintain it.
  • The settlers is eve expected to produce raw materials for British industries.
  • The colonial government is acted to counter main influence in Kenya by encouraging European settlement.
  • The Kenya Highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate and soils.
  • They thought the area had no occupants/was empty land.
  • To make the protectorate economically viable. 3×1 = 3mks

 

  1. Describe agricultural development which took place in Kenya (in the colonial period.)
  • The British encouraged white settlers to set up plantation forms in the interior in order to increase the out put and make the colony self-sufficient in food stuffs.
  • New crops were introduced in Kenya –e.g wheat tea and pyrethrum. Some of these crops later became major cash crops.
  • Exotic breeds of livestock were introduced in Kenya. Eg daily cattle, sheep, chicken, goats and pugs,
  • Land consolidation and demarcation was introduced. Thus land terure system was changed from clan to individual ownership.
  • New farming methods were introduced. For instance, terracing of land scope.
  • Farmers were encouraged to form co-operatives to facilitate their farming activities especially marking of the produce.
  • Introduction of new veterinary services to livestock farmers. For instance cattle dips and sprays.
  • There was a shift from subsistered farming to cash crop farming in some parts of Kenya.
  • Introduction of use of farm machinery and fertilizers.
  • Establishment of agricultural research stations to improve on crops and animals.
  • Establishment of agro-based industries such up land become company end Unga Ltd.

Any 6 above, mks 6×2 = 12mks

 

  1. a) Name any three Eastern Cushitic communities a part from the Borana
  • Galla
  • Somali
  • Oromo 3×1 = 3mks
  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Borana in the pre-colonial period in Kenya.
  • The Borana were divided into two halves or moieties/Kinship.
  • The moieties were sub-divided into sub-moieties which were then divided into clans comprising related familities.
  • A hereditary leader known s Kaku headed each moiety.
  • Kallu’s clan was the spiritual and political centre of moiety.
  • The Kallu was both the spiritual leader and the judge who arbitrated major disputes.
  • There was an age-set system on which military organization was based./They had warriors derived from the age sets for community’s defense and expansion land under its occupation.
  • The Borana also had a Gada system comprising eleven grades. Each Goda class lasted 8 years and passed through eleven grades from birth to death.
  • Members of the Gada elected Gada council which made decisions./They had a council of elders which elected the Gada and assisted the Kallu/pettled disputes. Any 6 above 2mks 6×2 = 12mks,

 

  1. a)             (i)  They united freedom lighters.
  2. ii) prepared nationalists for leadership roles.
  • They mobilized mass support for nationalists in the struggle.
  1. They gave moral and material support for Mau Mau fighters.
  2. They presented African grievances to international for and created awareness of Africans sufferings.
  3. They pressurized for constitutional changes from British colonial office.
  • Created awareness among Africans of their rights and need to fight for independence.
  • They participated in developing independence constitution (Lancaster House conferences)5×1= 5mks

 

  1. b) (i) The election of British labour party in 1945 and its decolonizing

(ii)  Increase in pationgalism after WWII’s experiences.

  • Outbreak of Mau Mau war made the British government under majority rule.
  • Rise of anti-colonial superpowers e.g USA and USSR.
  • Formation of U.N which advocated for freedom and human rights.
  • Granting of independence to India (1947), Ghana (1957) etc.
  • Realization that colonialism was expensive in Britain a France.
  • Formation of trade unions which articulated political views.
  • The cost of Mau Mau interms of money, prestige and lives lost.
  • The Atlantic charter signed during WWII in 1941 that promised self determination to all colonized people.

 

SECTION C – 30 mks

  1. a) Five principles of democracy
  • Freedom of speech, debate and inquiring.
  • Participation of people as a whole in their government on a perpetual leasis.
  • Open and accountable mass media.
  • Economic democracy i.e equitable distribution of resources.
  • Equality before the law.
  • Rule of law.
  • Regular free and fair electrons.
  • Party system to be allowed to evolve.
  • Leadership of integrity. 5×1= 5mks

 

  1. b) Merits of democracy.
  • The leaders cannot ignore the people from whom they get their power to govern.
  • It recognizes equality among all the people.
  • Has a moral and educative value.
  • It balances the liberty of the individual with the power of the state.
  • It promotes patriotism and reduces the chances of a revolution.
  • It promotes peace in the country. 5×2 = 10mks
  1. (a) Three functions of county Assemblies as proposed in the new constitution
  • Make laws applicable within the countis
  • Exercise oversight over county executive committees and other county organs.
  • Receive and approve plans and policie for management and exploitation of the county resources.
  • Received approve plans and policies for the development and management of its infrastructure and institutions (any 3×1=3mks)

(b) Six objectives of the devolved government proposed in the new constitution

  • To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  • To foster national unity by recognizing diversity.
  • To give powers f self governance to the people and enhance the participation of the people in the exercise of the powers of the state and in making decisions affecting tem.
  • To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development
  • To protect and promote the interests of minorities and marginalized communities
  • To promotes social and economic development and the provision of approximated easily accessible services throughout Kenya.
  • To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya.
  • To facilitate decentralization of state organs, their functions and services from the capital of Kenya.
  • To enhance checks and balances and the separation of powers.
  1. (a) Imposition of the national Assembly in the constitution
  • 290 members each elected by registered voters of single member constituencies.
  • 47 women each elected by the registered voters of the countries
  • 12 members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members in the national assembly.
  • The speaker who is an ex-officcio member (any3x1=3mks)

(b) Six roles of the independent Electoral and Boundaries commission of Kenya

  • Continuous registration of voters
  • Regular revision of the voters roll/register.
  • Delimitation of boundaries and wards
  • The regulation of the process by which parties nominate candidates for election.
  • The settlement of electoral boundaries dispute e.g. nomination
  • Registration of candidates for election
  • Provide civic education /vote education
  • Facilitation of the observation monitoring and evaluating of elections
  • Development a code of conduct candidates and parties contesting elections
  • Reviews name and boundaries of constituencies and awards.
  • Monitoring compliance with nomination rules by political parties (1ny 6×2=12mks)



HISTORY 311 /1 marking scheme

 

SECTION A (25MARKS

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. Define the term Ecofacts. (1mk)
  2. i) Ecofacts are natural objects not made by man but found next to artifacts in early man’s dwellings.                                                                                                    (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify the site where Kenyapithecus remains were found in Kenya.     (1mk)
  2. i) Fort Ternan – Kericho.
  3. ii) Samburu Hills.                                                          (any 1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Name a community in Kenya who when they were first found were living a stone Age kind of life.
  2. i) Dorobos.                                     (any 1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Give two communities that contributed to the building of the Abaluhyia as a community.
  2. i) The Luo.
  3. ii) The Maasai                                                                 (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. State two functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi.
  2. i) Foretell the future.
  3. ii) Spiritual leader and diviner.
  • iii) Advised the council of elders on matters pertaining the welfare.
  1. iv) Offered sacrifice.
  2. v) Advised on the transfer of power form one age group to the next. (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Give two factors that contributed to the growth of city states along the coast.
  2. i) Indian Ocean
  3. ii) Fine harbours.
  • iii) Arab and Perslan settlement.
  1. iv) Spread of Islam religion.
  2. v) Elaborate system of government /political stability. (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Name the pilot who took vasco da Gama to India.
  2. i) Ahmed bin Majid.                                                               (any 1×1 = 1mks)

 

  1. Give the major factor that facilitated the spread of Christianity in the interior of Kenya.
  2. i) The construction of Kenya-Uganda Railway.
  3. ii) Translation of the Bible into local languages.                   (any 1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify two types of treaties used by Europeans to acquire colonials in East Africa.
  2. i) Protection treaties.
  3. ii) Partition treaties.                                                              (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. State two ways of response to the British invasion and occupation of Kenya
  2. i)
  3. ii)

iii) Mixed reaction.                                                                (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. The main reason why the African land Development programme (ALDEV) was introduced in 1946
  2. i) Soil conservation/Curb soil erosion.

 

 

  1. Name the Association that was banned in May 1940.
  2. i) Kikuyu Central Association.

 

  1. State two proposals made by Lennox – Boyd
  2. i) Raising of African elected members in the Legco from 8 to 14.
  3. ii) Special election of four Africans not representing constituencies.
  • iii) Setting up of a commission to investigate into and recommend the abortion of racist laws.
  1. iv) Expansion of the council of ministers from 14 to 16. (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Give two duties of the returning officer.
  2. i) Receive nomination papers.
  3. ii) Distribute ballot papers and boxes to all voting stations.
  • iii) Supervise the voting and counting of votes in the constituencies.
  1. iv) Announce the results of elections.
  2. v) Appoint presiding officers in charge of polling stations. (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. List the elements of conflict resolution .
  2. i) The two opposing sides.
  3. ii) The reason for the conflict.
  • iii) The deciding factor (any 2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. Name the committee that resolves disputes concerning bills in the two houses of parliament.
  2. i) The mediation committee.                                                         (any 1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Who is the head of a country?
  2. i)                                                                                    (any 1×1 = 1mk)

SECTION B 45 MARKS.

Answer any three questions from this section.

  1. Give reasons why Omani Arabs fought the Portuguese at the coast.
  2. i) To regain Indian Ocean trade which they had lost to them.
  3. ii) To free the coastal people from the role of the Portuguese.
  • iii) To establish and expand their commercial empire.
  1. iv) To expand their political control at the coast. (any 3×1 = 3mks)

 

  1. b) Describe Six features of Swahili culture.
  2. i) Language was Kiswahili based on Bantu and Arabic words.
  3. ii) Religion was predominantly Islam.
  • iii) Dress consisted of Kanzus for men and bubui and Khanga for women.
  1. iv) Architectural designs were either Arabic, Persia or Indiana decorated with Persiah rugs.
  2. v) Food was basically rice or millet bread.
  3. vi) The economy was dominated by trade.
  • vii) They practiced mixed farming, fishing, spinning, weaving and iron working. (any 6×2 = 12mks)

 

  1. a) Five grievances by Africans in 1923 leading to the documentation of the Devonshire white paper.
  2. i) The settler occupation of African land.
  3. ii) Harsh and forced labour conditions.
  • iii) Taxation which forced Africans to seek employment.
  1. iv) The Kipande system.
  2. v) Low wages.
  3. vi) Lack of representation in the legislative council. (any 5×1 = 5mks)

 

  1. b) The factors which enabled the Mau Mau freedom fighters to Sustain the fight against the British.
  2. i) Some of the freedom fighters were experienced ex-servicemen and therefore possessed skillful military known – how.
  3. ii) The fighters had their own sources of guns i.e home made guns and captured guns from the British.
  • iii) Some of the ex-service men provided good leadership. Inspiration and guidance to the freedom fighters.
  1. iv) The natural forests provided the freedom fighters with good hid-out.
  2. v) The freedom fighters enjoyed the support of the local people who supplied them with food and relevant information about the movement of the troops.
  3. vi) Oarthing united the freedom fighters and enhanced their commitment to the struggle.
  • vii) The guerilla tactics used by the freedom fighters made it difficult for the British to suppress the rebellion.                                                      (any 5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a) Why did Nabongo Mumia of Wanga collaborate with the British.
  2. i) He wanted the British to assist him in expanding his territory.
  3. ii) He wanted British assistance in subduing his enemies e.g Luo and Bukusu.
  • iii) He wanted to strengthen his position against surrounding communities.
  1. iv) He wanted to gain prestige through association with the British.
  2. v) He also wanted material gains. (any 5×1 = 5mks)

 

  1. b) Explain five results of the collaboration of the Maasai with the British.
  2. i) The Maasai were accorded favoured status by the British.
  3. ii) The Maasai were rewarded with cattle acquired from un co-operative communities e.g Nandi, Kikuyu.
  • iii) The Maasai were used to pacify the resisting communities e.g the Nandi, Luo, Bukusu.
  1. iv) Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief of the Maasai.
  2. v) The Maasai lost their land to the British.
  3. vi) There was loss of independence, displacement and manipulation by the British.
  • vii) The British used the existing friendship to negotiate for land concessions in 1904 and 19111.
  • The Maasai were settled in reserves.
  1. ix) Serious disagreement between Lenana and Legalishu’s groups of Maasai especially over Lenanas policy of giving land to foreigners.                                    (any 5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a) What factors led to the development of Multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990s.
  2. i) International pressure on the government for democratic reforms.
  3. ii) Pressure from individuals who had been expelled from KADU without political alternatives.
  • iii) Existence of people who were ready to push democratic agenda a head.
  1. iv) Introduction of multi-party in other African countries.
  2. v) Discontent within KADU. (any 3×1 = 3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain how the existence of many parties has promoted democracy in Kenya.
  2. i) It has promoted freedom of association by providing alternative parties for people.
  3. ii) It has provided people with a forum to express their views about how a country should be managed.
  • iii) It has made the government more accountable to the people through constant criticism.
  1. iv) It has provided checks and balances to abuse and misuse of power by leaders.
  2. v) It has provided a system of scrutinizing government expenditure through public Accounts committee and public investment committee.
  3. vi) It has made people feel free to contribute ideas to any aspect of development in the country without feeling intimidated.
  • vii) It has enabled people to form political parties/led to development of many political parties.

(any 6×2=12mks)

SECTION C 30 MARKS

Answer any two questions from this section.

  1. a) State the power of mercy that may be exercised by the president.
  2. i) Granting a free or conditional pardon to a person convicted of an offence.
  3. ii) Postponing the carrying out of a punishment either for a specified or indefinite period.
  • iii) Substituting a less sever form of punishment.
  1. iv) Remitting al or part of a punishment. (any 3×1 = 3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain six functions of the cabinet in Kenya.
  2. i) Formulate national and foreign policies to guide the country.
  3. ii) Advice the president o issues of national development related to ministries.
  • iii) Supervise the implementation of government policies by respective ministries.
  1. iv) Initiate /approve government bills for discussion by parliament.
  2. v) Initiate development projects by ministries in different parts of the country.
  3. vi) Discuss important national and international issues/debating in parliament.
  • vii) Prepare budgetary estimates for the respective ministries.
  • Defend collectively government polices interpret policies. (any 6×2 = 12mks)

 

  1. a) Identify the defense forces (Armed forces) in Kenya.
  2. i) The Kenya
  3. ii) The Kenya Air force.
  • iii) The Kenya (any 3×1 = 3mks)

 

  1. b) Describe the functions of the defense forces in Kenya.
  2. i) Defend the country from external aggression.
  3. ii) Participate in various development projects e.g road and bridage construction.
  • iii) Provide emergency services during natural disasters e.g earthquakes, floods, fires etc.
  1. iv) Recover body of victims who drown/ferry capsizing.
  2. v) Contribute to the maintenance of international peace and security.
  3. vi) Assist the regular police in the maintenance of law and order.
  • vii) Provide entertainment to Kenyans during national functions and to state guests.
  • Dealing with illegal docking and departures and unauthorized fishing in Kenya waters by foreign vessels. (Navy)
  1. ix) Patrolling Kenyans territorial waters and defending Kenya against seaborne invasions.

(any 6×2 = 12 mks)

 

  1. a) Give three circumstances under which a governor may be removed from office.
  2. i) Gross violation of the constitution or any other law.
  3. ii) If he/she has committed a crime under national or international law.
  • iii) Abuse of office or gross misconduct.
  1. iv) Physical or mental incapacity to perform the functions of office of governor. (any 3×1 = 3mks)

 

  1. b) Explain six objectives of the devolution of government.
  2. i) To promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  3. ii) To foster national unity by recognizing diversity.
  • iii) To give powers of self governance to the people and enhance participation to the people in the exercise of powers of the state.
  1. iv) To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development.
  2. v) To provide social and economic development and accessible services throughout Kenya, and local resources through out Kenya.
  3. vi) To facilitate the decentralization of state organs, their functions and services from the capital.
  • vii) To enhance checks and balances and the separation of powers.



SECTION A                   (25 MARKS)

  1. One archaeological site found in Kenya
  • Rusinga Island
  • Fort Ternan
  • Kariandusi
  • Gambles cave
  • Olorgesaille
  • Kobi for a
  • Hyrax hill
  • Njoro River

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. One remnant of the southern cushites in Kenya.
  • Dahallo or Sanye

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Two technological factors which facilitated the coming of early visitors to Kenyan coast before 1500 A.D
  • Marine technology e.g boat making and map reading.
  • Development of the compass/navigation tools.

2 x 1=2mks

  1. Two terms of Anglo- German agreement of 1886
  • Sultan of Zanzibar was given a 16km (10 miles) coastal strip.
  • German got the territory between River Umba in the North & River. Ruvuma in the south and with coastline
  • British got territory between North of River Umba stretching up to River Juba in the North.
  • Western boundary not defined.

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Two reasons why the colonial government established local native councils in Kenya.
  • Encourage and develop a sense of responsibility and duty among the Africans
  • Provide mechanism through which educated Africans could articulate their requests at the district level.
  • Ensure proper restriction of Africans in their reserves.
  • Provide a means through which the government would understand the African better.

2 x 1 =2mks

6        Main functions of the governor in colonial Kenya

  • He administered the colony on behalf of the British government.

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Identify the pioneer political organization during the colonial period in Kenya.
  • Kikuyu Association

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Who represented South Nyanza constituency according to the results of the 1957 elections to LEGCO in Kenya?
  • Laurence Ogunda

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Newspaper that was used by Kenyatta to highlight Kenyan grievances in 1922 was
  • Muigwithania

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Functions of the sergeant at arms of the National Assembly.
  • Responsible for all ceremonies and discipline within and around parliament building.
  • Custodian of the mace
  • Enforces all orders made by the speaker
  • Responsible for the maintenance of parliament buildings

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Two benefits of the land reforms policies in Kenya after independence.
  • Some African became prosperous and their standards of living improved as a result of land redistribution.
  • Dairy and cash crop production increased
  • The reforms enabled thousands of landless people to own land.
  • Land titles enables people to purchase land in confidence as no one would take their land again.
  • Farmers could use their title deeds to get loans from banks in order to expand farming on their land.

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Name two main sources of external revenue for Kenya.
  • Bilateral aid
  • Multilateral aid
  • Grants

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. What is excise duty?
  • Tax charged on goods that are locally produced and sold within the country.

1 x 1 = 1mk

 

  1. Who elects the mayor in the local government in Kenya.
  • The councilors.

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Identify two characteristics of human rights.
  • Universal
  • Have limitations
  • Are indivisible/interdependent
  • Are inherent
  • Can be suspended or denied
  • They are inalienable

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Give two conditions that one must fulfill inorder to be naturalized Kenyan citizen.
  • Must be a person over 21 years of age
  • Must have lived in the country lawfully for a period of not less than seven years.
  • Has satisfied authority that he/she is of good conduct
  • Have adequate knowledge of Kiswahili
  • Must have proved that one is going to live in Kenya after being naturalized.

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. What role do observers play during general elections in Kenya?
  • Make observations and write reports on the polling and the counting exercise to indicate if the elections are free and fair.

1 x 1= 1mk

SECTION B                   45 MARKS

18a)   Identify three functions of Njuri Ncheke

  • Acted as parliament – made laws/customs that governed the society
  • Ensured morality was upheld
  • Punished offenders – was the highest court
  • Conducted religious ceremonies e.g sacrificing
  • Decided when initiation was to take place.

Any 3 answers

1 x 3=3mks

  1. b) Describe the socio-political organization of the Agikuyu in pre-colonial Kenya
  • The Kikuyu were organized into clans(9)
  • Each clan occupied a village
  • Shared a common ancestry
  • Rites of passage included circumcision of boys and girls at puberty
  • Put the initiates into age-sets
  • Could marry after initiation
  • Worshipped a supreme God- Ngai
  • Had special people e.g medicine men
  • Politically they were organized into chief doms
  • The overall political leader-Muthamaki
  • Assisted by a council of elders
  • Council settled disputes
  • Determined customs and traditions
  • Punished offenders

NB/ Student to write three social and three political factors.

                                                                                     12mks

19a)   State three methods used by the colonial government to acquire labour for the settlers.                                                                   (3mks)

  • Colonial government alienated fertile land from Africans
  • Imposed payment of tax by African
  • Denied them the right to grow cash crops
  • Introduced the squatter system
  • Created native reserves
  • Introduced the morthey circular of 1919 – to get chiefs recruit labour

Any 3 pnts

  1. b) Explain the impact of the colonial land policies to Africans in Kenya
  • Africans lost their land and became jobless
  • The loss led to rise of African nationalism and resentment to the colonialists
  • The landless were settled in small, infertile Native reserves
  • This encourages the squatter system for survival and
  • Rural-urban migration
  • Introduction of the Kipande system to restrict movement for Africans
  • Urbanization led to break down of African traditional set up
  • Over-population in towns led to lack of employment.
  • Moral decay due to lack of privacy in the slums

(6 x 2)         12mks

20a)   Why did the AKamba resist British invasion of their land?

  • The British interrupted the status-qua e.g
  • Tried to stop them from raiding their neighbours like the Maasai
  • Interfered with their trading activities.
  • British porters, the soldiers stole AKamba property
  • Introduced the policy of de-stocking
  • Destroyed their sacred places by cutting down trees there

3 x 1 any 3 pnts

  1. b) Describe the factors that contributes to decolonization of Kenya by the British.
  • Due to pressure from the labour party after 1945 which supported decolonization
  • Tax payers in Britain were reluctant to support colonies
  • Condemnation of colonialism by
  • the UNO
  • The pan-African movement
  • Lobby groups in Britain like the industrialists, economists and slave trade abolitionists to pave way for legitimate trade.

6 x 2 = 12mks

21a)   What were the grievances of the coast African Association

  • The locals wanted uneducated chiefs to be removed from power (local native councils)
  • Wanted Africans to be involved in government
  • Shimo La Tewa school to be promoted to a high school
  • Adult education to be promoted through introduction of evening classes.
  • To be allowed to use proceeds from the sale of local brews for local development
  • Revocation of land allocation to Arabs and Asians while locals were landless.

5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. b) Discuss the role of women in the Mau Mau movement
  • Some like Marshal Muthoni, Nduta wa Kore, Elizabeth Gachika participated in armed resistance
  • Surveyed the forests and established networks for communication.
  • Supplied the fighters with provisions like food, medicine, guns and ammunitions.
  • Acted as spies for the movement especially in Nairobi.
  • Composed songs to motivate the fighters and ridicule Home guards
  • They mobilized men and women to join the movement.
  • Participated in the oathing ceremonies
  • Kept the secrets of the movement even when torture- No betrayal.
  • Suspected women were detained at Kamiti
  • Others subjected to long curfews and starvation with surrendering.

5 x 2 = 10mks

22a)   Identify three special courts or tribunals in Kenya

  • Courts – martial
  • Administrative courts e.g industrial court
  • Rent restriction tribunals
  • Business premises tribunals

3 x 1 = 3mks

  1. b) Explain the merits of parliamentary system of government
  • The parliament and the executive work together thus creating harmony in the operation of the government
  • The system is flexible – can appoint able leaders to deal with emergencies
  • It has checks and balances for abuse of office
  • The people in government are elected by the citizens and so this ensures efficiency and accountability
  • Its democratic and allows citizens to participate in decision making in government
  • Election system ensures only those qualified education wise are elected.

6 x 2 = 12mks

23a)   What are the functions of the Attorney general

  • He/she is the chief legal adviser of the government
  • He is an ex-officio member of parliament-has authority to draft government Bills
  • A member of the advisory committee he advises the president on presidential amnesty
  • Also he advises the president on judicial appointments in consultation with the Judicial service commission
  • The Attorney chambers draft Bills and registers societies
  • Deals with legal matters concerning budget and he/she can answer questions concerning the judiciary

5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. b) State the functions of the provincial administration
  • Representing the president during national holidays
  • It’s a link between the peoples and the central government
  • The security forces maintains law and order
  • co-ordinates the development activities to ensure efficiency and avoid duplication
  • It implement government policies
  • Some offices mobilize the people through barazas to respond to government policies.
  • Eliminates corruption by demanding accountability and transparency
  • The judiciary officers ensure justice is administered
  • The regular elections of the members of parliament helps to weed out the unpopular and inefficient members
  • It legitimizes the actions taken by the government because its representative.
  • The opposition side ensures constructive criticism.

5 x 2 = 10mks

24a)   Outline five principles of democracy

  • It enhances human equality
  • Ensures that justice is upheld
  • Facilitates participation of all citizens in decision making in government
  • Encourages transparency and accountability through the mass media.
  • Requires that the mass media is open and accountable.
  • Promotes economic development
  • Ensures peaceful co-existence.

5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. b) Explain the factors that led to the rise of multi-party democracy in Kenya in 1991.
  • Democratic development in the soviet union during the reign of Mikhail Gorbacher
  • Pressure from multi lateral and bilateral donors e.g IMF, World bank and Western donor countries e.g Canada.
  • Pressure from religious groups
  • The civil society, lawyers and intellectuals
  • Repeal of section 2A of the constitution
  • Oppressive rule by the KANU government
  • Lack of tolerance – to accommodate divergent ideas
  • Rampant corruption by government officials
  • Lack of implementation of the views gathered by the Saitoti committee
  • Influence from other African countries which allowed multi-party politics e.g Zambia
  • Alleged rigging of the 1988 general elections through the Mlolongo system.

5 x 2 = 10mks




HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT 311/1 MARKING SCHEME

 

SECTION A (25MKS)

  1. Economic reasons for the migration of the cushites
  • Search for pasture
  • Search for water for their livestock
  • Search for land for agriculture
  1. Collective name of the Turkana, samburu and the Maasai of Kenya
  • Main nilotes
  1. Functions of the higher council of elders among the Agikuyu in the pre – colonial period
  • Acted as court of appeal
  • Administered justice in the community
  • Presided over religious functions  and communal activities e.g. initiation
  1. Reasons for the rise of city states along the east African coast by 1500A.D
  • Due to development of trade
  • Were Islamic religious centers
  • Were places that had protective hinter land
  • Had well sheltered harbors for ship anchoring
  1. Achievement of Imperial British East Africa Company in Kenya
  • It was able to quell locfal aggression e.g. among the Nandi
  • Was the basis of colonial administration by establishing ports which was later used as administrative bases
  • It developed rubber industry along the coast and in the interior
  • It secured freedom for several slaves
  • It built the first roads in the country
  1. Objectives of establishing health centers in Kenya during the colonial period
  • To eradicate diseases e.g. small pox malaria and sleeping sickness
  • To train medical personnel to handle western medicine
  • To improve health and hygiene for Africans
  1. Methods used by Coast African Association to present their grievance to the colonial government
  • Sending memoranda
  • Newspapers e.g. Coast African Press

8 Conditions which favored the growth of trade union movements during the colonial period

  • Banning of political parties
  • Poor working conditions and terms of work African farmers faced in European farms
  • The rise of African elites who championed the rights of Africans e.g. Tom Mboya
  1. Type of constitution advocated for by Ronald Ngala
  • Federal (Majimbo)
  1. Pillars of Nyayo Philosophy
  • Peace
  • Love
  • Unity

11.Importance of cultural activities in Kenya since independence

–  Use to entertain people

–  use to promote patriotism.

–  use to educate people.

–  use to promote unity by bringing people together.

–  use to employment to people e.g music, games etc.                    ( 2×1 = 2mks)

  1. Meaning of citizenship.

–  Legal right of a person to belong to a given county.

  1. Peaceful methods of conflict resolution.

–  Negotiation/reconciliation.

–  Mediation.

–  Arbitration.

–  Litigation/court system.                                                                (1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Reasons why these was a great need to change the old constitution of Kenay.

–  People wanted to take part in making the constitution.

–  People wanted a constitution that affects their need.

–  People wanted presidential powers to be reduced(president had too much powers in the old constitution i.e people wanted a developed system of Kenya)                                  (1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Duties of party agents during elections in Kenya.

–  Represent candidates from various political parties in a polling station.

–  Ensure that the polling and counting procedures are transparent, clearly free and fair.  (2×1 = 2mks)

  1. Local Authority that administers the rural areas in Kenya.

–  County council                                                                            (1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Category of sources of government revenue in Kenay.

–  Domestic sources

–  External sources.

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1. a) Describe the social organization of the Akamba during pre-colonial period (5mks)
  2. i) Believed in a supreme God called Mulungu.
  3. ii) Believed in ancestral spirit.
  • iii) Had traditional leader who treated the sick.
  1. iv) Had diviners who for told the future.
  2. v) Had sacred places (shrines) for worship.
  3. vi) They initiated the youth the adulthood through circumcision of both boys and girls.
  • vii) Marriage with the same clan was not allowed.
  • Made sacrifices and offerings. (5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Political organization of the Abagusii during the pre-colonial period(explain )
  2. i) The family was the basic political unit headed by father.
  3. ii) Role organized based on clans made up of related families.
  • iii) Had hereditary chiefs called Omogambi.
  1. iv) Had council of elders which performed duties such as:- e.g solving land disputes
  2. v) Maintaining low and order.
  3. vi) Disciplining law breakers.
  • vii) Had clan’s chiefs who presided our religions ceremonies.
  • Had warriors who defended the community.
  1. ix) Had age sets which they joined after initiation. (2×5 = 10mks)
  2. a) Reasons why African resistance against colonial invasion failed.
  3. i) Division among Kenyan communities into small autonomous units.
  4. ii) Local rivalry which enabled the British to may one community against another.
  • iii) Africans had inferior (poor) weapons.
  1. iv) Africans called professionally trained soldiers.
  2. v) Natural calamities, epidemics and famine had weakened some of the African communities.
  3. vi) Some Africans collaborated with the British. (5×1 = 5mks)
  4. b) Why the Maasai collaborated with the British.
  5. i) Rise of the Nandi as – political power weakened them.
  6. ii) Civil wars between pork and Kwari Maasai weakened them.
  • iii) Succession disputed between Lenana and sendayo had weakened them.
  1. iv) They had been weakened by natural calamities e.g smallpox, minder pest etc.
  2. v) Secure famine brought about by national calamities had weakened them.
  3. vi) Fear of the power of the white’s gun which made a scotish trader Adrew Dick and two French men Killed 100 Maasai warriors in the Kedong Maasai
  • vii) Maasai needed help form the British to get back their women and children who had been left I the custody of the Agikuyu during the famine period.   (2×5 =10mks)
  1. a) Achievements of early political organization upto 1939
  2. i) Provided political education to African communities.
  3. ii) Communicated the feelings of the African to the colonial government e.g through memoranda, publication etc.
  • iii) Defended African culture against further erosion by European missionaries.
  1. iv) They awakened the masses by making them conscious of political situation in the country.
  2. v) They played the role of trade unions by fighting for the rights of African workers in the absence of formal trade unions.
  3. vi) They made known African grievances to the international community e.g KCA (5×1 = 5mks)
  4. b) Causes of the rise of independent churches and schools in colonial Kenya.
  5. i) Africans rule not happy with the westernizing influence of Christian missionaries.
  6. ii) Mission education was not enough.
  • iii) Africans use against colonial domination and exportation.
  1. iv) Africans wanted leadership to their own churches.
  2. v) Some independent churches rule started by Africans who denied to have receive a divined calling e.g John Owalo, Masinde Elijah.
  3. vi) Some churches were established after some Africans felt dissatisfied with the interpretation of the Christian scriptures.
  • vii) Many mission churches did not accommodate traditional African expression of worship e.g dancing of cru heating. 5×2 = 10mks)
  1. a)  Challenges facing education system in Ke4nya today.
  2. i) Inadequate schools.
  3. ii) Indiscipline in schools.
  • iii) Inadequate funds.
  1. iv) Inadequate facilities.
  2. v) Brain drain of qualified teachers.
  3. vi) High drop out rate among students.
  • vii) Lack of enough teachers. (5×2 = 10mks)
  1. b) Changes which have taken place in Kenya as a result of the re-introduction of multi-party democracy.
  2. i) Formation of ethnically based political parties which tend to promote ethnic loyalties at the expense of national unity.
  3. ii) Kenyans have government the opportunity to join parties of their won choice.
  • iii) It has promoted accountability and transparency on the part of the government.
  1. iv) It has enhanced the implementation of economic reforms in the country.
  2. v) It has created confidence in the international investors which has further promoted economic development in the country.
  3. vi) It has given the mass media/ people a greater freedom to comment on what is happening in the country.
  • vii) It has created more political awareness and patriotism among the people.
  • It has enhanced interaction among Kenyans of different ethnic backgrounds as various political parties compete for support.
  1. ix) It has promoted the application of the rule of law in the country. (5×2 = 10mks)

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION C 30 MARKS

  1. a) Categories of people whose personal liberty do limited:-
  2. i) Convicted criminals
  3. ii) Suspected criminals.
  • iii) Persons of unsound mind (mentally challenged)
  1. iv) A person with infections disease. (Persons)
  2. v) Drug addicts.
  3. vi)
  • vii) A young person under 18 years – to secure education.
  1. b) Responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen.
  2. i) Takes part in public life and governance activities at all levels.
  3. ii) Obeys the law.
  • iii) Works with others to promote welfare of individuals and community as a whole.
  1. iv) Participates in development activities.
  2. v) Participates in democratic processes.
  3. vi) Teaches young people positive values.
  • vii) Protects social institutions like marriage.
  • Respects the rights of fellow citizens e.g right to life.
  1. ix) Pays tax to the government. (6×2 = 12mks)
  2. a) Duties of children’s courts in Kenay.
  3. i) Make and order absolute discharge.
  4. ii) Order conditional discharge.
  • iii) Impose a fine on the offender or on his/her parents.
  1. iv) Put the young person on probation.
  2. v) Commit the child to the care of fit person or body.
  3. vi) Authorize that the juvenile be cared.
  • vii) In rare cases have him or nor imprisoned.
  • Commit him or her to an approved school.
  1. ix) Send him or her for Borstal training.
  2. x) Commit him or her to a youth connective centre.
  3. xi) Place him or her in a remand home. (5×1 = 5mks)
  4. b) Conditions that may lead to a child to be taken to a children’s court.
  5. i) When one has no parent/guardian/has been deserted by parent/guardian.
  6. ii) Cannot be controlled by parent/guardian.
  • iii) Has parent/guardian who is unable to exercise proper care and guardianship.
  1. iv) Is failing into bad association or is exposed to moral or physical danger.
  2. v) Is being kept in unsuitable premises e.g overcrowded unhygienic or dangerous place.
  3. vi) Is prevented from receiving compulsory education or is a habitual truant.
  • vii) Frequents public places e.g bars or gambling houses or informal begins, receiving or growing drugs.
  • Is found begins.
  1. ix) Has suffered bodily injury. (5×2 = 10mks)
  2. a) Services provided by the local authorities in Kenya.
  3. i) Provide health services.
  4. ii) Construct residential houses in urban centers.
  • iii) Collect and dispose garbage and maintain public toilets.
  1. iv) Control fire outbreaks.
  2. v) Create and maintain recreational facilities.
  3. vi) Provide water for domestic and industrial use.
  • vii) Build and repair roads.
  • Pass by-law.
  1. ix) Grant business licences.
  2. x) Approve building plans.
  3. xi) Offer unemployment opportunities.
  • xii) Bury unclaimed bodies.
  • Build and repair schools. (5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) How the government of Kenya uses the recurrent expenditure. (Explain.)
  2. i) Pays wages and salaries to the employees.
  3. ii) Pays for general repair and maintenance of public property e.g roads, buildings.
  • iii) Services debts.
  1. iv) Pays its contributions to international organizations e.g U.N.O, EAC etc.
  2. v) Lines grants to local authorities, parastutals, bursaries to schools and colleges.
  3. vi) Pays for the maintenance of Kenya embassies abroad.      (5×2 = 10mks)



311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

 

SECTION A

  1. Two limitations of using archaeology as a source of Kenyan History (2mks)
    • It is an expensive method. Excavating and laboratory analysis of fossils require

a lot of money.

  • Some dating methods e.g. carbon 14 is inaccurate.
  • It is difficult to locate historical sites.
  • It is time consuming
  • There are few archaeological experts in Kenya
  • Some materials are fragile and could easily break 2 x 1 = (2mks)
  1. Two reasons why the Akamba involved in the long distance trade (2mks)
    • Kamba land is geographically centrally located between the coast and the interior, hence they acted as middlemen in the trade
    • Most of kamba land is dry this leaves trade as the alternative economic activity.
    • They had enterprising merchants and leaders e.g. kivoi.
    • They had a long local trade experience. 2 x 1 = (2mks)
      1. Two functions of council of Elders among the Meru.
    • settled disputes
    • presided over religious ceremonies
    • officiated over official functions e.g. initiation
    • they declare war or negotiated peace 2 x 1 = (2mks)
  1. Two evidences to show that the Portuguese ruled the Kenyan coast.
  • Land marks e.g. Fort Jesus in Mombasa, Vasco Dgama Pillar in Mlaindi – Artifacts.
  • Portuguese words such as Mvingo, Meza
  • Crops the introduced e.g. mangoes and Guavas 2 x 1 = (2mks)
  1. Two provisions of lyhleton constitution 1954

– The executive council was replaced by multi racial council of ministers

– 8 African members to be elected in the elections of 1956 – 1957

– It allowed multiracial elections

– It allowed Africans to form District wide political organizations

– It led to the establishment of an advisory council to discuss government

policies                        2 x 1 = (2mks)

 

  1. Two characteristics of human rights

– Universal

– Indivisible

– Interdependent

– Inviolable

– Inherent

  1. Two terms of the German agreement of 1890.

–    Germany recognized Uganda as a British sphere of influence

–    Germany abandoned her claim over witu in exchange for heligo land

–  The Sultan of Zanzibar retained the 16 km coastal strip

  1. Body responsible for elections in Kenya currently – Interim Independent

           Electoral Commission (IIEC)    (1mk).

  1. Main significance of the Devonshire White paper of 1923

–   It declared African interest to be paramount over the other races (1mk)

  1. Two circumstances when general elections may be held before the end of a

           Parliamentary lifespan.

– If the government of the day becomes unpopular and is forced to resign by

parliament

– If a vote of no confidence is passed on the government

–         If the President feels that there is need to hold elections he can’t dissolve

parliament                                         2 x 1 = (2mks)

  1. Two officers who enjoy security of tenure

– The Attorney General

– The Chief Justice

– Court of Appeal Judges

– Auditor and controller General              22 x1 = (2mks)

  1. Education legacy of President Moi’s regime

– 8 4 4 Education System

  1. Two functions of prison wardens in Kenya

– They execute court orders

– They offer security to prisoners

–  They train prisoners in special skills

– They rehabilitate prisoners

– They maintain Law and Order     2 x 1 = (2mks)

  1. Two civilian functions of the Armed Forces.

– Build roads and Bridge

– Provide medical facilities

– Help in controlling locust invasion

– They entertain the public during National Holidays

– provide emergency Services e.g. evacuation during floods.   2 x 1 = (2mks)

 

SECTION B

  1. a) Five reasons for the migration of Cushites

– They were escaping clan and family frauds

– Due to population pressure in the area of origin

– They were fleeing outbreak of diseases i.e. search for grazing lands

– They fled constant attacks from neighbors such as Somali

– To satisfy the spirit of adventure

 

  1. b) Political organization of the Somali

– They had a decentralized system of government

– The clan was made up of related families

– The society was clan based

–      The clan was headed by Council of Elders. The Council settled disputes,

maintained Law and order, developed an age sex system where boys at age 10 – 15 were circumcised, each age set had a leader, junior warriors defended the community and conducted raids, the introduction of Islam changed their political system as they now had Sheikhs as leaders.

5 x 2 – (10mks)

  1. 16. a) Three Catholic Missionary societies that worked in Kenya

– Holy Ghost Fathers

– The Consolata Fathers

– The mill Hill fathers

  1. b) Six factors which undermined missionary activities

– Communication barrier

– Limited transport and communication faculties in Africa hindered then

movement

– Vastness of areas covered by individual missionaries

– Hostility from African rulers who offer identified their traditional authority

– Rivalry among different Christian groups

– Inadequate personnel to carry our missionary activities

– They faced opposition from Africans who saw missionaries as a threat to cultural  practices

– Inadequate funds to carry out the activities

  1. 1 a) Five other ways through which the colonial government promoted settler Agriculture.

–          The colonial government provided continuous flow of labour by imposing taxes and forced labour.

–          Agricultural activities of Africans were controlled e.g were not allowed to grow cash crops.

–          The government provided extensions services to settlers to facilitate better yields

–          They were encouraged to form cooperative societies

–          Laws were made that favored their activities                                  5 x 1= (5mks)

 

  1. b) Five problems experienced by settler farmers

–      They were raided by the local communities such as the Nandi this threatened their peace and security.

–      Africans were not willing to offer labour in the European plantations

–      The settlers lacked basic farming knowledge and experienced

–      They suffered from shortage of capital to buy machinery pay labour and meet day to day operational costs.

–      The climate and soils were alien to them; they were also unfamiliar with the seasons.

–      Pests and diseases were prevalent in the highlands this lowered the quality of the produce.                                                                                                        5 x 1 = (5mks)

  1. a) Features of the independence constitution

– Provided for the establishment of a federal government or Majimbo

– It was bicameral parliament consisting of the senate and House of  Representatives

– It spelt out the rights and obligations of individuals and citizens

– Prime Minister to lead government while the governor leads the state

– It spelt out power and responsibilities of the central and regional governments

5 x 1 =                         (5mks)

b).       Explain the role played by KAU in the struggle for independence

–      It gave morale and material support to Mau Mau fighters

–      It provided guidance to Eliud Mathu in Legco

–      Through the leadership of Kenyatta KAu sought to unite all Africans by establishing branches all over Kenya

–          It championed the release of Kenyatta and other leaders and even hired a lawyer to defend them.

–          Organized rallies e.g. Nyeri to mobilize Africans against colonialism e.g. 1952 in Nyeri attended by Kenyatta and six other Nationals

–          Articulating grievances of the Africans through the media e.g. sauti ya Mwafrike                                5 x 2     = (10)

  1. a) Five ways in which registered voter may be denied right to vote in Kenya

–      When one is of unsound mind

–      When one presents himself in a constituency where he I not registered

–      When one doe not have a National Aid

–      When one’s name does not appear in the voters register

–      When one is time bared/ late                                                       5 x 1 = (5mks)

 

b).       Five principles of democracy

– Citizens Participation in the governance of the country

– Regular tolerance of the people’s views and opinions

– Transparency and accountability to the people

– Multiparty system allowing competition for power among different political parties

– Equality before the law irrespective of race, color rank and status

– Economic freedom through private ownership of property and business

– Bill of right forming part of the constitution

– Rule of law prevails and is respected

– Fair procedures, respecting the process of law              5 x 2 = (10mks)

  1. a) Three sources of Kenyan Law

– Constitution

– Major and minor Legislation by Mps

– Indian Law

– English common Law

– British constitution

– African customary Law and Sheria Law          3 x 1 = (3mks)

b).       Process of Law making

–          Drafting stage: A bill is drafted in the Attorney General’s chambers it is then published in the Kenya Gazette

–          First Reading: The bill is introduced to the parliament Minister AG stands and reads the title of the bill, not debate or voting takes place in this stage.

–          Second reading: after 7 days the bill is read a second time. The bill is discussed and amendments proposed. If support7ed by three quarters of the members it moves to the next stage.

–          Committee stage: Bill is refereed to the committee of the whole house or smaller committee suggestions in second reading adopted.

–          Report stage: the committee rep[ports the house. This is to confirm whether or not the proposals were taken into account. Two thirds of the members vote for it to move.

–          Third reading: The bill is read a third time. A final vote is taken, if approved it passes to

–          President’s assent: The bill is presented to the President for his signature                             6×2=(12mks)

  1. a) Five types of local authorities

– City councils

– Municipal councils

– County councils

-Town councils

– Urban councils

– Area councils                          5×1 = (5mks)

b).       Powers of the minister for local government

–          Carries out general supervision of the activities of local authorities to ensure that they follow regulations.

–      The minister can reorganize local authorities through upgrading, redefining their boundaries

–      Order an inquiry and suspend or dissolve local authority

–      Has powers to overrule the decisions made by local authorities

–      Appoints senior officers of the council made by local authorities

–      Receives annual senior officers of the council through PSC e.g. town clerks

–      Receive annual assessments of performance of the local authorities

–      Exercises financial control by withdrawing grants, appointing inspectors and to audit local authorities.                                                     5 x 2 = (10mks)




Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

 

  1. Two limitations of Linguistics as a source of history

–           It takes a long time to learn a language

–           Some language have become extinct.

–           Borrowing of words has corrupted the parent language

–           While translating the language, some words may be omitted.

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. One community in Kenya that belongs to the highlands Nilotes

–           Nandi – Marakwet

–           Kipsigis – Elgeyo

–           Tugen – Sabaot

–           Pokot                                                                                                   Any  x 1 = 1mk

  1. Two economic activities of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.

–           Hunting

–           Gathering

–           Animal keeping

–           Trading

–           Craftsmaking

–           Bee – keeping                                                                                     Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Two factors which influenced the Abaluhya to become crop farmers by the beginning of the 19th C.

–           Presence of fertile soils

–           Knowledge on hoe – making                                                              2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Two factors which enabled traders from Arabia to come to the coast before 1500 A.D

–           Accessibility of the coast by sea.

–           Availability  to dhows and sailings ships

–           Funds to finance trade across the sea.

–           Existence of skilled personnel.

–           Existence of the monsoon winds

  1. One reason why some Kenya communities collaborated .

–           Some leaders wanted to secure their position.

–           Some leaders wanted to acquire wealth through IBEA. Co.

–           They wanted protection from local enemies

–           They wanted their people to benefit from Christianity and  western education

–           Some sought  help to acquire more territory

–           To acquire more powerful weapons

–           They had seen  the futility of resistance and were not ready for blood shed.

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Two factors which led to the establishment of urban centres in Kenya during the colonial period.

–           The construction of the Uganda Railway.

–           Asians established shops along the railway line

–           Some colonial administrative centres became urban centres

–           Mining activites  led to growth of urban centres

–           Commercialization of farming  led to growth towns such as Eldoret, Nakuru and Nairobi.

            Any  2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. One reason why Africans were not allowed to grow cash crops

–           To eliminate competition for labour

–           To eliminate competition for land

–           To eliminate competition for markets

  1. Main reason for the function of the Taita Hills Association.

–           To Address land alienation.                                                               1 x 1 =1 mk

 

  1. Two characteristics of independent churches

–           Incorporated African cultural values

–           Leadership was provided by Africans

–           Worked closely with the African political associations

–           Were against the influence of the missionaries though they valued Christianity and Western education.                                                                         Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. One grievances of the Devonshire white paper raised by Asians

–           Indians would elect five members to Legco.

–           Racial segregation in all the residential areas and restriction on Indian immigration was rejected .                                                                                        Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. One reason why the 1957 election is important

–           Elected member condemned the lyttleton constitution for providing for  fewer elected members

–           African elected members organization (AEMO) demanded that Africans above 21 years be allowed to vote.

–           AEMO demanded that registration of voters be done on a common roll.

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Main recommendation of the lyttleton constitution .

–           The creation of a multi – racial society where all races would share political power.

1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. How the Kenya Federation of Labour improved the welfare of African workers

–           It increased salaries of African workers hence improving the living and working conditions of Africans workers.                                                      1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Two roles of the parliamentary service Commission.

–           Streamlines parliaments operations

–           Takes  care of the welfare of MPs and staff of the National Assembly.

2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. One way in which the institution of Presidency promote national unity

–           He/she is  the spokemans and the international representative of Kenyans

–           Presidency unifies Kenyans as it symbolizes the aspiration and hopes of  the people

Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

  1. Two sources of the “Nyayo” philosophy in Kenya

–           Sessional paper no. 10 of 1965

–           The Biblical teachings of the Ten Commandments

–           Moi’s long political career inspired him to develop the philosophy.

Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

SECTION B

 

  1. a) Factors leading to migration of Cushites

–           Search for pasture and water for animals

–           Family and clan feuds

–           Outbreaks of human and animal diseases

–           Drought and famine

–           To avoid external attacks

–           The desire to adventure

–           Population pressure

  1. b) Political organization of the Somali

–           Had a decentralized system of government based on clans

–           The clan was the smallest political unit made up of related families

–           The clan was headed by a council of elder

–           The council of elders was to maintain law and order

–           The council of elders settled disputes and presided over religious ceremonies

–           They developed age set system which was the basis of the military organization.

–           Boys joined age sets after circumcision

–           With the introduction of Islam, Sheikhs became community leader

–           The political system was changed to Islamic sharia with the introduction of Islam.

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

  1. a) Five characteristics of coastal towns by 1500

–           Had narrow streets

–           Walls were built of mud , ( for the poor)

–           Roofs of houses were made of Makuti ‘ ( Mangrove leaves)

–           Each town had a sultan.

–           The sultan of each town was directly answerable to the Sultan of Zanzibar  who was overall leader.

–           Kiswahili was the main language used.

–           Existence of social classes

–           Islam was the dominant religion.

–           Prosperity was  based on trade.

–           Farming and fishing were economic activities.                                Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

  1. b) Factors which led to he decline of coastal settlement between 1500 and 1700

–           Disputes amongst coastal rulers

–           Decline of trade in slaves.

–           Exhaustion of trade goods, such as gold.

–           Invasion of the coast by the Turkish and the Zimba.

–           Competition for trade goods, by Europeans countries with imperial motives

5 x 2 = 10mks

  1. a) Five reasons why Britain was interested in establishing control over Kenya during

the European scramble for Africa.

  • To invest surplus capital

–           Seeking for a reliable market

–           To protect their missionaries

–           For prestige

–           Superiority complex

–           Nationalism in Europe compelled them to come to Africa, Kenya being in Africa.

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. b) Why Kenya Communities were defeated

–           They were not united

–           Had inferior weapons

–           African soldiers had little knowledge of the British Military tactics.

–           Africans had been weakened by famine, disease etc.

–           They lacked organizational skills

–           The British used treachery.

–           The British destroyed the economic base of communities making them weak.

–           Warriors were demoralised when many of their colleagues and leaders were captured and killed.

–           The Uganda railway made movement of British troops faster.

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

  1. a) Factors which undermined African nationalist activities in Kenya between 1939

and 1963

–           Disunity among African nationalists.

–           Inadequate funds

–           Ignorance about rights due to illiteracy

–           Betrayal by loyalits or home guards

–           Denial of mass media access

–           Lack of cooperation amongst Kenyan communities

–           The state of emergency in 1952 restricted people’s movement

–           The banning of all political parties.                                       Any 3 x 1 = 3mks

  1. b) Six factors which favoured the Mau MaU fighters

–           Natural forests provided good hideouts

–           Oath taking bound the people to fight a common enemy

–           They had capable leaders

–           They used guerilla tactics.

–           They  had massive support from the civilian population who supplied them food and weapons

–           The fighters had strong weapons e .g guns

 

 

            SECTION C

 

  1. a) Three main features of the independence constitution

–           Nationalism Assembly – Bicameral

–           Regionalism – Majibolism

–           Protection of the  minorities’ rights

–           Judiciary – provided for an independent judiciary

–           Civil service – public service commission was formed

–           Electoral / commission – set up constituency boundaries.               Any 3 x 1 = 3mks

  1. b) Six parliamentally duties of the President in Kenya

–           Has powers to address the National Assembly

–           Can attend to all meetings as a member of parliament

–           Delegates the functions of the leader of government business to the vice President.

–           Summons / prorogues , and dissolves parliament

–           Calls for general elections

–           Addresses new parliamentary sessions

–           Outlines state policy and programmes

–           Gives  assent to bills passed  by the national assembly to become law.

  1. a) Five categories of prisons in Kenya.

–           Principal institutions

–           District I and II prisons

–           Detention camps

–           Youth institutions

–           Borstal institutions

–           Youth corrective training centres

  1. b) Five roles of the armed forces

–           Defend the country in the event of external attack

–           Supplement the work of the police during emergencies

–           Participate in nation building e.g road construction

–           Participate in national holidays peace- keeping operation

–           Participate in international holidays e.g through mounting a guard of honour for the head of state.

–           The Kenya Navy patrols Kenya’s territorial waters

–           The Kenya Navy ensures no illegal  landings take place in Kenyan waters

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks

  1. a) Why Kenyan government prepares an annual budget

–           To identify sources of government revenue

–           To identify development projects

–           To be able to explain to the public taxes imposed.

–           To balance its revenue and expenditure

–           To be able to monitor her expenditure

–           To be able to assess its performance in the previous year.

–           To be able to communicate its plans and policies to its local and foreign development partners.

–           It’s the only means of securing loans from donors

–           Through supplementary expenditure its  able to  plan for emergencies e.g floods

–           To promote accountability and transparency in department as a reference for the future.

Any 3 x 1 = 3mks

  1. b) Six ways in which the government of Kenya spends the money it receives .

–           For development activities – capital expenditures

–           Payment of wages and salaries

–           Debt repayment

–           Repair  and maintenance of government building

–           Maintenance of Kenya’s embassies abroad

–           Grants and bursaries  to local authorities and schools

–           Subscriptions and other obligation to regional and international organizations.

Any 6 x 2 = 12mks




SECTION A (25marks)

  1. Give two reasons for studying History.
  • (i) To know our origin
  • (ii) To learn about the political, social and economic organization of different people.
  • (iii) To appreciate our culture and other people’s cultures
  • (iv) Helps us to understand the past appreciate the present and predict the future.
  • (v) Instils a sense of patriotism and nationalism.
  • (vi) It is a career subject eg diplomacy, teaching, administration.                                                                                                                                Any 2 x 1=2marks
  1. Give two ways in which the knowledge of iron working helped in the migration of the Bantu.
  • (i) They used iron weapons to fight their enemies who gave way for their settlement
  • (ii) Used iron tools to clear forests to create room for settlement. Any 2 x 1=2marks

 

  1. What was the original homeland of the River-Lake Nilotes.
  • (i) Bahr-el-Ghazal area of Southern Sudan. 1 x 1=1mark
  1. Give two functions of the councils of elders in the pre-colonial Kenya.
  • (i) Provided leadership for the clan / maintained law and order in their respective communities.
  • (ii) Settled disputes related to land, marriage and inheritance.
  • (iii) Acted as a court and passed judgment on criminal cases and punished offenders.
  • (iv) Presided over religious ceremonies.
  • (v) They declared war and made peace with neighboring communities.
  • (vi) Were custodians of the community customs, norms and values.

Any 2 x 1=2marks

  1. State two reasons why the Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan coast.         
  • (i) To expand their commercial empire.
  • (ii) To establish political control over the Kenyan coast.
  • (iii) To assist in ending the Portuguese rule.                                    Any 2 x 1 =2marks

 

  1. Give one way through which Seyyid Said assisted in the spread of Christianity in Kenya.
  • (i) He gave introduction letters to the missionaries to take to the African rulers in the interior.

Any 1 x 1 =1mark

  1. State two achievements of the Imperial British East Africa company in Kenya during the time of its rule.
  • (i) Suppressed local resistances
  • (ii) Laid the basis of colonial administration by establishing forts which were later used by the colonial administration
  • (iii) They built roads eg Scalter Road
  • (iv) Developed rubber industry along the coast.

Any 2 x 1 =2marks

  1. Give two reasons why Africans were not willing to provide labour in settler farm during the colonial period.  
  • (i) They were bitter that settlers had taken their land.
  • (ii) Wages provided by the settlers were low and unattractive
  • (iii) They were subjected to poor and harsh working conditions.
  • (iv) Division of labour in African traditional society did not allow African men to leave their families      Any 2 x 1 =2marks

 

 

 

 

  1. Identify one feature of political associations formed in Kenya between 1919 and 1939.  
  • (i) They were ethnic or tribal based.
  • (ii) They were urban based.
  • (iii) They were non-militant
  • (iv) They were led by educated Africans.
  • (v) Their demands mainly focused on the welfare of the people.
  • (vi) They addressed specific grievances affecting the ethnic groups.

Any 1 x 1 =1mark.

 

  1.  Identify two reasons why African elected members of Legco rejected both the Lyttelton and Lennox-Boyd proposals.
  • (i) The Lytteltor constitution provided fewer elected members than nominated ones.
  • (ii) They provided rigid voting qualification requirements for the Africans.
  • (iii) The AEMO demand that registration of voters be done on a common roll as opposed to communal roll provided by the proposals.
  • (iv) The proposals didn’t address the state of emergency.
  • (v) The proposals gave the minority Europeans an advantaged position in Legco.

Any 2 x 1 =2marks.

 

  1. Give one way through which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to urban areas.      
  • (i) Taking head counts of those who were supposed to live in urban areas.
  • (ii) Enhancing strict rules about migration into urban centers / creation of African reserves.
  • (iii) Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in urban centers lived there.
  • (iv) Introducing Kipande system. Any 1 x 1 =1mark
  1. Who was the first prime minister in dependent Kenya?

-Jomo Kenyatta.

  1. Identify one institution which advised the governor in Kenya in the administration of the Colony during the early 20TH century.          
  • (i) The Executive Advisory Council.
  • (ii) The Legislative Council. Any 1 x 1 =1mark

 

 

  1. Identify two types of cases the Judiciary deals with in Kenya.
  • (i) Criminal cases.
  • (ii) Civil cases.          2 x 1 =2marks.
  1. What is the main role of the  Attorney General as an Ex-official member of parliament.

-Advises the parliament and the government on the matters of law.

Any 1 x 1 =1mark

  1. What is the collective responsibility in relation to the Cabinet in Kenya.

-The ministers are collectively responsible for the policies and administration of their ministries and have to accept cabinet decisions and cannot criticize publicly government policies.                                                                                              1 x 1 =1mark.

  1. Name one ex-official member of the Local Authority in Kenya.
  • (i) The Clerk
  • (ii) The Engineer
  • (iii) Public Health Officer.

Any 1 x 1 =1mark.

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION B (45 marks)

 

  1. .a) State five economic activities of the Maasai in the pre-colonial period.
  • (i) They practised nomadic pastoralism, keeping cattle, sheep and goats.
  • (ii) Traded among themselves and also with their neighbors eg Agikuyu, Kalenjin
  • (iii) They practised iron-smelting, making implements such as spears and arrow heads.
  • (iv) They also practiced mining eg salt and red ochre which they used for decoration and as a commodity for trade.
  • (v) Some section of the Maasai i.e Kwari practiced crop growing eg grain.
  • (vi) They practised hand crafts / craftwork eg they made pots, wove baskets and leather belts.                                                                                                      5 x 1 =5marks.

 

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
  • (i) The basic political unit was the clan with each clan occupying specific territories.
  • (ii) Had a council of elders in charge of day to day affairs of the clan eg making major decisions and settling disputes.
  • (iii) Had age set systems / institutions and all male members of the society belonged to the age set.
  • (iv) Had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory.
  • (v) There existed warriors whose duty was to protect the community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community.
  • (vi) There existed people with special responsibilities eg Sheiks whose opinions were sought before important decisions were made.      Any 5 x 2 =10marks

 

  1. a) State five problems which the African nationalists in Kenya faced in the struggle for independence.
  • (i) Harassment, detention and jailing of nationalist leaders eg Jomo Kenyatta.
  • (ii) Banning of political organizations especially during inter-war and emergence periods.
  • (iii) Disunity among the African nationalists / tribalism.
  • (iv) African nationalists were denied access to mass media and therefore could not articulate their grievances.
  • (v) Use of mass media by the colonialists to discredit the activities of the nationalists.
  • (vi) Betrayal of African nationalists by other people especially the home-guards.
  • (vii) Illiteracy among Africans
  • (viii) Restrictions of movement.

Any 5 x 1 =5marks

 

  1. b) Explain five roles played by Kenya African Union (K.A.U) in promoting nationalism in Kenya between 1945 and 1953.
  • (i) It influenced the British colonial government to increase African representation in the Legco.
  • (ii) It opened up branches in various parts of the country to educate the Africans on the need to unite against European domination.
  • Published its own paper, Sauti Ya Mwafrika to popularize its objectives.
  • It gave support to Eliud Mathu who had been appointed to the Legco.
  • (v) It presented the grievances of the Africans in international Fora.
  • It provided leadership for the nationalist struggle / some of its leaders were also leaders of Mau Mau.
  • It laid the foundation for the formation of K.A.N.U which led Kenyans to independence.
  • It organized rallies in most parts of the country to create awareness on the political rights of Africans.

Any 5 x 2 =10marks.

 

  1. .a) State five reasons for the Maasai Collaboration with the British in the colonial period.
  • (i) Lenana wanted to consolidate his position and that of his kingdom.
  • (ii) They were weakened by widespread drought and famine.
  • (iii) The civil war between the Purko and Kwavi Maasai had weakened them.
  • (iv) They were weakened by both human and animal diseases / natural calamities.
  • (v) The emergency of the Nandi as a strong power threatened the existence of the Maasai community hence collaborated.
  • (vi) Lenana wanted British support against his Brother Sendeyo.
  • (vii) The Maasai developed fear of the British after the Kedong Massacre ie Lenana was greatly impressed by the British military might hence collaborated.      Any 5 x 1 =5marks.

 

  1. b) Explain five result of Nabongo Mumia’s collaboration with the British.
  • (i) Mumia was made a paramount chief of Wanga.
  • (ii) The British used Wanga warriors to subdue Nandi, the Bukusu and the Luo of Ugenya.
  • (iii) His headquarters at Elureko became the administrative headquarters of the British in western Kenya.
  • (iv) Mumia and his people acquired material benefits and western education.
  • (v) Wanga acquired more territory.
  • (vi) Mumia acquired firearms with which he expanded his territory.
  • (vii) Mumia’s warriors became the agents of British colonialism in western Kenya.
  • (viii) Wanga lost their independence.
  • (ix) Enemity and hostility between the wanga and neighboring communities intensified.
  • (x) The Wanga agents were used by the British to rule over western Kenya.
    1. Any 5 x 2 =10marks

 

  1. a) State three political reasons for the construction of the Uganda Railway.
  • (i) For effective control and development of Uganda.
  • (ii) To protect British strategic interests in East Africa by protecting the sources of River Nile
  • (iii) To facilitate transportation of troops to suppress rebellions among Africans.
  • (iv) To fulfil the requirements of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 of developing infrastructure within one’s sphere of influence for effective occupation.

Any 3 x 1 =marks

  1. b) Discuss the results of the Devonshire White Paper of 1923.
  • (i) Kenya was declared an African country and the African interests were made paramount.
  • (ii) The problems of Africans especially that of land and labour, were not resolved.
  • (iii) European demand for self-government was rejected.
  • (iv) A European missionary Dr. J. Arthur was appointed to represent African interests in Legco            .
  • (v) Africans became more politically aware and began forming political groupings to address their problems
  • (vi) Asians were bitter as their demands for equality with Europeans, were not considered.
  • (vii) The paper intensified rivalry between the Indians and settlers.
  • (viii) Local native councils were established for the Africans
  • (ix) Delamere and other settlers sought assistance from Rhodesia and South Africa to enable them to establish control over the colony.                              Any 6 x 2 =marks

 

SECTION C (30marks)

  1. a) State five reasons why national unity is important.
  • (i) It enhances political stability by minimizing inter-community suspicions as people get to know each other.
  • (ii) Promotes a sense of responsibilities.
  • (iii) Promotes co-operation through the spirit of Harambee.
  • (iv) Enables people to tackle common problems together.
  • (v) Helps people to develop the country.
  • (vi) Reduces incidents of fear and power struggle that can lead to civil war

Any 5 x 1 =5marks

  1. b) Explain five ways in which the Government of Kenya has tried to promote national integration since independence.
  • (i) Having one constitution which unities all Kenyans
  • (ii) Providing a uniform education system / same syllabus.
  • (iii) Having only one executive president.
  • (iv) Use of Kiswahili as a national language.
  • (v) Equitable distribution of resources.
  • (vi) Developing common symbols of unity eg national flag and national anthem.
  • (vii) Encouraging sports and games.
  • (viii) Having a centralized government recognized by all Kenyans.
  • (ix) Guaranteeing fundamental human rights and freedoms.

Any 5 x 2 =10marks

  1.  a) Describe the process of preparing a bill before it is taken to Parliament for debate.
  • (i) Making suggestions / proposals about the need of the law.
  • (ii) The proposals are taken to the Attorney General’s chambers for drafting and getting the legal framework.
  • (iii) The Attorney General prepares a draft proposal of the intended law.
  • (iv) The Attorney General notifies the members of the Parliament and the public about the intended bill to enable them carry out research.
  • (v) The intended law is then taken to parliament for debate.

Any 3 x 1 =3marks

  1. b) Explain six ways in which the Bill of Rights protect the rights of individuals in Kenya.
  • (i) States that every individual has a right to life.
  • (ii) It guarantees liberty to all citizens by forbidding enslavement and detention without trial.
  • (iii) Protects the individual from all forms of torture and inhuman treatment.
  • (iv) It guarantees the protection of private property and allows Kenyans to own property anywhere in the country
  • (v) It protects individuals from all forms of torture and inhuman treatments.
  • (vi) It guarantees the protection of freedom of speech and expression.
  • (vii) It gives Kenyans a right to move freely throughout the country and to recide in any part of the country.
  • (viii) Protects the individuals against any form of discrimination on the basis of colour, creed and gender.
  • (ix) It protects the individuals against arbitrary search, arrest and entry into one’s property without one’s consent. Any 6 x 2 =12marks

 

  1.  a) Identify three committees developed in parliament to ensure that government revenue is spent well.
  • (i) Public Accounts Committee-examines public accounts and ensures money is spent as budgeted
  • (ii) The Committee of Supply-Verifies the estimates presented by the different ministries before approving expenditure.
  • (iii) Committee of Ways and Means-Verifies the budget proposals and taxation.

Any 3 x 1 =3marks.

 

  1. b) Describe six challenges faced in planning the national budget in Kenya
  • (i) Rapid population growth leading to greater demand for government services hence straining the available resources.
  • (ii) Corruption and embezzlement of funds set aside for various project by government officers.
  • (iii) Tax evasion by individuals, eg. businessmen denying the government revenue.
  • (iv) Tough conditions by donor community / over borrowing by government.
  • (v) Natural calamities eg floods and drought.
  • (vi) Price fluctuation on agricultural goods on the world market, reduce net capital flow.
  • (vii) The wide spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases affect budget.
  • (viii) The devaluation of the Kenya Shilling means the cost of living will be higher and thus affect budget.
  • (ix) The high cost of petroleum products.
  • (x) Wide spread poverty and high unemployment Any 6 x 2 =12marks



311/1

HISTORY

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

 

SECTION A (25mks)

 

  1. Identify one main source of History and Government of the Kenyan communities during the pre – colonial period                         (1mk)
  • Oral traditional      (Any 1×1 = 1mk)
  1. State two economic activities which the Maasai acquired as a result of the interaction with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya                                                                (2mks)
  • Trade
  • Iron working. (Any 2×1 = 2mks)
  1. Give two factors which promote national unity in Kenya             (2mks)
  • The constitution
  • National language
  • Education – students subjected to same syllabus
  • Fair distribution of resources
  • National MOTTO – Harambee
  • Games and sports
  • Symbols of National unity the flag National Anthem.
  • The presidency – Kenya has one president who is the head of the state and government
  • National activities eg public holidays
  • Mass media.    (Any 2×1 = 2mks)
  1. Identify two functions of the Native Local Council (NLC) during the colonial period (2mks)
  • Allocating land for schools, churches hospitals etc
  • Controlling the brewing of liquor
  • Levying taxes which were used to provide services to the local people
  • Cleaning towns and market places
  • Encouraging a sense of duty towards colonial government among African leaders
  • Providing machinery through which Africans could participate in the government at local level
  • Regulate cattle dips, build roads, bridges and maintain them.
  • Water supply             (Any 2×1 = 2mks)
  1. What was the base of the political organization of the Iteso during the pre – colonial period                                                 (1mk)
  • The clan       (1×1 = 1mk)
  1. Give two reasons why the Omani rulers were interested in establishing their control over the

Kenyan coast                                                                                                             (2mks)

  • To expand their commercial empire
  • To establish political control over the Kenyan coast
  • To assist in ensuring the Portuguese rule.                                                    (2×1 = 2mks
  1. Give two ways through which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to the urban centres                                                                                                             (2mks)
  • Taking head count of those who were supposed to live in urban centres
  • Enacting strict rules about migration into urban centres/ creation of African reserves
  • Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in urban centres lived there
  • Introduction of Kipande system. (Any 2×1 = 2mks)
  1. Give one political reason for the construction of the Uganda railway                         (1mk)
  • The railway was to help establish effective British administration control and generate income to pay administration costs of Kenya and Uganda
  • Railway would help in protection of Britain’s and North Eastern Africa (River Nile, Egypt Suez canal)       (Any 1×1 = 1mk)
  1. State the main constitutional amendment in Kenya in 1991                                     (1mk)
  • Repeat of section 2A of the constitution

1×1 = 1 mark

  1. Give two functions of the colonial chiefs in Kenya             (2mks)
  • Recruiting labour for public works
  • Collecting taxes
  • Restricting the brewing of liquor
  • Maintaining of law and order
  • Presided over simple cases
  • Employed other persons to assist them e.g. council of elders
  • Interpreted colonial government policies to Africans.                         (Any 2×1 = 2mks)
  1. What is the MOTTO of the Kenya police             (1mk)
  • “Utumishi kwa wote”/ “service to all”

(1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Give two functions of the Laibon of the Maasai                                                 (2mks)
  • He was consulted on issues related to rain
  • He advised the community on suitable war strategies
  • He was consulted when to hold circumcision ceremonies
  • He blessed the warriors before they left for war/ raids.        (Any 2×1= 2mks)
  1. Give two methods used to resolve conflicts in Kenya             (2mks)
  • Guiding and counseling   – used effectively to solve personal disputes
  • Negotiations – brings together disputed parties to discuss and make a

compromise

  • Arbitration – use of a neutral person as mediator
  • Court settlement – disputes are taken court for legal offers to determine
  • Out of court settlement – involves withdrawal of cases from court to allow parties

concerned to discuss and agree on compensation.(Any 2×1 = 2mks)

  1. Identify the main function of the prison department in Kenya             (1mk)
  • To rehabilitate prisoners through counseling in attempt to correct their behaviour

(Any 1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Identify the main role of the opposition political parties in Kenya             (1mk)
  • To act as a watchdog of the ruling party/ check the excesses of the government/ ruling party

(Any 1×1 = 1mk)

  1. Give one factor which hinder free and fair elections in Kenya             (1mk)
  • Harassment of voters
  • Ethnic party loyalty
  • Inadequate civic education
  • Biased election officials
  • Incompetent election officials
  • Poor transport and communication during the election period
  • Misuse of mass media
  • Election violence
  • Poor distribution of election materials        (Any 1×1 = 1mk)
  1. Identify one group which monitors human rights in Kenya                                     (1mk)
  • Amnesty international
  • Federation of women lawyers
  • Religious groups
  • Members of parliament
  • The police
  • The media – print and electronic/ pressure groups

SECTION B

 

  1. (a) The political organization of the Maasai  in the pre – colonial period             (5mks)
  • The basic political organisaton of the Maasai was the clan. Clans were differentiated from each other by names and cattle colours
  • Each clan was administered by a council of elders. The council administered justice and important issues such as murder. It was the final court of appeal
  • The council of elders handled cases referred to it by the senior elders and acted as the custodian of the Maasai Legal System
  • Worriors defended Maasai territory, acquired new lands and resettled people in new areas
  • Maasai males belonged to age – sets led by a leader who coordinated its activities
  • The Laibon was consulted by warriors before war and community prayers were offered to God through him
  • The council of elders consulted the Laibon during national calamities or epidemics

2×5= 10mks

(b)       Effects of the migration and settlement of the Bantu speakers in Kenya             (10mks)

  • Increased trading activities
  • Increased population
  • Cultural borrowing
  • Intermarriages
  • Assimiliation of smaller communities
  • Spread of iron working
  • Conflicts with neighbours
  • Clearing of forests for settlement and farming.       (5×2 = 10mks)
  1. (a) Why the British were interested in establishing control over Kenya during the

Scramble for East Africa                                                                                          (3mks)

  • The British wanted free access through Kenya Uganda in order to control the sources of river Nile. This was critical to have interests in the Nile valley and Egypt
  • Britain wanted to establish strategic stations along the Nile to safeguard their interest in India
  • Britain wanted a source of raw materials for her industries
  • Britain wanted market for her manufactured goods
  • To protect British traders and missionaries who were already operating in the region
  • To help stop slavery and slave trade through direct occupation of the region
  • To promote legitimate trade ventures e.g. plantation farming, investment of surplus capital in the region.                                           (Any5x2 = 10mks)

(b)       Six reasons why the Nandi resisted against the British for long time                    12mks

  • The Nandi wave familiar with the terrain which favoured guerilla warfare
  • The regimental age – set system supplied the Nandi with young men who were experienced in battle, disciplined, organized and effective
  • The Nandi had some knowledge of weapons manufacture
  • The regular supply of food and war equipment sustained the fighters for along time
  • The wet and cold climate caused respiratory diseases among the British troops
  • Their mixed economy substantially aided them
  • The Nandi got help from the Kipsigis fighters and managed to overpower the British
  • The Orkoiyot was their symbol of unity and strength.       (6×2 = 12mks)
  1. (a) Factors which enabled the white settlers to establish farms in the Kenya Highlands                                                                                                                                                                   (3mks)
  • Government policies on land which took away land from the Africans and gave the Whites
  • Government support of loans, labour
  • Favourable climate, adequate rainfall and fertile soils
  • Improvement in transport and communication       (3×1 = 3mks)

(b)       Ways used by the colonial government to promote settler agriculture in Kenya                                                                                                                                                                         (12mks)

  • They occupied land for use by the settlers
  • They provided continous flow of labour
  • The government discouraged Africans from cash crop farming to reduce competition with the European farmers
  • The government provided transport to ease marketing of produce and delivery of farm inputs
  • The government established research stations for agriculture which benefited European settler farming
  • It encouraged formation of co – operatives for better marketing of settlers agricultural produce
  • Ministry of agriculture was started to co – ordinate settler agricultural activities
  • The government made many land concessions in the legislative council for the benefit of settler farming.                   (6×2=12mks)
  1. (a) Give five reasons why independent schools were established in Kenya during the

colonial  period                                                                                                           (5mks)

  • To protect African cultural heritage which was threatened by the introduction of western culture
  • To offer better education to Africans than what was offered in mission schools
  • To promote the cause of independent African churches
  • To provide additional educational opportunities to Africans
  • To create political awareness and consciousness among Africans students
  • To prepare Africans for better jobs opportunities
  • To prepare Africans for leadership       (5×1 = 5mks)

(b)       Explain the problems which the early Christian missionaries experienced in Kenya

(10mks)

  • They suffered from tropical diseases such as malaria and sleeping sickness
  • Poor transport and communication network thus forcing the missionaries to use human porterage and travel long distances
  • Language barrier. The local languages hampered communication
  • Hostility from slave dealers
  • Cultural conflicts between Christianity and Islam further alienated Africans from the new religion, Christianity preached against such practices as polygamy, female circumcision
  • Competition between Islam and Christianity further slowed missionary work
  • Rivalry between different Christian denominations eg catholics and protestants
  • Hostility from some African communities who did not want foreigners in their territories further interfered with missionary work.                   (5×2 = 10mks)

 

SECTION C (30mks)

  1. (a) Identify three elements of the national budget                                                       (3mks)
  • Estimates on the amount of revenue the government requires and how to raise
  • The various sources from which the government is to raise revenue
  • The project on which the government intends to spend the revenue in that financial year

(Any 3×1 = 3mks)

(b)       Explains ways in which the parliament ensures that public finance is not misused

(12mks)

  • Public investment committee ensures that public finance is not misused
  • Parliament requires all government expenditure to be audited and the reports presented to it for scruiting and debate through the public accounts committee
  • Public investment committee ensures that public finance is spent for the intended purpose
  • Before any money is allocated to the government ministries and department, it has to be approved by parliament
  • Government estimates have to be approved by parliament committee of supply when they are prepared and presented by the minister for finance on budget day
  • All supplementary estimates must be approved by parliament and it also demands an explanation using the money is needed
  • Parliament committee of ways and means verifies all budgets proposals e.g taxation and advices parliament.       (Any 6×2 = 12mks)
  1. (a) Identify five types of local authorities in Kenya                                           (5mks)
  • City councils
  • Municipal councils
  • County councils
  • Town councils
  • Urban council
  • Area council         (Any 5×1 = 5mks)

(b)       Explain the functions of the local authorities in Kenya                              (10mks)

  • It links the people with the central government through their elected leaders, the councilors. They enhance democracy at the local levels
  • They mobilize local resources and energies in carrying out projects within their areas
  • It helps in national development through provision of education e.g. building nursery and primary schools in Kenya
  • Providing health services by constructing and maintaining health centres and hospitals. They also offer mortuary and ambulance services. The councils also bury destitute within their areas. They provide land for cemeteries
  • They provide entertainment facilities like stadiums, social halls, parks and other recreation facilities
  • They provide and maintain road network within their areas of jurisdiction
  • They promote commercial activities by building and maintaining markets. They regulate business by issuing licenses and permits to control illegal businesses
  • They provide water and sewage services. They also ensure collection of garbage in towns, proper sanitation ad rubbish disposal
  • They provide housing services. They build residential houses in their local areas
  • They offer fire brigades services and street lighting in major towns to improve security
  • They make by – laws that regulate the activities and behaviour of those living in their areas
  • They provide employment for many people and training opportunities
  • They have the responsibility of controlling pollution from industrial, commercial and other premises in their areas
  • They maintain public areas such as parks, gardens, forests and woodlands
  • They provide day care centres – social clubs and hostels. They have homes for children who are deprived of a normal home life. They have homes for the aged, destitute and disabled in their areas
  • They provide building regulations and protection. They issue and approve plans for various types of buildings
  • They impose cess and other levies on crops such as tea and coffee. (Any 5×2 = 10mks)
  1. (a) Give the three branches of the armed forces                                                          (3mks)
  • Kenya army – Based on land
  • Kenya air force – Deals with air raids
  • Kenya Navy – Based on water         (Any 3×1 = 3mks)

(b)       Explain six functions of the armed forces                                                                (12mks)

  • To defend the country from external threat
  • Preserving internal security when the police are unable to contain the situation
  • Participating in national holidays such as Madaraka
  • Intertaining foreign guests and other guests during public holidays
  • Participating in development projects such as building roads and bridges
  • Providing emergency relief services during disasters such as floods, locusts invasion and accidents
  • The Kenya navy guards the territorial waters of the country
  • The Kenya navy also checks illegal landing and departures and unauthorized fishing by foreign vessels in Kenya waters
  • The armed forces participate in peace – keeping efforts outside the country under African union or the united nations organization
  • The Kenya Air force in collaboration with the Kenya Airport Authority secures Kenya’s airspace against potential forces or threats.       (Any 6×2 = 12mks)



311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Ways in which highland nilotes interacted with the Abaluhya

–  Intermarriage

– trade

– warfare

– linguistic assimilation

– cultural assimilation

– sporting activities                                                                            (2×1=2mks)

  1. One way in which the knowledge of iron working helped in the migration of the Bantu.

– Led to better farming tools hence increased food production and finally population pressure.

(1mk)

  1. Toe reasons for the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast apart from trade

–           escape religious persecution

–           spread islam

–           to establish settlements

–           to explore/ for adventure                                                        (2×1=2mks)

  1. Two negative effects of slave trade on Kenyan communities.

–           misery and suffering

–           killing and increased warfare

–           depopulation                                                                           (2×1=2mks)

  1. Why Seyyid Said took direct control of the settlements along the coast of Kenya.

–           to ensure revenue from taxes was remitted to Oman

–           to prevent rulers of coastal settlements from declaring themselves independent

–           to control Indian Ocean trade                                                 (1×1=1mk)

  1. One way in which rural to urban migration in Kenya contribute to national unity.

–           brought many people from different communities together who united to face the challenges from the colonial government

–           some Africans who migrated to towns and were employed formed trade unions which spearheaded the struggle for independence.                           (1×1=1mk)

  1. One community with a centralized system of government in Kenya.

–           Wanga                                                                                     (1x11mk)

  1. Two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.

–           outbreak of diseases due to congestion

–           urban sprawl as many people become landless

–           inadequate housing facilities

–           overcrowding in slums

–           cultural erosion / moral decay                                                           (2×1=2mks)

  1. Two examples of women who played a crucial role in the struggle for independence in Kenya.

–           Mekatilili wa Menza

–           Syotune wa Kathuke

–           Mary Muthoni Nyanjiru

–           Marshall Muthoni

–           Moraa wa Ngiti                                                                      (2×1=2mks)

  1. Two demands of AEMO presented to the Lennox-Boyd in 1957.

–           they demanded the increase of the number of elected Africans to Legco to 14

–           there should be special election of 4 Africans nominated to Legco not representing

Constituencies

  • a commission be set up to review and recommend the abolition of racist regulations
  • that the number of African minister to be raised to two.             (2×1=2mks)
  1. Main role of opposition parties in Kenya.

–           a watchdog of government                                                                 (1mk)

  1. System of government in Kenya

–           multi-party democracy.                                                                      (1×1=1mk)

  1. Two powers of the high court

–           Original power

–           appellate power                                                                                  (2×1=2mks)

  1. The chief mediator in the post-election crisis in Kenya in 2007.

–           Kofi Annan

  1. Two factors which undermine the effectiveness of the police in Kenya.

–           lack of facilities

–           frequent road accidents add pressure to police force

–           corruption in government institutions

–           poor conditions of work

–           negative attitude by public toward police force

–           easy access to weapons by criminals risk police efforts

–           lack of regular in-service training

–           high population

–           corrupt judicial system demoralize hard-working officers.

–           reluctance by public to volunteer vital information on insecurity.

–           political interference.                                                                         (2×1=2mks)

  1. One parliamentary committee in Kenya

–           public accounts committee (PAC)

–           Budgetary committee (JFT & BC)

–           Public investment committee                                                                        (1×1=1mk)

  1. One national philosophy in Kenya

–           Nyayoism

–           harambee

–           socialism                                                                                            (1×1=1mk)

SECTION B

18        a.         Five factors for the migration of the Maasai

–           need for grazing land

–           diseases and epidermics

–           internal conflicts

–           hostile neighbours

–           population increase

–           spirit of adventure

–           drought, famine and other calamities                                                (5×1=5mks)

  1. socio-political organization of the Maasai

–           believed in existence of God Enkai

–           prayed through Oloibon

–           offered sacrifices to gods under trees

–           cultural dances during circumcision and marriage

–           circumcised boys and girls

–           politically, they were organized in semi-autonomous clans

–           had age-set system

–           had warriors who defended community

–           had ritual leaders                                (5×2=10mks for well explained points)

  1. a. Why Chrisitan missionaries established stations in Kenya

–           to teach Africans how to read the bible

–           to train African catechists

–           to convert African to Christianity

–           to spread western culture

–           to teach Africans farming, masonry and carpentry

–           to cater for health needs of Africans

–           to have bases of operation for the missionaries

–           to serve as settlements for freed slaves

–           to promote European colonization                                         (5×1=5mks)

  1. Five results of Christian missionary activities in Kenya.

–           Spread Christianity

–           undermined African culture and promoted western culture

–           spread western education and civilization

–           promoted medical services by building hospitals

–           developed agricultural and technical skills

–           their work led to the rise of African independent churches

–           their work led to the establishment of  independent African schools

–           led to abolition of slave trade

–           contributed to exploration e.g krapt were fisrt European to see Mt. Kenya.

–           missionaries represented Africans in the legislative council e.g John Arthur

–           they were fore runners of colonialists as they asked mother countries to give them

protection.                                                                              (5×2 = 10mks)

20        a.         Five ways in which the British encouraged settler farming.

–           Alienation of African land

–           provision of cheap labour through resources like taxation

–           the colonial government provided extension officers

–           developing of transport and communication system

–           offering of good security to the white highlands

–           offering of credit and banking facilities to the white farmers

–           establishing of the ministry of Agriculture

–           by not allowing Africans to grow cash crops.                                   (5×1=5mks)

  1. Five effects of colonial land policies in Kenya.

–           Africans were dispossessed of their land.

–           Land was curved for the construction of the railway.

–           Africans were pushed into reserves.

–           Land set a side for Africans was not enough, Africnas were forced to migrate to

towns to look for wage labour, while others became squatters.

–           Europeans introduced the “kipande” so as to course Africnas to provide labour

–           Taxes were introduced to force the Africans to work for money.

–           The land issue became a sourceof bitterness sparking nationalism            (5×2=10mks)

  1. a. Five grievances of political organizations up to 1939

–           Land clienation

–           forced labour

–           kipande system

–           Africans were against taxation

–           Africans were not represented in the Legco

–           racial discrimination

–           African culture was interfered with                                                   (5×1=5mks)

  1. Five roles of political parties in the struggle for independence in Kenya between 1945 and 1963.

–           Influenced the British government to increase African representation in the Legco

–           Presented Africans grievances in the international forum

–           Supported freedom fighters by giving them moral and material support.

–           Provided leadership for the nationalist struggle

–           created awareness on the rights of the Africans

–           held discussions with the colonial government about Kenya.  Political future.

–           supported trade unions.

–           fought for the release of political detainees.

–           Educated Africans on the need to unite against European domination                                                                                                                                                (5×2=10mks)

 

 

 

 

 

SECTION  C

  1. a. Five ways the Kenyan government is using to curb corruption.

–           increase of salaries

–           creating awareness on evils of corruption

–           strict penalties on corruption

–           establishing KACC

–           settling ethics against corruption                                                       (5×1=5mks)

  1. Functions of the high court of Kenya.

–           has unlimited original and appellate jurisdiction

–           hears cases involving any amount of money or cases of serious crime.

–           deals with elections petitions

–           exercises general supervision to the subordinate courts

–           correct any irregularities in decision by lower courts

–           has administrative jurisdiction over maritime or naval affairs

–           hears cases involving inheritance

–           exercises divorce jurisdiction

–           has unlimited territorial jurisdiction

–           deals with any case between any person from any part of Kenya

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks well explained

  1. a. Duties of the prime minister in Kenya

–           supervises all ministries in the government

–           answerable to queries in parliament regarding  the function and performance of ministries once a week when parliamentary session is in progress

–           shares executive powers with the president e.g. appoints ministers from his party

–           consults and advices the president on day to day activities of the government

Any 3 x1 = 3mks

  1. How the bill of rights guarantees the rights of the individuals

–           It guarantees a person the right to life

–           right to own property

–           freedom of association/ assembly

–           freedom of expression

–           freedom of movement

–           protection against slavery and forced labour

–           protection against arbitrary search, arrest and detention

NB: Stating the right 1mk, explaining 1mk

Any 6 x 2 = 12mks

  1. a. Five sources of government revenue

–           Business permits

–           Road maintenance levy fund

–           donations

–           licenses

–           Water and sewerage fees

–           local authority property (e.g. houses)

–           rates paid by plot owners in towns

–           charges for services e.g. museums

–           fees for market

–           fines

–           loans from central government

Any 5 x 1 = 5mks

  1. Five factors that undermine the performance of local authorities

–           lack of autonomy

–           misappropriation and mismanagement of funds by unscrupulous council workers

–           over employment of workers who are not effectively paid hence strikes

–           inadequate funds

–           political interference

–           rise of unplanned structures leading to corruption of buildings

–           increasing population hence strain on the limited resources

–           environmental degradation especially in towns

–           vandalism and grabbing of property

–           growth of slums due to population increase

–           duplication of roles in some e.g. education, health

–           street families who are a security problem

–           brain drain due to poor salaries

–           traffic congestion

–           poverty – this is hard to eradicate

Any 5 x 2 = 10mks well explained




 

 

311/1

HISTORY & GOVERNMENT

MARKING SCHEME PAPER 1

 

  1. Two prehistoric sites:                  -Gambles cave

-Rusinga Islands.                          -Kariandusi

-Kanjera                                        -Njoro river cave

-L. Turkana                                   -Gede

-Fort Ternan                                                                     (2×1= 2marks)

 

  1. Two communities belonging to eastern Cushitic groups:

-The borana

-The Somali

-The omoro.

  1. Religious functions of the Orkoiyot.

-Presided over religious functions/blessed warriors

-advised community elders.

-He foretold future events/seer.

-He was a mediciceman.

-He was a rain maker.                                                            (2×1=2 marks)

  1. Duties of the governor stationed at Mombasa under Portuguese rule:

-collect tribute, from local rulers.

-Collect tax from exports.

-suppressed rebellions.

-Supervised the ruling families.                                            (2×1=2 marks)

  1. Methods used by long distance traders to acquire slaves during the 19th century:

-Exchanging slaves with other goods.

-raiding other communities for slaves

-Kidnapping lonely travelers

-Enticing children with sweets and gifts.                                          (2×1=2 marks)

  1. One document which contains the rights of Kenyan citizens:          (2×1=2marks)

Bill of rights

  1. National intergration:

-Bringing together of various communities ways that makes them one       (1×1=mark)

  1. Two sections of Luos who resisted:

-sakwa

-Ugenya

-seme

-Kisumu

-Uyoma                                                                                               (2×1=2 marks)

9          Treaty making the colonial spheres of influence:

-Heligoland treaty.                                                                             (1×1=1 mark)

  1. objectives of missionary Education:

-To improve agricultural skills to promote settler farming.

-To train Africans in technical skills to improve their industrial knowledge.

-Have some Africans trained as catechists to enhance the spread of Christianity.

-Offer Africans basic literacy to read the Bible and numeracy to do simple arithmetic.

(2×1=2 marks)

  1. Mary Nyanjiru. (1×1= 1 mark)
  2. Political party founded by Sir Michael Blundell: New Kenya Party        (1×1=1 mark)
  3. Main role of election observers:

(1×1= 1 mark)

14.Reasons for nominating aspiring candidate by a political party:

-In order to limit the number of candidates

– so as to identify party candidates

– to adhere to constitutional requirements/rules

  1. National philosophies

-African socialism.

-Harambee.

(1×1= mark)

  1. Reasons why corruption is being discouraged in Kenya:

-to promote economic development.

-To promote peace and stability.

-To promote national unity.

– To provide  fair distribution of national resources.

-To gain international confidence.

-To promote patriotism and ethical behabiour.                                 (2×1=2 marks)

  1. Duty of Prime Minister: To coordinate and supervise government ministries. (1×1=1 mark)

SECTION B:

  1. (a) Reasons for Bantu migration:

– being farmers they migrated in search of fertile land.

-Internal conflicts especially family and clan feuds.

-external attacks from their neighbours.

-Diseases and epidemics.

-Knowledge of iron working which led to high polulation.

-drought and famine.

-Desire for adventure.                                                                                    (5×1=5 marks)

(b)       Consequences of Bantu migration:

 

-their migration led to the spread of iron working to other parts of Kenya.

-Trading activities intensified as the Bantu exchanged their iron products with other

Products

-Being cultivators their settlement had to the spread of agricultureal practices in Kenya.

-It led to exchange of knowledge and skills between the African groups.

-Increased cultural interaction with other communities.

-Led to population redistribution.

-Led to displacement of some communities.

-Led to intermarriage with other communities e.g abaluhya-maasai,Kalenjins-Luo

(5×2=  10 marks)

  1. (a) why Christian missionaries established mission stations:

-To teach Africans how to read the Bible.

– To train African catechists to assist with missionary work.

– To convert Africans to Christianity.

– To spread western culture.

-To teach Africans farming masonry.

– to cater for health needs of Africans.

-To have bases of operation.

-serve as settlement for freed slaves.

-Promote European colonization.                                                      (5×1=5 marks)

(b)       Factors undermining missionary activities:

-Topical diseases.

-resistance and hostility from Africans e.g akamba 1.

– poor transport

-Lark of a common language

-rivarly between the different missionary groups.

-Competition from Islam.

-Hostility from slave traders and raiders

-Inadequate funds.

-Inadequate personnel to spread the gospel                                       (5×2= 10 marks)

  1. (a) Reasons for Maasai collaboration:

-Natural calamities which led to loss of large number of livestock.

-severe famine that resulted in high death toll in 1891 forcing them to seek food from British

Forts.

-emergency of the Nandi as a strong power had adverse implications on Maasai economy.

-civil wars that greatly undermined their power between 1850 and 1870.

-Civil wars that greatly undermined their power between 1850and 1870.

-Lenana wanted to consolidate his position and that of his kingdom.

-Maasai needed assistance to get their women and children from the custody of the Agikuyu.

(3×1=3 marks)

  • Results of Mumias collaboration:

-Mumias was made the paramount chief of Wanga.

– Mumias warriors actively became the agents of British colonialism.

-The IBEAC  was allowed to establish a base at Mumias which became the centre of colonial administration.

-Nabongo mumias was able to ejoy lucrative trade by having Mumias serve as a major terminus for trade caravans to Uganda.

-His co-operation with the British intensified enmity and hostility between his people and other abaluhyia sub-sections.

– His headquarters elureko became the major administrative headquarters in the british territory of western Kenya.

-the Wanga expanded by annexing new territories in samia, bunyala and Busoga with the British help.

-Mumias and his people acquired material benefits through western education, religion and trade.                                                                                       6×2=12 marks)

  1. (a) Reasons for formation of independent schools:

-To create political awareness among the students.

-To create employment opportunities for Africans who acquired western education.

-to preserve African cultural heritage which was being threatened by introduction of European

Culture.

-to enable Africans to acquire additional educational opportunities.

-To keep away European missionary influence more effective and self-reliant.

(5×1=5 marks)

  • Problems of independent schools:

-they lacked adequate funds for use in contractions.

-maintaining schools and paying teachers salaries.

-they lacked qualified teachers and equipment such as furniture, stationery and materials for technical subjects.

-the schools kept on splitting and new ones emerging due to differences in people’s objectives and opinions-Kikuyu Karing’a education Assocciation

-there was a problem of deciding the language to use as a medium of instruction in the independent schools.

There also emerged leadership wrangles due to triblism.     (5×2=10 marks)

 

SECTION C

  1. (a) five peaceful methods of resolving conflicts:

                        -Litigation-court makes judgment

-arbitration-neutral person resolve dispute.

-Negotiation-dialogue between warring parties.

Mediation-neotral person help the warring parties

Problem solving workshops-conflicting parties talk in the presence of facilitators

-arms inspection-carried and to build confidence and prevent misunderstanding between

Warring parties.

  • Five circumstances which may force government to limit rights and freedoms of individual:

-If one is convicted of murder in a cort of law i.e robbery with violene; right of life is taken.

-if one is suspected to be planning to commit a crime-right to liberty denied.

-One can be denied freedom to own property if the government want to develop public utilities .

-One’s freedom of assembly can be limited if it poses a threat to the state.

-One’s freedom of speech can be limited if it poses threat the state.

-One’s freedom of speech is limited if one publishers false accusation of another person or state.

-If one is not of sound mind or has an infectious disease movement is denied.

-If one is considered a minor, adults make decisions on their behalf.          (5×2=10 marks)

  1. (a) Three units of the Kenya Police:

-traffic police

-Regular police.

-National security Intelligence Service.

-General service Unit.

-criminal Investigation department.

-Police air wing.

-anti-stock theft units.

-Anti-Narcotics Units.

-flying squad.

-Prosecution unit.

-Kenya police reserve.

(b)      Six functions of the armed forces in Kenya.

-defend the country from external threat.

-Preserving internal security when the police are fully extended.

-Participatating in national holidays.

-entertainment during public holidays.

-participating in development projects e.g. building roads.

-providing emergency relief services during disaster e.b flooding.

-The Kenya Navy guards the territorial waters of the country.

-The Navy also checks illegal landing and departures and unauthorized fishing by foreign

Vessels.

-The armed forces participate in peace-keeping efforts outside the country under AU or UNO.

-The Kenya air force in collaboration with the Kenya airport Authority secures Kenya’s Air

Space aginst potential forces.                                                                        (6×2=12 marks)

  1. (a) Main sources of revenue for local government:

-grants from central government.

-Fees charges on services rendered by the councils.

-sale of licences.

-fines imposed on offenders.

-services charge paid by residents.

-rates on property.

-Profit from council investments.

-Rents charged on houses and office place.

-Loans from financial institutions.

-aid from donor agencies.                                                                  (3×1=3 marks)

(b)       Importance of preparing national budger:

-Helps the government to prioritize its needs.

-enables the government to identify sources of government revenue.

-helps the government identify the projects to finance in the coming financial year.

Budget gives MPs an opportunity to discuss the government expenditure before its put into use.

-budget helps the government to balance its revenue and expenditure needs.

-budget helps government determine and explain to the public the tax structure.

-Budget ensures balanced and equitable development in the country.

-budget through supplementary expenditure enables the government to plan for certain needs

That emerge in the course of the year. E.g disease outbreak.

-government can assess its performance in the previous budgets and rectifyin areas of

Weakness if any.

It enhances the identification of government departments and their needs inorder to allocate

Funds appropriately to each department.

Through budget, the government communicates its plans and policies to its local and foreign

Development partners.

The volume of the budget also indicates the expansion of services provided by the government.

(6×2=12 marks)

– anti-Narcotics



 


311 / 1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

PAPER 1

 

  1. State the main economic way in which the Abagusii and Luo interacted in the pre-colonial period:

–           Trade                                                                                             1×1=1mk

  1. Name the remaining group of Southern Cushitic community

–           The Dahallo (Sanye) of Tana river                                              1×1=1mk

  1. State two advantages of the age-set system among traditional African people

–           Defined leadership roles/ division of labour

–           An age set group provided warriors at a certain time before retirement, warriors

defended the community

  • Created sense of comradeship /friendship and belonging
  • Reduced conflicts between different members of the community
  • Prepared the initiates for marriage and adult life
  • Ensured that there was respect for each groups.             2×1=2mks
  1. State two factors that facilitated the coming of Arabs to the East African coast

–           Technology in the construction of dhows.

–           Arab entrepreneurs / merchants funded the journey

–           The monsoon winds which powered the dhows.

–           Accessibility through the red sea.                                                      2×1=2mks

  1. Name the area of central Africa that was the source of gold traded in the Indian ocean trade

–           Mwene Mutapa kingdom.                                                                  1×1=1mk

  1. Give the main discovery made during the 19th Century that facilitated the spread of Christianity in Kenya

–           Quinine for the treatment of Malaria.                                                           1×1=1mk

  1. Name two chartered companies which established spheres of influence in East Africa in the 1880’s

–           The Imperial British East Africa Company

–           The German East Africa company.                                                    2×1=2mks

  1. Give two reasons why Europeans gave inferior formal education to the Africans during the colonial period

–           Racial discrimination

–           Fear of competition from educated Africans

–           Wanted to produce semi-skilled labour force

–           Fear that educated Africans would demand for their rights.             2×1=2mks

  1. State two social grievances of early political organizations in Kenya up to 1939

–           End racialism in clubs, theatres, trains etc

–           Equal educational and health facilities

–           Upward social mobility for the Africans

–           End to segregation in residential areas in towns and housing i.e. high and low grades.                                                                                                           2×1=2mks

  1. Name two trade unions formed in Kenya during the colonial period

–           African workers federation

–           The Kenya federation of labour

–           The Kenya federation of registered trade unions

–           Transport and Allied workers union

–           Domestic and hotel workers union

–           East African Federation building and construction workers union

–           Night watchmen, clubs and shop workers union.                              2×1=2mks

  1. State two ways through which the government of Kenya has attempted to preserve cultural heritage since independence

–           Through museums, Bomas of Kenya, National Archives etc

–           Music festivals in educational institutions and other government owned colleges, eg prisons, police etc

–           The syllabus has been tailored to include cultural studies.

–           It has created the ministry of sports and cultural services to promote cultural values.

–           African religious heritage is integrated into Christianity though the right of freedom of worship provided in the constitution                             2×1=2mks

 

  1. Identify the major constitutional change that was implemented in 1992

–           Repeal of section two of the constitution giving way to multiparty democracy in

Kenya                                                                                                  1×1=1mk

  1. State two characteristics of human rights

–           They are universal

–           They are indivisible

–           They have limitations

–           They can be suspended depending on circumstances e.g. during war.                                                                                                                                                2×1=2mks

  1. What is the meaning of the rule of law

–           All matters must be handled in accordance with  law

–           Any person suspected of having committed offence must be assumed innocent until proved guilty by a court of law.

–           All citizens should be subjected to the same law irrespective of their colour religious creed etc.                                                                              1×1=1mk

  1. State one way in which the government of Kenya is trying to minimize poverty among Kenyans

–           Free primary and secondary education

–           Loans are given to the youth and jua kali artisans

–           Education bursaries for secondary and post secondary education

–           Provide more jobs through the reviving of industries eg. The Kenya meat

commission.                                                                                       1×1=mk

  1. Give one occasion when the president attends parliament

–           During the opening of new parliament

–           During the presentation of National budget day

–           During the dissolution of parliament.                                                            1×1=1mk

  1. Identify the major emerging problem in the police force condemned by the international community.
    • Extra judicial killings             1×1=mk

SECTION B (45 MARKS )

 

  1. (a) Give five reasons why the Mijikenda migrated from Shungwanya in the sixteenth

     century                                                                                                                  5mks

–           Population pressure

–           Internal and external conflicts

–           Drought and famine

–           Search for land for cultivation

–           Diseases and epidemics affecting both animal and people

–           Adventure                                                                                     5×1=5mks

  • Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda during the pre-colonial period:

–           They were organized in clans

–           Clans were governed by council of elders – Kambi

–           Kambi acted as a final court of appeal

–           Kambi also presided over religious ceremonies

–           It was in charge of both internal and external affairs eg it declared war.

–           The age set among the Mijikenda provided warriors who defended the community

against external attack

–           Four to six clans lived in a fortified village called Kaya

–           Intermarriage between clans contributed to the strength of the political unit.

–           A headman chaired council meetings.                                               5×2=10mks

  1. (a) Give five reasons leading African communities to collaborate with colonialists

–           Needed support to defeat their rivals.Traditional enemies e.g. Lenana

–           Internal problems e.g. civil wars, epidermic and hunger, drought and famine etc

–           It was prestigious to be associated with the superior race.

–           Wanted to acquire western education, health and religion.

–           Wanted to extend trade ties more especially in fire arms                 5×1=5mks

(b)        Explain the results of the Maasai collaboration with the British

–           Lenana rival Sendeyo was defeated and this marked Lenana’s political growth among the Kenyan Maasai

–           The Maasai were used by the British in colonial conquest e.g, Maasai warriors were used in British punitive expeditions against the Nandi in 1906.  The Agikuyu resistance was brought to a halt in 1904.

–           The Maasai were given cattle as reward for their assistance

–           The British were able to build the railway across Maasai land and Nandi land without further hindrance.

–           Maasai land was alienated and given for white settlement.  The Maasai were pushed into unfertile reserves.                                                 10mks

  1. (a) State five political developments which hastened the achievement of independence

      in Kenya between 1945 and 1963.

–           The return of ex-servicemen who had military expertise to organize colonial resistance.  They were in the fore front in the Mau Mau resistance.  Ex-servicemen were not rewarded hence they were ready to resist the British.

–           The formation of political parties by African nationalists e.g. KADU, KANU e.t.c

–           Formation of trade unions

–           Change of government from conservative to labour party in Britain. Labour party was sympathetic towards nationalists in colonized countries.

–           The return of Jomo Kenyatta from U.K strengthened the nationalists in Kenya

–           Independence of other countries e.g. Ghana.

–           The formation of UNO which pressured for decolonization.

–           The formation of independent churches and schools.                                   5×1=5mks

(b)       Explain challenges facing industrial sector since independence

–           Poverty which implies limited purchasing power, poor investment, insufficient capital etc.

–           Poor communication and transport systems.

–           Limited industrial power and high cost of fuel (petroleum)

–           Mismanagement, nepotism, corruption, poor planning and execution of plans by the government.

–           Competition from developed industrial powers

–           Poor technological advancement. Limited skilled labour

–           Shortage of raw materials, natural resources are limited

–           Environmental degradation and its accompanying problems e.g. famine and drought.

–           Post –election violence.                                                                     5×2=10mks

SECTION C (30MARK)

  1. (a) Positive effects of Portuguese rule on Kenyan coast

–           Introduced new crops e.g. maize

–           Enriched Kiswahili language

–           Build Fort Jesus and Vasco da Gama pillars

–           Encouraged trade links between Kenya and India

–           Brought new architectural construction of  stone buildings. 3×1=3mks

  • Reasons for the decline of the Portuguese rule

–           Their harsh rule provoked resistance.

–           Constant revolts by coastal communities.

–           The corrupt Portuguese administrators embezzled revenue

–           Decline of coastal trade

–           Portuguese settlements attacked by the Zimba terrorists from Zambezi valley

–           Portuguese were constantly attacked by tropical diseases e.g. Malaria.

–           The coastal Arabs and Swahili obtained support from the Turks.

–           Delayed re-enforcement due to long distance.

–           Competition from other Europeans powers e.g. Britain

–           They were conquered by Spain hence neglected her interest at the coast.

6×2=12mks

  1. (a)   Identify three types of elections held in Kenya

–           The general elections

–           By-elections

–           Civic elections                                                                                                3×1=3mks

(b)      Describe the reasons that can lead to the disqualification of one as a candidate for

     parliamentary elections

–           Being insane

–           Being under sentence of death imposed by a Kenya court or a sentence of imprisonment exceeding six months.

–           Being bankrupt

–           Having an interest in any office in the public service in the armed forces of the republic or in any local government authority.

–           Is convicted by court of law for an election offences

–           Allegiance, obedience or adherence to any foreign state.

–           Has contracts made with the Kenyan government as prescribed in parliament.

6×2=12mks

  1. (a) Identify three main disciplined forces in Kenya.

–           Armed forces

–           Police force

–           Prisons department

(b)       Explain five problems facing the provincial administration in Kenya

–           High population / sparse population in other areas.

–           Natural disasters e.g. floods

–           Inadequate infrastructure

–           Inadequate funds

–           Corruption and lack of transparency / nepotism

–           Lack of qualified staff.

–           Illiteracy, poverty and diseases.

–           Tribalism and ethnic tendencies

–           Anti-social activities e.g. chang’aa brewing

–           Insecurity e.g. tribal clashes.

–           I.D.Ps  – Internal Displaced People.                                                   6×2=12mks

  1. (a) Identify five main domestic sources of government revenue

–           Direct tax e.g. PAYE

–           Indirect tax e.g. Custom duties

–           License fees e.g. driving licenses

–           Legal fines

–           Fees paid by citizens                                                                          5×1=5mks

(b)        Explain why the government of Kenya prepares the national budget every year.    

–           To prioritize its needs

–           To identify sources of revenue

–           Enables the government to approve expenditure.

–           Enables the government to explain the tax structure to the public

–           To make financial estimates

–           For smooth running of government departments

–           For accountability

–           Give useful information to those organizations and individuals who may want to

keep track of government expenditure

–           To account for borrowed / donated funds                                          5×2=10mks




311 / 1

HISTORY 1

PAPER 1

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A: 25 MARKS

Answer all questions from this section in the answer sheets provided.

  1. Identify the largest linguistic group in Kenya.             (1 mk)

– TheBantu                                                                              (l x l =1mk)

  1. State TWO reasons for the migration of the Borana into Kenya in the 19th Century.

(2 mks)

– To avoid conquest by Menelik II of Ethiopia.

– Internal feuds

– Natural calamities e.g drought                                            (2 x 1= 2 mks)

  1. Give the highest administration organ among the Ameru.             (1 mk)

– The Supreme Council of Elders /Njuri Ncheke.                 (1×1=1mk)

  1. Give TWO archaeological evidence of the existence of trade between the East African Coast and the outside world before 1500 A.D.                                     (2 mks)

– Existence of ptolemic gold, coins and Chinese coins dating as early as A-D 700.

– Remains of porcelain/pottery.                                             (2 x 1=2 mks)

  1. State TWO factors that led to the emergence of the Akamba as long distance traders in the

Pre-colonial period.                                                                                                               (2 mks)

– Dry conditions which made cultivation unprofitable

– Strategic position of Ukambani between the rich Central Kenya highlands and the coastal

trading centres.

– Ability to hunt for the products which found market at the coast such as leopard skin and ivory.                                                                                               (2 x1= 2 mks)

  1. Give the main way in which the use of Kiswahili promotes national unity in Kenya. (1 mk)

– It makes it possible for people of different communities to communicate with each other.

(1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give TWO reasons why the Kenyan Constitution is regarded as the fundamental law of the country                         (2 mks)

– Because all other laws are dependent or limited by it.

– It is consulted whenever there is a contradiction between it and any other law.

– It determines the relationship among organs and institutions of government.

(2 x 1 = mks)

  1. Identify TWO survival rights of children.             (2 mks)

– Right to life

– Right to name and identity with a nation

– Right to good medical care

– Right to good clothing

– Right to good shelter

– Right to good food                                                               (2 x 1= 2 mks)

  1. Name TWO chartered companies that were used by the Europeans to administer their

spheres of influence in East Africa.                                                                         (2 mks)

– The Imperial British East African Company

– The German East African Company                                   (2 x 1 =2 mks)

  1. Give the main effect of colonial land policies in Kenya.             (1 mk)

– Most African land was alienated.                                        (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. What were the objectives of the second Lancaster House Conference of 1962?            (2 mks)

– To work out the final steps to self government in Kenya.

– To draw the independence constitution

– To sort out differences between KANU and KADU           (2 x 1 = 2 mks)

 

  1. Identify TWO non-elected members of the National Assembly in Kenya.             (2 mks)

– The Attorney General

– The nominated members.                                                    (2 x 1 mks)

  1. Who appoints permanent secretaries in Kenya?             (1 mk)

– The president. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

  1. Give the function of the Industrial Court in Kenya.             (1 mk)

– Settles cases arising from trade disputes.                           (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Identify the main political challenge to the Government of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta in 1975.

(1 mk)

– The assassination of Josiah Mwangi Kariuki, MP for Nyandarua North. (1 x 1 = 1 mk)

  1. Give ONE example of Direct tax in Kenya.             (1 mk)

– Income tax/Pay As You Earn

– Withholding tax                                                                   (1 x 1=1 mk)

  1. Name ONE parliamentary committee that monitors government expenditure in Kenya.

(1 mk)

– The Public Accounts Committee

– The Public Investments Committee.                                               (1 x 1= 1 mk)

 

SECTION B: (45 MARKS)

Answer any THREE questions from this section

  1. a) State FIVE economic activities of the Maasai             (5 mks)

– They practiced pastoralism

– Some sections of the Maasai (Kwari) practiced agriculture

– They practiced iron working

– They traded with their neighbours such as Akamba, Agikuyu.

– They gathered food such as vegetables, roots and fruits.

– They raided neighbouring communities for cattle.

  1. b) Describe the political organization of the Mijikenda in the 19th century. (10 mks)

– They were organized into clans who traced their descent to the same ancestor.

– The Kaya or village was the basic political unit and comprised a number of clans.

– They were governed by a council of elders known as Kambi.

– The council settled disputes, administered justice and acted as the final court of appeal.

– The Mijikenda practiced the age set system.

– The age set system provided warriors who defended the community against external attacks.

– The Mijikenda had no centralized political system.                                   (5×2= l0mks)

  1. a) State THREE factors that facilitated urbanization in colonial Kenya. (3 mks)

– The construction of the Uganda Railway.

– The establishment of shops along the railway line by Asians.

– The establishment of colonial administrative posts such as Nyeri and Kisii.

– Mining activities e.g at Magadi.

– Commercialization of farming also promoted the growth of towns such as Eldoret, Nakuru, Thika e.t.c.                                                                          (3 x 1 = 3 mks)

  1. b) Explain SIX problems of Nairobi City. (12 mks)

–  Poor sanitation

–  Frequent crime

–  Traffic conjestion

–  Child delinquency                                                                           (6 x 2= 12 mks)

 

 

  1. a) State Five reasons for the rise of independent churches and schools in Kenya during the

                Colonial period.                                                                                                                  (5mks)

– Africans were opposed to European cultural ways and wanted to incorporate African

cultural practices such as Polygamy.

– They were against colonial discrimination and exploitation.

– They were formed to enable Africans to provide leadership in their own churches and

schools.

– Mission churches were not accommodative to African ways of worship.

– They sensitized the Africans on their rights and the evils of colonialism.

– There were few educational opportunities for the Africans in mission schools.

(5 x 1 = 5 mks)

  1. b) Explain the challenges faced by independent churches and schools during the colonial

     period.                                                                                                                   (10 mks)

– Poor leadership.

– Lack of trained teachers/inadequate personnel.

– Competition from mission churches and schools.

– Hostility from the colonial government who read a political motive in the independent

churches and schools.

– Leadership wrangles emerged among the officials

– Shortage of funds.

– They were forced to follow official syllabus.                                 (5×2= l0mks)

  1. a) State Three benefits of multipartism in Kenya.             (3mks)

– Has enabled free expression and choice.

– Has reduced abuse of power and privilege by leaders.

– Has created accountability on the part of government.

– Has promoted the respect for human rights in Kenya.

– It has created transparency in government dealings.                      (3×1 =3mks)

  1. b) Explain the challenges of the agricultural sector in Kenya since independence. (l2mks)

– Droughts and famines have been experienced e.g. in 1984.

– The world market prices for agricultural commodities have fallen since the 1970s.

– Corruption and mismanagement of co-operatives have led to meager earnings for tea,

coffee and pyrethrum farmers.

– Poor infrastructure has frustrated farmers, as they are not able to access the markets.

– Politically instigated clashes e.g. in the Rift Valley in the 1990’s discouraged farmers

from intense cultivation.

– The high cost of farm inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and pesticides.

– Destruction of farm produce by pests after harvest.

– Competition for market from the more industrialized countries like U.S.A has frustrated

Kenyan farmers.

– Poor technology has contributed to poor yields especially due to reliance on natural rains.

(6 x 2= l2mks)

 

SECTION C:

Answer any TWO questions from this Section in the answer sheets provided.

  1. a) Identify Three types of elections that constitute a general election in Kenya. (3mks)

– Presidential elections.

– Parliamentary elections.

– Civic elections.                                                                                (3 x 1=3mks)

  1. b) Describe the preparations made by the Electoral Commission before elections are held in

     Kenya.                                                                                                                   (l2mks)

– Marking of constituencies.

– Registration of voters.

– Choosing of election officials such as presiding officers, returning officers etc.

– Preparation of election materials e.g ballot papers and boxes.

– Nomination of candidates to contest various seats in the election.

– Arranging for security of ballot papers and boxes.

– Organizing for Transportation of electoral officials and materials.

– Examination of voters registers to remove dead voters from the registers, eliminate

double registrations.

– Conduct voter education.

– Establish polling stations.                                                               (6 x 2=l2mks)

  1. a) State Three reasons why Parliament is regarded as the supreme Institution in the Constitution of Kenya             (3 mks)

– It is the only Institution that makes amends and repeals laws.

– It has power to pass a vote of no confidence in a sitting President.

– It approves the budget.

– It declares war.                                                                                 (3×1 =3mks)

  1. b) Explain six merits of a parliamentary government. (l2mks)

– It creates harmony since the executive and the legislative work together.

– It is flexible and incase of an emergency, people can choose a leader to handle the crisis.

– It is responsible and responsive to the people who elect it.

– It allows ordinary citizens to participate in governance through their representatives.

– It is effective as ministers must answer questions in the House.

– If acts as a training ground for political leaders as MP5 prove their ability and experience

during parliamentary debates.

– It allows for regular elections where the electorate participates as voters or contestants.

– It allows for constructive criticism from the opposition.

– It legitimizes the actions taken by the government since such actions come from

recommendations by MPs.                                                              (6×2= l2mks)

  1. a) Identify Five sources of revenue for local authorities in Kenya.             (5mks)

– Grants from central government.

– Rent from residential buildings.

– Fees on services such as water and sewerage; parking etc.

– Sale of business licenses.

– Sale of property

– Fines from offenders.

– Rates from property owners.

– Loans.

– Donations.                                                                                        (5 x 1 = 5 mks)

  1. b) Establish the relationship between the Local Authorities and the central government in

    Kenya.                                                                                                                    (10 mks)

– The Local authorities are created by an act of parliament and operate under the Ministry

for Local Government.

– The Minister for Local government carries out general supervision of the activities of the

Local authorities to ensure that the follow the regulation of the central government.

– The central government, through the Minister approves the by-laws made by local

authorities.

– The central government appoints chief officers of local authorities such as Town Clerks,

Treasures, and engineers. e.t.c.

– Through the Minister, the central government can reorganize local authorities by

redefining their boundaries, upgrading, or amalgamating two or more local authorities.

– The local authorities receive grants from the central government to finance essential

services.

– The Minister can order for an inquiry and suspend or dissolve a local authority.

– The central government approves Loans for local authorities.

– The central government through the Minister nominates councilors to the Local

authority.                                                                                         (5 x 2= l0mks)




311/1

HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

 MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

1          -The meaning of the tem government;- The exercise of administrative authority over a political unit                             (1×1=1mk)

 

2          – Centre of political power;- Council of elders                                                                           (1×1=1mk)

 

3          One grade of elders among the Akamba

-Juniour elders/Anake

-Intermediate elders/Nthale

-Full elders/Atumia Ma Kivalo

-Senior elders                                                                                                                (1×1=1mk)

 

4          One reason why Seyyid encouraged Indian Banyans to come to East AfricanCoast

-To provide financial aid

-To assist the caravan traders                                                                                         (1×1=1mk)

 

5          Two problems which independent Churches schools faced during the colonial period

-Inadequate teachers

-Inadequate funds

-Lack of adequate facilities

-Constant harassment from the colonial government and missionaries                (2×1=2mks)

 

6          The engineer who was in charge of Uganda railway  -George White House                              (1×1=1mk)

 

7          The main reason why the British introduced the kipande system

-To control the desertion of African labour                                                                    (1×1=1mk)

 

8          Two demands made by AEMO

-Universal suffrage/franchise

-Kenyan Highlands to be opened to all races

-More members be elected to Legco

-Put an end to the state of emergency                                                                (2×1=2mks)

 

9          Founder president of APP       -Paul Ngei                                                                                (1mk)

 

10        Two national philosophies in Kenya

-African socialism

-Harambee philosophy

-Nyayoism                                                                                                                    (2×1=2mks)

 

11        Two reasons why colonial government provided technical education to Africans-

-To prepare them only for manual jobs as clerks

-Fear that educated Africans would become more politically active                                 (2×1=2mks)

 

12        Causes of maasai Civil wars

-Succession disputes between Lenana and Sendeyo after the death of Laibon Mbatian

-Internal conflicts between different facilities of the Maasai

-Rivalry over the control of pasture land                                                                        (2×1=2mks)

 

13        Christian main motive behind the convening of the second Lancaster house conference in 1962

-To draft independence constitution

-To set a date for independence                                                                         (1×1=1mk)

 

 

 

 

 

14        One characteristic of human rights

-Universal

-Indivisible

-May be suspended at times                                                                                          (1×1=1mk)

 

15        One provincial administrator who is not on government payroll;

-Village elder                                                                                                                (1mk)

 

16        Two persons qualify to be Kenya citizens by birth

-Born in Kenya by parents who are citizens of Kenya

-Born outside Kenya by parents who are Kenyan citizens                                   (2×1=2mks)

 

17        The one who runs the government during the period between the dissolution of parliament and the

              announcement of election results is;

-The president and cabinet                                                                                           (1mk)

 

18        The way which a person becomes the speaker of the national assembly in Kenya is ;

-Election by members of parliament                                                                              (1mk)

19        One senior government officer who is an automatic member of JSC;

-Chief justice (C.J)

-Attorney General (A.G)           (1×1=1mk)

SECTION B (45MKS)

20(a)    (i)Abaluhya                  (ii)Abagusii

(iii)Abakuria                 (iv)Abasuba                                                                                          (3×1=3mks)

 

(b)        -Intermarriages from either side

-Out break of wars as they fought over scarce resources

-Increase in population as the two communities settled in the Western region

-Cultural exchanges e.g names became common

-Assimilation of some groups e.g Samia and Morana emerged

-Increased social activities e.g games

-Increased trading activities e.g many varieties of goods were introduced into the market

(any 6ptsx2=12mks)

21(a)    -To control the rich East African coast

-To establish political power over the Kenyan coast

-The coast had good climate (warm)

-There were fertile soils for growing of cloves

-To assist in ending the Portuguese rule

-There were deep natural harbours for ships to anchor

-There was adequate fresh water                                                                                    (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -He invited foreign traders to the Kenyan coast e.g Indian Banyans

-He signed trade agreements with European countries and U.S.A

-He created political stability along the E. African coast which was conducive for trade

-He established a well organized long distance trade into the interior of E. Africa which provided many commodities

-He established plantation agriculture clove plantation

-Consulate offices in Zanzibar were opened by the countries that had signed trade agreements  (5×2=10mks)

 

22(a)    -BA Ohanga was made minister for community development and African affairs

-Africans were allowed to form political organizations whose functions were restricted to district levels only

-Establishment of a multi-racial council of ministers made up of officials and non-official members

-Colonial government provided for an election of eight (8) Africans is the Legco

-Formation of an advisory council to discuss government policies                                  (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -Protested against the colonial government policy of separation of Agikuyu, Aembu and Ameru from other communities in Nairobi

-Protested against government arrest, detention and torture of African workers

-Solicited for moral and financial support for Kenya federation of labour from international trade unions and other organizations

-Protested the restriction of Africans to grow cash crops

-He organized and facilitated trade unions education in many parts of the community

-Was elected secretary general of KANU in 1960

-He participated in the Lancaster house conference (1960) which paved the way for Kenya’s independence

-He attended the second Lancaster house conference and participated in the drafting of the independence constitution

-He campaigned for the release of detained unionists and political leaders  e.g Jomo Kenyatta (5×2=10mks)

 

23(a)    -Needed protection from their enemies e.g Nandi, Bukusu and Luo of Ugenya

-Nabongo wanted to use the British to expand his sphere of influence

-Nabongo had insatiable desire for European goods e.g guns

-Need to protect and preserve his independence and position of the King

-Nabongo had learnt a lesson from other resistance-(knew the consequences of resisting a mighty power)

-Nabongo wanted his people to acquire western education and Christianity             (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        (i)Declared that Kenya was primarily an African country and incase of conflicts, African interests must

prevail

(ii)The highlands were reserved for European settlement only

(iii)Asians were allowed to elect five members to the legislative council on a communal rather than common

roll and representative in municipal councils

(iv)There was to be no racial segregation in residential areas

(v)Restrictions on Indian immigration was lifted

(vi)A missionary was to be nominated by the governor to represent African interest in the legislative council

(vii)The European demand for self government under European rule was rejected

(viii)The colonial office was to exercise close control of the colony                     (5×2=10mks)

 

SECTION C (30marks)

24(a)    -It is a constitutional requirement

-It enables Kenyans to have a new government

-It enables Kenyans to exercise their democratic right of voting

-It enables Kenyans to remove non-performing leaders

-It enables Kenyans to elect leaders

-It enables Kenyans to elect leaders of their own choice                                                             (5×1=5mks)

 

(b)        -Death of a sitting member of parliament

-Resignation of a sitting member of parliament

-If a member is declared bankrupt by a court of law

-If a member misses eight consecutive parliamentary sessions without permission and the speaker declares the sit vacant

-If the sitting members ceases to be a Kenyan citizen                                         (5×2=10mks)

 

25(a)    (i)As chief administration the C.J ensures and co-ordinate and monitor the activities of the court system in arbitration of justice

(ii)C.J participates in the adjudication  process in High and court of appeal -hear cases

(iii)C.J swears in new magistrates upon their appointment before undertaking official duties

(iv)As the chair person of J.S.C advices the president on the appointment, promotion in renewal of judges of court of appeal and the high court

(v)In the consultation with C.J determines the establishment of Kadhi’s courts

(vi)C.J swears in the president and cabinet ministers

(vii)C.J prescribes fees to be charged by the courts

(viii)C.J plays an advisory role in the renewal of a president on grounds of incapacitation

(ix)Ensures that professional ethics regarding the judiciary are preserved                        (5×1=5mks )

(b)        (i)Prior notice of the case. The accused persons are given adequate notice of all the allegations against them

(ii)The rights to be heard. They are given the right to state his/her position in the case

(iii)The persons charged are given the opportunity to consider, challenge any evidence given against them and

call their witnesses, make submissions and even cross examine witnesses called by the prosecutor

(iv)They are given the right to legal representation by a legally qualified person

(v)The courts are independent, impartial, and competent and expected to give fair judgement

(vi)One is assumed to be innocent until proven guilty through accepted legal procedures

(vii)The judicial decision are reached based on the law and legal procedure

(viii)Information on the decisions reached by the courts should be easily available to both parties in the case to

avoid being biased                                                                                                             (5×2=10mks )

 

26(a)    (i)The armed forces defend the country from external aggression/Attack through air, water or boundaries

(ii)Assist the police in the maintenance of law and order within the country e.g during inter ethic conflicts

(iii)They provide emergency services during natural disasters such as floods, fire outbreaks to rescue and save

lives

(iv)They assist in nation building activities, such as construction of roads, bridges, dams, parks

(v)They participate in international peace keeping missions where Kenyan troops work with UN in war torn

countries

(vi)They provide entertainment to visiting heads of state and dignitaries and to the public during special

functions e.g National Holidays

(vii)They check on legal landings or departures in liaison with airports. Also check on unauthorized fishing by

foreign vessels in Kenya waters                                                                   (5×1=5mks well explained )

 

(b)        -Keep watch over the behavior of suspected criminals whose cases are still pending in law courts

-Confine prisoners convicted by the court of law

-Enforces the decisions made by the courts regarding prisoners

-Rehabilitate prisoners’ e.g counseling

-Confine suspects who are a threat to the security of the community/state                 (5×2=10mks)




HISTORY & GOVERNMENT 311/2  MARKING SCHEME

  1. Name one group in Kenya belonging to the Southern Cushites 1mk

-Dahallo/ Sanye

  1. Two economic ways in which the Abaluhya and the Luo interacted during the pre-coolonial period

(I) Through trade

(ii) Through raids for livestock

(iii) Iron working 2mks

  1. Give ONE archaeological evidence of contact between E.African coast and the outside world (lmk)

– Remains of pottery

– Remains of Chinese coins

  1. One way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan

coast and the outside work;

  1. The Monsoon winds facilitated transport of goods to and from Arabia.
  2. Facilitated movement of traders who established themselves along the Kenyan coasts. Any2xI= 2mks

5          Give two reasons why the missionaries promoted legitimate trade in Kenya in the 19th  century.

  1. to replace the illegal trade in slaves
  2. To supply Europe with raw materials
  3. To help the missions become self sufficient Any 2 x I = 2mks
  4. What was the main challenge faced by the education sector in Kenya during the colonial period.

(i) Organized along racial lines /discrimination                                                   Any 1 x 1 = lmk

  1. Name two communities in Kenya that showed mixed reaction to colonial rule.
  2. the Agikuyu
  3. the Akamba
  4. Luo                                                 Any 2 x 1= 2mks

8.State the main reason why Africans established Independent Churches in Kenya during the colonial period (1mk)

– To protect African culture e.g. female circumcision (1×1=1mk)

  1. State two duties of African Chiefs during the colonial period.
  2. Collected taxes for the colonial government
  3. Settled petty disputes
  4. Recruited labour for the settlers or colonial government
  5. Administered justice on behalf of the colonial government
  6. Agents of the colonial governments. 2×1 =2mks
  7. State two ways in which the Synnerton plan affected the African farmers during colonial  period in Kenya.

(i) Fertile African land begun to be surveyed and enclosed while Title deeds were issued to land owners

(ii) Africans were allowed to grow cash crops.

(iii) Training and research institutions were established in such fields as Foresty, Agriculture, veterinary and

water department.

(iv) African were allowed to borrow loans using title deeds as security.               (2×1 =2mks)

  1. Give two ways in which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to urban centres.

(1) Taking head counts of those who were supposed to live in urban centres

(ii) Introducing the Kipande system

(iii) Enacting strict rules about migrations into urban centres /creation of reserves.

(iv) Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centres lived  there.                                                                                                                              (2 x I= 2mks)

  1. State one way in which the office of the presidency promotes national unity in Kenya.
  2. All Kenyans are united under one president and therefore minimizes conflict/Act as a symbol of national

unity.

  1. creates one centre of power Any I x I= lmk
  2. List one type of direct democracy

(i) Referendum

(ii) Recall

(iii) Initiative

(iv) Plebscite                                                                                                     Any I x I =Imk

  1. Identify One agency of justice in Kenya apart from the court systems

(v) The Law society of Kenya

(vi) The public Law institute

(vii) Law Reform commissions

(viii) Rent Restriction Tribunal

(ix) The industrial court

(x) Business Premises Tribunal                                                                          2 x 1 = 2mks

  1. Name one ex-officio member of the local authority.

(1) District commissioner

(ii) The clerk                                                                                                                 Any I xl = lmk

  1. Name the temporary committee appointed by the president to deal with issues of disagreement in the cabinet
  2. Ad hoc committees Any 1 x 1= lmk
  3. (a) Identify one constitutional change introduced by section 15A that was passed by the 10th parliament in 2008

Creation of the post of a Prime minister and two deputy Prime ministers                                    I x I= lmk

  1. (a) State five factors for the migration of the cushites into Kenya (5mks)

-Outbreak of diseases

– In search of pasture for their animals

– Over population

– Drought and famine

– External attacks

-Internal conflicts

– Spirit of adventure

  1. b) Describe five political features of the Somali during the pre-colonial period
  2. i) The basic political unit was the clan
  3. ii) It clan was under a council of elders

iii) The council of elders maintained law and order among’ other duties

  1. iv) They developed an age set system from which they derived their warriors
  2. v) The warriors defended the community against external attacks
  3. vi) They had a leader called sultan whose role was mainly advisory

vii) Later they developed sheikhs as community leaders

viii) With the coming of Islam, their political system was based on Islamic shariah laws (5×2=10) mks

  1. (a) Outline five economic consequences of the long distance trade in Kenya durwç the precolonial period
  2. i) Towns like Mombasa, Kilwa and Lamu developed into commercial centre
  3. ii) The volume of local and regional trade increased as variety of new goods were introduced

iii) A class of wealthy Africans emerged both along the coast and in the interior e.g Chief Kivoi

  1. iv) Foreign goods were introduced
  2. v) New crops were introduced at the coast
  3. vi) Development of plantation agriculture in Malindi and Mombasa as a result of availability of slave labour

vii) Led to development of trade routes and market centres in the region

viii) Led to the development of money economy                                                            (5xl=5mks)

 (b) Explain five results of the collaboration between Mumia of Wanga and the British

(i) The Wanga people lost their independence

(ii) Mumias capital, Elureko became the administrative headquarters of the British in Western

Kenya.

(iii) The Wanga people gained some territory in parts of Samia, Busoga and Bunyala.

(iv) Mumia officially became a paramount chief in 1909

(v) Mumia obtained firearms and manufactured goods e.g. cotton cloth.

(vi) The Wanga Princes and Relatives were used to administer the surrounding communities as

headmen.

(vii) Mumia was largely relied on by the British when it became to appointments of African chiefs

and headmen.

(viii) The British were able to establish their rule over Western Kenya with the assistance of Wanga

soldiers. The soldiers were used to subdue the Nandi, Bukhusu and Luo.

(ix) Mumia and his people acquired education and religion.

(x) The rule of Wanga agents in other parts provoked hostility and resentment from their

neighbours.                                                                                                             (5×2= I0mks)

 

  1. (a) State five reasons for the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway (5mks)
  • To establish effective control over British East Africa
  • TSo facilitate maximum economic exploitation of the region
  • To stop slave trade and promote legitimate trade
  • Facilitate the movement of troops and government administrators into the interior.
  • To link Uganda with the Coast and the outside world.
  • To make it possible for Britain to effectively protect the strategic interests in the region (5×1=5mks)

(b) Explain Five challenges facing land policies in Kenya since independence

  • Issuing of bogus title deeds some influential personalities allocated land which earlier

had been sold off to other people, lowering the economic value of title deeds.

  • Land grabbing public utilities e.g schools has been grabbed by influential personalities

in the government.

  • Current inequalities in land ownership. A few families own huge pieces of land in the country while the majority of the poor are starved of land.

(iv)     Communal land rights

  • Conflicts over use of land between the pastoralists communities and farming communities in many parts of the country over the use of water resources become scarcer.
  • Use of forested land. There has been consisted conflict between some conservationists communities living around the forests and the government over the use of land.
  • Lack of capital for demarcation                                                                  5 x 2= l=mks

 

  1. (a) State Five characteristics of the political organizations which were formed in Kenya prior to 1939.

(i) They were all ethnic —based tribal based

(ii) Most of them were led by missionary educated Africans.

(iii) Most of them were supported materially and morally by Asian community.

(iv) Most of them demanded an end to European oppression and exploitation rather independence

from colonial rule.

(v) They co-operated closely although they were confined to single ethnic communities. 5×1=5 mks

 

(b) Describe political contributions of Oginga Odinga in Kenya between 1957 and 1992.

(i) In 1957 he was elected to legislative council and helped in the formation of AEMO.

(ii) In January 1960, Oginga participated in the first Lancaster House conference, plans for

Kenyan’ s independence were discussed.

(iii) Oginga was a founding member of KANU in 1960. The party helped regain’s independence.

(iv) Odinga participated in the second Lancaster House Conference. That was in 1962 when final

preparations for Kenya’s independence were made.

(v) When Kenya became independence on December 12, 1963, Oginga Odinga was appointed

minister for Home Affairs.

(vi) He with the Luo Thrift and Trading Corporation built the Maseno Store and Ramogi Press which

published newspapers.

(vii) He with some others like Kaggia sought for the compensation of Mau Mau fighters and give

land to those who didn’t have.

(viii) He formed Kenya’s People Union ( KPU) in 1966 but was banned in 1969.

(ix) In 1980 he was appointed the chairman of the Cotton Lint and marketing Board.

(x) He with others formed FORD in 1992 during the multi-party era.

(xi) He published the book ‘Not yet Uhuru which urged Kenyans to do away with neocolonialism

(xii) He spearhead the struggle for the re-introduction of pluralism in Kenya in the 1 990’s leading to

the repealing of section 2A of the constitution in December 1991.             10×1=10mks

 

 

SECTION C:

  1. (a) State FIVE circumstances which may force the government to limit different rights and

                  freedoms of the individuals.

(i) One’s freedom of expression be denied if he uses it to incite people against the government

(ii) If one is convicted of murder, he or she can be denied the right to life

(iii) In terms of curfew and public emergencies freedom of movement can be restricted in order to

restore law and order.

(iv) Freedom of Assembly can be denied if one uses it to threaten the security of the state.

(v) Freedom of worship can be deprived if one uses it to divide or to undermine the government.

(vi) Freedom of liberty is denied to the criminals who are confined to ensure public security is

upheld.

(vii) Incase the government would want to use ones property for public utility e.g road construction

he/she can be denied right to own property but with compensation.

(viii) Bankruptcy may deny one’s right to be voted be for.                                             Any 5 x I = 5mks

 

 

 

 

(b) Discuss five effects of the Harambee philosophy to national development since its inception.

(i) The movement enabled the collection of funds to build hospital, health centers and the

establishment of specialized units in government hospitals.

(ii) The movement has led to the development of Education in Kenya e.g it has seen the construction

of schools, raising funds for schools fees and construction of colleges of technology.

(iii) It has enabled the collection of funds for the improvement of infrastructure such as roads, rural

electrification and provision of water.

(iv) Harambee projects donors especially NGO’s (Non-government Organizations) which have been

given a lot of aid to support their projects.

(v) It has made collection of funds possible to help the less fortunate members of the society

(vi) The Harambee spirit has promoted international, continental sporting and cultural activities

(vii) Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development. For example construction of

cattle dips and purchasing of agricultural farms, irrigation schemes has been built.

(viii) There has been collective participation in development programmes by different groups which

has promoted unity.

(ix) It has helped inculcate hard work in people Kenya.

(x) Transport facilities have been improved and expanded through Harambee efforts e.g collective

buying of buses and matatus.                                                                                  (5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a) Outline the structure of the court system in Kenya (5mks)

– District magistrate’s court is the lowest court in the structure and is at the same level as Kadhis court.

– The resident magistrates court is second lowest but is the highest court in the province.

– The chief magistrate court is the highest court in the land.

– The high court is above the chief magistrates court and is headed by the chief justice.

– The court of appeal is the highest court in the land.                                                                 5 x l5mks

 

  1. b) Explain how judicial independence is promoted in Kenya. 10mks

– The constitution provides for the judiciary as a separate organ of government.

– Judges enjoy security of tenure.

– The tenure of office for judges is longer than that of other employees in the civil service. The judges retire at 70-74 years.

– Judicial officers are appointed by the judicial service commission and not the public service commission.

– Judges and magistrates are not answerable to the executive. They are protected from any form of victimization.

– The Oath of allegiance requires them to perform duties without fear or favour.

– They are paid adequate salaries to maintain reasonable standards of living in order to avoid the temptation of taking bribes.

– The judiciary has a separate system of command unlike other government departments headed by permanent secretary (ps), the judiciary is headed by chief justice (C.J)                        5 x 2=I0mks

 

 

  1. a) Identify THREE uses of government revenue in Kenya.
  2. i) For infrastructural development
  3. ii) Establishment of institution of learning, dams, irrigation schemes etc

iii) Provision of social services e.g. health and education

  1. iv) Wages and salaries
  2. v) General repair and maintenance of government property
  3. vi) Debt servicing

vii) Contribution to international organizations.

viii) Grants and bursaries

  1. ix) Maintenance of embassies abroad Any 3 points (3 x 1) mks
  2. b) Explain how the government controls its revenue and expenditure
  3. i) Parliament has to approve all the expenditure of the government
  4. ii) Scrutiny by various parliamentary committees of all financial reports.

iii) The controller and Auditor general audits ministries and government departments

  1. iv) Permanent secretaries in each ministries are responsible for all money allocated to their ministries
  2. v) All government contracts are publicly advertised for the awarding of tenders
  3. vi) Establishment of the Kenya Anti corruption to investigate all corruption cases(KACC)

vii) Only certain government officers have been invested with power to incur expenditure

Any 6points (6 x2)= 12mks




HISTORY 311/1 marking scheme

 

  1. Give two reasons which led to the migration of the Luo into Kenya.
  • Over population.
  • Internal conflicts.
  • External attacks.
  • Spirits of adventure.
  • – Overstocking hence the need for new grazing land.                                (1×2 = 2mks)

 

  1. Name an institution among the Maasai similar to the Orkoiyot among the Nandi.
  • –                                                                                                   (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. What was the main economic activity of the River lake Nilotes
  • – Pasturalism/livestock keeping                                                                   (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Name the dispersal area of the Western Bantu’s in Kenya.
  • – Mount Elgon.                                                                                             (1×1= 1mk)

 

  1. One treaty signed between the British and the Arab rulers to end slave trade along the Kenyan Coast.
  • Moresby treaty.
  • Hermatton treaty.
  • – Frere treaty.                                                                                                  (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify the main way in which Islam spread in the interior of Kenya.
  • – Through the influence of the Arab and Swahili traders who were Muslims.        (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. State one short coming of the Anglo-German agreement of 1886.

–  It left the Western boundary (Uganda) undermined.

–  It created pockets of German territories in British E. Africa                                (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Give two features of African farming in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • Small scale farming was practiced .
  • Africans mainly grew food crops.
  • – Traditional methods of farming were used.                                                             (2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. State two duties of the colonial chiefs in Kenya.
  • Solving petty cases.
  • Maintaining law and order.
  • Recruiting labour.
  • Collecting taxes.
  • Mobilizing labour.
  • – Clearing foot paths and roads.                                                                                 (2×1 = 2mks)

 

  1. List two features of the Lennox-Boyd constitution.
  • African seats increased by 6 i.e 8-14.
  • The Legco, as a special electoral body was to elect 12 specially. Elected members in the order of 4 Africans, 4 Europeans and 4 Asians.
  • Doubled African minister from 1 – 2.
  • Introduced multi-racial representative in the Legco. (2×1 = 2mks)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Name the founder of “Green Belt movement in Kenya.”
  • – Wangari Maathai.                                                                                              (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. The process through which the citizens of Kenya would vote to either accept or reject a proposed        constitution.
  • –                                                                                                                (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Give two types of cases handled by the Kenyan Judiciary.
  • Civil
  • – Criminal                                                                                                                      (2×1= 2mks)

 

  1. Who is the head of government in Kenya?

–  President.                                                                                                                     (1×1 = 1mk)

 

  1. Identify two peaceful methods of conflict resolution in Kenya
  • –                                                                                                                      (2×1= 2mks)
  1. State two principles of Devalued Government in Kenya.
  • Country government will be based on democratic principles and the separation of powers.
  • County government shall have reliable source of revenue to enable them govern and deliver services effectively.
  • – Not more than two thirds of the members of a representative body in each country government shall be of the same gender.                                                                                         (2×1 = 2mks)
  1. Identify two non-military functions of the Kenya Defense force. 
  • Participating in development projects e.g building roads, budges.
  • Entertaining the public and guests during public holidays.
  • Providing emergency relief services during disaster e.g floods accidents or locust invasion. (2×1= 2mks)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

 

  1. a) FIVE reasons why the Omani Arabs were interested in establishing their control over the Kenyan Coast.
  • To control trade.
  • To establish political control over the Kenyan Coast.
  • Cost had a pleasant climate compared to Muscat which was hot and dry.
  • Good fertile soils for growing of crops.
  • Deep natural habours for ship to anchor.
  • – Adequate water.                                             (any 5×1= 5mks)
  1. b) Explain the factors which led to the collapse of the Portuguese rule by 18th
  • Portugal was a small country with a small population and could not supply enough administrators and soldiers to administer her overseas territories.
  • The coastal communities organized constant rebellions against them which made them weak.
  • Portuguese administrators were corrupt greedy and inefficient. They embezzled funds meant for administration.
  • Trade along the Kenya coast declined due to constant wars and heavy taxation imposed on trading goods by the Portuguese.
  • They locked revenue.
  • Their settlements were attached by the Zimba from dthe lower Zambezi valley who coasted property and killed people.
  • The distance between Portugal and the coast was another problem, if delayed reinforcement.
  • They were attacked by tropical disease e.g malaria which killed many of them.
  • Gold trade which had attracted them declined as traders directed their route away from Portuguese controlled areas. These meant lack of revenue.
  • They were further weakend by commercial competition between them and other Europeans e.g Dutch, Britain.
  • The coastal communities obtained support against them from the Tails.
  • – The final blow was the attacked by the Omani Arabs.  They sailed fort for 33 months finally forcing the Portuguese to surrender due to hunger and disease.                         (any 10x 1 = 10mks)
  1. a) State Five problems that independent schools in colonial Kenay faced.
  • Organization and planning e.g problems of quality of buildings teaching materials and teaching staff.
  • Opening of more schools had been prohibited by the colonial government.
  • The level at which to start the teaching of English in primary schools.
  • Which syllabus to follow.
  • Lack of teachers.
  • Lack of co-ordination                                                      (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Five factors that fed to the establishment of the independent churches and schools in Kenya.
  • Cultural preservation – Africans were opposed to European attempt to eradicate essential cultural practical.
  • Paternalism – Africans were regarded as incapable of leadership in church administration, education etc they were considered immature and had to be led. They resented there king of attitude.
  • Discrimination/segregation – Missionaries betrayed the Christian principle of love – by considering Africans as punitive backward purpers and needing salvation.
  • Denominationalism – Africans received in already divided church.
  • Nationalism – They wanted to regain their lost independence and cultural heritage which had been eroded.
  • They resulted land grabbing.
  • Doctrinal difference leading to many divisions especially in protestant churches encouraged Africans to start their own.
  • Taxation growing of cash crops and kipande system.
  • – Africans were forced to work for Europeans at low wages                            (any 5×2 = 10mks)
  1. a) Five reasons which made the Nandi resist the imposition of British colonial rule in their territory.
  • They wanted to main their independence.
  • They wanted to protect their land.
  • They wanted to reserve their culture.
  • They did not want the Uganda railway to be constructed through their territory.
  • They did not want strangers to pass through their territory.
  • They wanted to protect their livestock.
  • – They hated the white people because they thought they were a bad omen.     (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Discus the factors which led to the defeat of the Nandi.
  • The British were supported by some of the local communities e.g Somali and Maasai so the Nandi warriors were out numbered.
  • The British used superior weapons such as rifles white Nandi used spears.
  • The British tricked the Nandi and used treacherous methods e.g October 1905 the commander of the British troops in Nandi territory, captain Mcimertichageb arranged to have a meeting with the Nandi Orkoiyot, Koitalel Arap Samoei kill him. The Orkoiyot was killed in cold blood this demoralized the Nandi.
  • The British used scorched earth policy they burned counfisticated their livestock. The Nandi were deprived of the sources of their livelihood and this forced them into submission.
  • Natural calamities e.g small pox which broke out in the 1890’s killed many of them.
  • Lack of support from the neighbrouring communities e.g Abaluhyia and Luo. (any 5×2 = 10mks)

 

  1. a)  Five political development that hastened the achievement of independence in Kenya between           1945 and 1963.
  • The return of ex-servicemen who had military expertise to organizer colonial resistance. They were in forefront in the Mau Mau resistance.  Ex-servicemen were not rewarded hence they were ready to resist the British.
  • The formulation of political parties by African nationalists e.g KADU and KANU.
  • Formation of trade unions.
  • Change of government from conservative to labour party in Britain labour party was sympathetic towards nationalists in colonized countries.
  • The return of Jomo Kenyatta from UK strengthened the nationalists in Kenya.
  • Independence of other countries e.g Ghana.
  • The formation of UNO which pressured for decolonization.
  • – The formation of independent churches and schools.                  (any 5×1 = 5mks)

 

 

  1. b) Explain any Five challenges facing industrial sector in Kenya.
  • Poverty which since implies limited purchasing power, power investment, insufficient capital.
  • Poor communication and transport systems.
  • Limited industrial power and high cost of fuel.
  • Mismanagement, nepotism, corruption, poor planning and execution of plans by the government.
  • Competition from developed industrial powers.
  • Poor technological advancement, limited skilled labour.
  • Shortages of raw materials, natural resources.
  • External degradation and its accompanying problems e.g famine and drought.
  • – Post election violence.                                                     (any 5×2 = 10mks)

SECTION C  30 MARKS)

  1. a) Identify five categories of people whose personal liberty is limited in Kenya.
  • Convicted criminals.
  • A person suspected of having committed or about to commit a felony criminal offence.
  • A drug addict.
  • A vagrant
  • A person of unsmud slind
  • A young person under 18 years may be denied for purposes of education and welfare.
  • A person with an infection or contagious disease be detained to stop spreading it. (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) What are the rights of a child as contained in the Kenya
  • Not to be detained.
  • To a name from birth.
  • To a nationality from birth.
  • To free and compulsory basic education.
  • To basic nutrition, shelter and healthcare.
  • To the protection from abuse, neglect, harmful, cultural practice, all forms of violence or exploitative labour.
  • To parental care and protection including equal responsibility of both mother and father.
  1. a) State five reasons that explain why parliamentary elections are held regularly in Kenya.
  1. To give citizens the opportunity to exercise their constitutional right of participating in the democratic process.
  2. To give citizens the chance to choose leaders whom they have confidence in.
  3. To enable the people to give mandate to the party of their choice to rule.
  4. To “inject new blood” into parliament and government.
  5. To enable sitting mps to be responsible to the development needs of the electorate and be alert.
  6. As stipulated by the constitution.
  7. To replace unwanted mps.                                                (any 5×1= 5mks)
  1. b) Why is parliament an important institution in Kenya?
  2. It is the supreme law making body.
  3. It is made up of elected representatives hence represents the interests of the people.
  • It checks on possible abuse of power by the executive thus promoting good governance and accountability.
  1. It controls government revenue collection and expenditure. The annual budget is discussed and approved by parliament.
  2. It ensures government revenue is spent properly. The controller and auditor General checks on the spending of ministries and produces comprehensive report for discussion by parliament.
  3. Parliament is empowered to investigate the activities of any public servant if mps feel that he/she is not doing his/her work well.
  • It can pass a vote of no confidence in the government of the day. (any 5×2= 10mks)
  1. a) Identify Five sources of Public revenue in Kenya.
    • Domestic borrowing.
    • Profit from Parastals.
    • Foreign aid.
    • Sale of treasuring bills
    • Court fines.
    • Taxes e.g VAT.
    • Charges of government services .
    • – Licence fees                                     (any 5×1 = 5mks)
  1. b) Explain Five challenges facing the Kenya Government in her efforts to raise revenue.
  • Tax evasion by some people/organizations.
  • Many people give wrong information in their wealth declaration.
  • Rich people keep their money in foreign banks denying the country interest.
  • Negative attitude towards payment of taxes by many people due to ignorance.
  • Unscrupulous Kenyans and tax officials collude and defraud the government of revenue.
  • Inadequate information for local investors through treasuring bill, post office bonds and shares at N.S.E.
  • Smuggling of goods out of Kenya.
  • High rate of inflation increases public expenditure/too many taxes. (any 5×2 = 10mks)



HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT – PAPER 1

 

MAKING SCHEME

 

  1. Two communities in Kenya who belong to the Western Bantu.
  • Abaluhyia
  • Abagusii
  • Abasuba
  • Abakuria 2 x 1 = 2mks

 

  1. Two similarities in the political organization of the Ameru and the Abagusii of Kenya in the 19th century.
  • The clan formed the basic political unit
  • Leadership was by the council of elders.
  • Both had age set system.
  • The council of elders settled disputes.
  • They had worriers who defended their communities.

(2 x 1 = 2mks)

 

  1. One reason for the migration of the Boran from Ethiopia into Kenya.
  • External attacks
  • Internal conflicts
  • Drought/famine 1 x 1 = mk

 

  1. One factor that facilitated contact between the coast and the outside world by the end of the 16th century.
  • The monsoon winds which enabled the early visitors to travel to and from the coast.
  • Advancement in boats and ship building technology led to making of stronger vessels.
  • Availability of trade goods in Indian Ocean trade.                                           (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. The missionary society that established a home for freed slaves at the coast of Kenya in the 19th century.

(i) The church missionary society (C.M.S)                                                  (1×1=1mk)

  1. Two cultural aspects the coastal people of Kenya borrowed from the foreigners during the 16th Century.
  • Religion
  • Dressing styles.
  • Eating habits
  • Building styles (Architecture)                                       (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two causes of Bukusu resistance to the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya.
  • Resented use of Wanga agents to rule Bukusu.
  • Hated cultural influence through the missionaries.
  • Against taxation
  • Had a strong military organization (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two political parties which were formed in Kenya between 1960 and 1963.

KANU – Kenya African National Union.

KADU – Kenya African Democratic Union

APP    –  African People Party.                                                                   (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two reasons for formation of Taita Hills Association in 1939.
  • To fight for the return of their alienated land
  • To protest against destocking policy.
  • To protest against taxation.
  • To protest against the Kipande system.
  • Protest against forced labour.

(2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Two negative consequences of urbanization in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • Unemployment led to poverty
  • Low morality e.g prostitution
  • Increase in crime
  • Development of shanties/slums
  • Congestion leading to epidermics.
  • Break up of family set up.
  • Deprived rural areas of man-power.
  • Development of Kipande system.       (2×1=2mks)

 

  1. Main role of opposition parties in Kenya.

To act as a check on the excesses of the government and the ruling party/upholding democracy.

(1×1=1mk)

  1. One reason why the government of Kenya may limit a persons freedom of speech

(i)        If one makes untrue/malicious utterances about another.

(ii)       If one publishes seditious documents/reveal government secrets.

  • If one incites others against government/other people.
  • If one talks ill against the president. (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. The main function of the Executive arm of government in Kenya .

(i)  To implement government policies.                                                  (1×1=mk)

 

  1. Two principles of the developed government in Kenya
  • Based on democratic principle for separation of powers.
  • County government shall have reliable sources of revenue – to govern and deliver services

effectively

  • More than 2/3 of representative bodies shall not be of the same gender.

(2×1=2mks)

 

  1. The body in charge of executive duties in a county government in Kenya.

– County executive committee                                                                       (1×1=1mk)

 

  1. Two ways in which the rule of law is applied in Kenya.

(i)  By ensuring that all citizens are subjected to and governed by the same law.

(ii)  By ensuring that matters are handled according to the law of land.

  • By ensuring that all suspected criminals are assumed innocent on the proved guilty/fair harms or trial.

(2×1=2mks)

 

SECTION B  (45 MARKS)

  1. (a) Three Bantu communities which had settled at coast of Kenya by 1800 AD
    • Pokomo
    • Mijikenda
    • Segeju
    • Taita    (3×1=3mks)

 

 

 

 

 

  • Results of the migration and settlement of Bantu speakers in Kenya.
    • Increased trading activities
    • Increased population
    • Cultural borrowing
    • Intermarriages
    • Assimilation of smaller communities
    • Spread of Iron-technology
    • Conflicts with neighbours
    • Clearing forests for settlement and farming
    • Displacement of some communities. (6×2=12mks)

 

  1. (a) State five grievances of Africans in Kenya voiced by Kenya African Union   (K.A.U)
  • Inadequate African representation in the legco.
  • Lack of education opportunities for Africans
  • Land alienation
  • Racial discrimination
    1. Imposition of taxes/forced labour
    2. Kipande system.

(5×1=5mks)

 

  • Explain five ways in which Kenyatta contributed to the nationalistic movement up to 1963.
    • The founder of kikuyu central association K.C.A that fought for African rights.
    • He wrote a newspaper “Muigurithania” through which he articulated African grievances.
    • During his study in Britain (1929-1946) he presented African grievances in many international forums.
    • He became president of K.AU in 1947 and endeavoured to make it a mass party.
    • His detention by colonial government turned him to a national hero and future leader.
    • 1961 Kenyatta was elected to the Legco and he attempted to reconcile KANU and KADU.
    • In 1962 he led KANU delegates to the 2ndLancaster house conference to plan for constitutional changes.
    • He became prime minister of Kenya in 1963. (5×2=10mks)

 

  1. (a) Three reasons why British government encouraged white settlement in colonial

Kenya.

  • To carryout farming in order to meet the

administration costs of the colony.

  • The climate of the white highlands was suitable for white settlement.
  • There were large tracts seemingly unutilized land.
  • Settlers were to carry out farming in order to produce goods to be transported by the railway (meet cost of maintaining the railway)
  • The government did not want the Asians to take control of the colony.
  • The whites would be loyal to the colonial government as opposed to the Africans.

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  • Six problems experienced by European settlers in Kenya during the colonial period.
  • They were subjected to constant raids by the Africans whose land had been alienated.
  • They lacked essential agricultural skills as many had not practiced farming before.
  • They had inadequate labour force as many Africans refused to work for them.
  • They were not familiar with the seasons and therefore could not predict when and what to plant/natural calamities-drought.
  • They had inadequate capital to invest in farming
  • They were unable to market their produce during the world wars.
  • The economic depression affected the market prices.
  • There were inadequate transport and communication net-work which affected the movement of people and goods     (6×2=12mks)

 

 

  1. (a) Five reasons why the government of Kenya adopted the sessional paper No.10 of 1965.

(i)      To ensure equal opportunities for all citizens.

(ii)    To ensure that resources are used for the

benefit of society and its members.

  • To encourage various forms of ownership of property
  • To promote democracy.
  • To promote freedom from disease, ignorance and poverty.
  • To promote freedom of conscience and humandignity       (5×1=5mks)

 

  • Social effects of national philosophies on development in Kenya.
  • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans.
  • They have encouraged Kenyans to actively participate in development projects.
  • Through the philosophies education has been promoted by building schools, colleges and universities.
  • They have encouraged mutual social responsibility among Kenyans.
  • They have helped improve medical services by constructing dispensaries, health centres and hospitals.
  • Plight of the disadvantaged people has been addressed by the philosophies through organizing harambees to assist them.
  • They have promoted African culture through borrowing of positive African traditions
  • They have promoted spiritual wellbeing through building of churches. (5×2=10mks)

 

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1. (a) Three challenges that have faced the re-writing of Kenyan constitution
    • Financial constrains
    • Political interference
    • Selfish ambition of leaders
    • Political differences on the mode to be followed
    • Illiteracy on the masses.   (3×1=3mks)

 

  • Six objectives of devolution of government in Kenya.
    • Promote democratic and accountable exercise of power.
    • To foster national unity by recognizing diversity
    • Give powers of self-governance to the people and enhances participation of the people in decision making.
    • Recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and further their development.
    • Protect and promote interests and right of minorities and marginalized communities.
    • Promote social and economic development and provision of proximate (near) easily accessible services throughout Kenya.
    • Ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya.
    • Facilitate decentralization of state organs, their functions and services from the capital of Kenya.
    • Enhance checks and balances and separation of powers. (6 x 12=12mks)

 

  1. (a) Five levels of conflict.

(i)       Individuals versus Individuals

(ii)       Group versus group

  • Individual versus state
  • Group versus state
  • State versus state.       (5×1=5mks)

 

  • Survival rights of a child.
  • Entitled to life – no one can terminate or endanger the life of a child
  • Right to name and identify within a nation
  • Good medical care/vaccination against polio, TB, measles and other diseases.
  • Good clothing
  • Good shelter
  • Good food-not starving nutritiousuise (5×2=10mks)

 

23.(a)  Five principles of democracy

(i)     Consent of the people e.g should accommodate needs and aspirations of the people.

(ii)    Equality to all people regardless of colour, sex or creed.

  • Enlightenment e.g has moral and educative values
  • Peace-
  • The rule of the law
  • Balance- liberty of the individual with power of state
  • Openness – transparency and accountability.
  • Competition – Survives in a situation where there are several ideas that compete for participants attention and opinions.
  • Patriotism – reduces ability and revolution
  • Co-existence – sense of Co-operation, compromise, love, sympathy and self sacrifice for large interest of community.
  • Education – cornerstone and democracy, through education citizens understand their rights and duties.
  • National unity – prerequisite for stability and democracy.
  • Free press
  • Economic equality
  • Leadership
  • Tradition – it thrives on democratic traditions and practices. (5×1=mks)

 

  • Factors for Re-introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya.

(i)  Riggins of elections in 1988

(ii)  KANU’S failure to listen to criticism.

  • Influence from Eastern Europe for soviet union.
  • Events in Zambia in 1991
  • Pressure from multi-party activists, civil society, political and legal fraternity.
  • Failure by the government to adopt all recommendations forwarded by the public to Saitoti Review commission (1990)
  • Pressure on the government from donor community to democratize as a condition for aid resumption
  • Repealing of sec 2A of constitution to allow multipartism. (5×2=10mks)

 

 

 

 

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