• Tue. Jul 9th, 2024

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1 KCSE REVISION BOOKLET

    Jul 6, 2024

    HISTORY & GOVT. PAPER 1 (311/1) 

    SAMPLE  1

    311/1

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    SECTION A (25 MARKS)

    ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

    1. State two cultural practices which the Agikuyu acquired from the Gumba. (2mks)
    2. Identify two functions of the Orkoiyot among the Kalenjin. (2mks)
    3. State the main economic activity of the Mijikenda during the second half of the 19th

    (1mk)

    1. Give two factors that hastened the coming and settlement of the Arabs to the East Coast of Africa .

    (2mks)

    1. State one main political impact of missionary activities in Kenya. (1mk)
    2. Name two types of rights enjoyed by Kenyan citizens.                (2mks)
    3. Identify the main political democracy being exercised in Kenya .                 1mk)
    4. State the main constitutional challenge which Kenyans experienced in 2005. (1mk)
    5. Identify two special courts in Kenya (2mks)
    6. Give one problem faced by Lord Delamere in agricultural activities in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mk)
    7. State two reasons why the Luo of Ugenya resisted the British.  (2mks)
    8. Give two reasons which made the Africans to move to urban centers during colonial period.       (2mks)
    9. Identify two ways in which women mobilized support for Mau Mau fighters . (2mks)
    10. What was the main grievances of Ukambani Members Association.               1mk)
    11. State one problem that was associated with Harambee in Kenya .                       (1mk)
    12. State the importance of cultural activities in Kenya . (1mk)
    13. State one function of the Parliamentary Public Accounts Committee in Kenya. (1mk)

     

    SECTION B (45 MARKS)

    ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

     

    1. (a) Identify three economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period 3mks)

    (b) Explain the political system of the Somali in Kenya during the pre-colonial period

    (12mks)

    1. (a) Why were the Portuguese able to control the Kenyan coast between 1500-1700 AD?

    (5mks)

    (b) Explain five factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule on the Kenyan Coast

    (10mks)

    1. (a) Why did the Maasai collaborate with the British in the 19th century despite their past glory as a

    powerful community in Kenya?                                                                    (5mks)

    (b) What were the consequences of Maasai collaboration?                                                  (10mks)

    1. (a) What were the grievances which Africans in Kenya had against the colonial government

    between 1920-1939?                                                                                      (3mks)

    (b)       What factors undermined African nationalists activities in Kenya between 1939 and 1963?  (12mks)

    SECTION C (30 MARKS)

    ANSWER ANY TWO QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION

    1. (a) State three causes of conflicts in Kenya                                   (3mks)

    (b) Explain six peaceful methods of conflict resolution in Kenya                     12mks)

    1. (a) Explain the role of the Electoral Commission of Kenya (7mks)

    (b) Describe the factors that are likely to undermine free and fair elections in Kenya(8mks)

    1. (a) State five challenges facing the Kenyan prisons today (3mks)

    (b) Explain six reforms the government has introduced into the prisons department in Kenya.                                                                                                                                       (12mks)

    END

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE  1

    311/1

                SECTION A (25 MARKS) (Answer  all  questions from  this section)

    1. – Ceremonial dances

    –           Circumcision

    –           Age- set system                                                                                              2×1=2 mks

    1. – Preside over religious ceremonies

    –           Bless the warriors/ advise the warriors

    –           Foretell the future

    –           Solving disputes                                                                                             2×1=2 mks

    1. – Long distance trade                                                                                        1×1=1 mk
    2. – Accessibility of the Kenya coast

    –           Availability of funds

    –           Presence of monsoon winds

    –           Availability of dhows/ marine technology                                                    2×1=2 mks

    1. – Colonization / fore runner of colonialism                                                     1×1=1 mk
    2. – Legal rights which can be enforced by court of law

    –           Moral rights which is organized by society as desirable but cannot be enforced by a court of law

    2×1=2 mks

    1. – Parliamentary/ representatives/ indirect democracy                                     1×1=1 mk
    2. – Constitutional referendum                                                                             1×1=1 mk
    3. – Kadhis court

    –           Commercial/ industrial court

    –           Rent tribunal court

    –           Rent restriction tribunal court                                                                       2×1=2 mks

     

    1. – Crop diseases

    –           Change of climatic conditions

    –           Shortage of labour

    –           Marketing problem                                                                                        1×1=1 mk

    1. – Protect their land

    –           Fear of loosing their freedom/ independence

    –           Protect their livestock, grains and fish from being taken by British by force

    –           Reversed against the use of the agents of Nabongo Mumia by the British against them

    2×1=2 mks

    1. – Escape poverty and taxation/ enterpreuneship

    –           Land alienation

    –           Employment opportunities were available

    –           Availability of attractive social amenities in towns                         2 x 1=  2 mks

    1. – Ridiculing men

    –           Composed songs

    –           Oathing                                                                                               2 x 1=  2 mks

    1. – Against destocking policy                                                                  1 x 1 = 1 mk
    2. – Use of force to collect contribution

    –           Misuse of funds/ embezzlement                                                        1 x 1 = 1 mk

    1. – Employment

    –           Entertainment

    –           Patriotism

    –           Creates unity

    –           Educates the masses                                                                                       1×1=1 mk

     

    1. – Receive reports from the controller and auditor general

    –           Scrutinizing reports

    –           Summon government officials to explain their expenditure

    –           Closely monitoring the ruling party and officials in public service delivery

    1 x 1 =1 mk

    SECTION B(45 mks) (Answer  three  questions from  this section)

    1. a) –           Patriotism

    –           Trade

    –           Fishing

    –           Cultivation of crops

    –           Hunting and gathering                                                                                    3×1=3 mks

    1. b) –           Based on clans

    –           Had council of elders

    –           Had age set system

    –           Had leaders called Sultan whose role was mainly advisory

    –           Existed warriors who protected the community

    –           Existed people with special responsibilities e.g. Sheikhs/ medicine men

    6×2=12 mks

    1. a) –           Disunity among the coastal towns e.g Mombasa and Malindi

    –           Military superiority of the Portueguese

    –           Construction of forts

    –           Harshness of the Portuguese administration

    –           Portuguese established alliance with same Coastal rulers e.g. Malindi5x1=5 mks

    1. b) –           Decline of revenue/ decline of the Indian Ocean trade

    –           Competition among the Portuguese officials / corrupt officials

    –           Portuguese officers were cruel/ ruthless to Africans

    –           Constant rebellions against the Portuguese by the coastal towns

    –           Attacks from the Persians, Arabs

    –           Stiff competition from the British and Dutch

    –           Lack of enough personnel

    –           Lack of capital to pay administrators

    –           Lack of administrative skills                                                             5×2=10 mks

    1. a) –           Had been weakened by human/ animal diseases

    –           Natural calamities: drought, famine, locust invasion

    –           Emergency of the Nandi

    –           Civil wars among the clans of the Maasai

    –           Lenana wanted military support against his brother Senteu

    –           They had inferior weapons/ feared the British superiority

    –           Lenana wanted to consolidate his position

    –           Lenana wanted the British to assist himget back Maasai women and children from

    the Agikuyu

    5×1=5 mks

    1. b) –           Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief

    –           Purko Maasai were divided into two sections

    –           Massive land alienation

    –           Lost their independence

    –           Got material rewards in form of cattle

    –           Maasai were hired as mercenaries against resisting communities

    –           Disruption of their cattle, economy and territorial integrity

    –           Disruption of their cultural practices                                                5×2=10 mks

     

    1. a) –           Land alienation

    –           Demand for title deed

    –           Wanted wages for Africans to be increased

    –           Hated kipande system

    –           Wanted forced labour abolished

    –           Heavy taxation

    –           Demand for equal treatment/ hated racial discriminations

    –           Against destocking policy

    –           Wanted to be allowed to grow cash crop                                           3×1=3 mks

    1. b) –           Harassment and detention

    –           Banning of political organization/ state of emergency

    –           Tribalism

    –           Lack of finances

    –           Lack of education/ illiteracy

    –           Restriction of movement/ Kipande system

    –           Africans were denied access to mass media

    –           Betrayal of African nationalists by other people e.g. home guards/ loyalists

    6×2=12 mks

    SECTION C (30 MKS) (Answer  two  questions from  this section)

    1. a) –           Greed

    –           Exploitation of the poor by the rich

    –           Nepotism

    –           Tribalism

    –           Racism

    –           Irresponsible statements by leaders

    –           Religious differences

    –           Intolerance of divergent views

    –           Poverty due to limited resources                                           Any 3×1=3 mks

    1. b) – Negotiation where the parties concerned decide that they can solve the

    conflict themselves

    –           Arbitration where the opposing parties involve an outside party not involved in the dispute to end the conflict

    –           Mediation- a process in which a third party tries to bring the partner in the conflict to an agreement

    –           Court settlement/ litigation

    –           Conciliation where the third party tries an agreement

    –           Collaboration – where both parties in the conflict are willing to work with others to resolve the conflict

    –           Problem solving workshops where two conflicting parties talk in the presence of a facilitator

    –           Administrative machinery e.g. chief, district officers, district commissioners

    –           Inspection are carried out in order to build confidence and prevent misunderstanding between warring parties/ such inspections are provided for in arms control and disarmament treaties or agreements                                                Any 6×2=12 mks

     

    1. a) –           Appoints and trains election officials

    –           Clears party candidates to participate in elections

    –           Announces election results

    –           Prepares ballot papers/ other election materials

    –           Educate/ inform the geneal public on the requirements for voters/ contestants

    –           Identify and recommends polling station

    –           Describe and reviews electoral boundaries

    –           Registers voters

    –           Maintain and up dates register of voters

    –           Supervises the process

    –           Participates in the formulation of election code of conduct             7×1=7 mks

    1. – Tribalism
      • Party loyalties
      • Harassment of voters by rival groups
      • Incompetent election officials
      • Partisan election officials
      • Transport difficulties
      • In accessibility of polling stations
      • Extreme weather conditions
      • Illiteracy of some voters
      • Corruption of candidates
      • Inefficient distribution of election materials
      • Negative propaganda
      • Gender insensitivity
      • Use and misuse of the mass media             8×1=8 mks
    1. a) –           Over crowding in prisons

    –           Diseases (HIV – AIDS), dysentery, cholera caused by lack of facilities and congestion

    –           Mistreatment by prison wardens

    –           Food shortage

    –           Poor medical facilities

    –           Poor clothing

    –           Poor pay for the prison staff

    –           Lack of transport                                                                    Any 3×1=3 mks

    1. b) –           Provision of better food and improved medical services

    –           Providing enough clothing’s and bedding

    –           Many vehicles have been bought

    –           Releasing of prisoners

    –           Streamlining of the hearing of cases

    –           Allowing prisoners access to human rights groups

    –           Allowing prisoners to pursue education while in prison

    –           Enabling them to watch TV and read newspapers

    –           Participate in beauty contest within prison                           Any  6×2=12 mks

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE  2

    311/1

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT

    SECTION A: 25 MARKS

     

    ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

    1. State where you would find manuscripts, stone tablets and scrolls of Kenyans history preserved

    1mk

    1. In what way was the system of government among the Agikuyu similar to that of the Ameru?             1mk
    2. Identify a city state along the Kenyan coast that was built by the Persians.             1mk
    3. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus.             2mk
    4. Give two circumstances under which one can lose the right to life.             2mks
    5. Mention two Educational Commissions appointed by the government to look into the welfare of education in Kenya.             2mks
    6. State two justifications for the declaration of the British East Africa Protectorate into a colony in 1920.             2mk
    7. State two special courts in Kenya.             2mks
    8. Mention two reasons why British indirect rule failed in Ukambani.             2mk
    9. Identify two political developments that took place in Kenya in 1975.             2mks
    10. Mention two types of co-operative societies.             2mks
    11. Name two parliamentary committees that deal with financial issues.             2mks
    12. State two highlights of the Lennox Boyd constitution (1958). .                       2mks
    13. Give two reasons why harambee has lost popularity in Kenya today.             2mks

    SECTION B:45 MARKS

    ANSWER ANY THREE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION

    1. a) Mention three plains Nilotes in Kenya.                                                                3mks
    2. b) Discuss the social organization of the Maasai. 12mks
    3. a) State five problems facing Nairobi City.                                                             5mks
    4. b) Discuss the functions of Nairobi. .            10mks
    5. a) List three reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British.             3mks
    6. b) Discuss six results of Nabongo Mumia’s collaboration with the British.             12mks

    18        a) State five ways in which World War II contributed to the outbreak of Mau mau.            5mks

    1. b) Discuss the factors that made the Mau mau war take a long time. 10mks

    SECTION C (30 MARKS)

    Answer any two questions

    1. a) Give five reasons why the constitution is important.                                          5mks
    2. b) Discuss the constitutional amendments in Kenya between 1964 and 1997. 10mks
    3. a) Mention seven factors that promoted the adoption of multi-party democracy in Kenya.

    7mks

    1. b) What role is played by political parties in Kenya’s development?             8mks
    2. a) (i) State three reasons for which the president can dissolve parliament.                        3mks

    (ii) State two occasions when the President attends the National Assembly.                      2mks

    1. b) Explain five constitutional provisions that can cause an elected Kenyan President to lose his office.                         10mks

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE  2

    311/1

    SECTION A (25 MKS)

    1. State where you would find manuscripts, stone tablets and scrolls of Kenyan history preserved

    -Kenya National Archives                                                                  1mk

    1. In what way was the system of government among the Agikuyu similar to that of the Ameru

    -Both were ruled by councils of elders                                              1mk

    1. Identify a city state along the Kenyan coast that was built by the Persians

    -Lamu

    -Zanzibar        1mk

    1. State two reasons why the Portuguese built Fort Jesus

    -For protection against Arab attacks

    -To act as a military base

    -For storing food and other supplies

    -As a prison of war captives                                                                          2mks

    1. Give two circumstances under which one can lose the right to life

    -If one is sentenced to death by a court of law

    -If one is found guilty of robbery with violence

    -During war or civil strife

    -In self defense

    -If one is guilty of treason                                                                              1mk

    1. Mention two educational commission appointed by the government to look into the welfare of education in Kenya

    -Ominde commission (1964)

    -Bessay commission (1972)

    -Gachathi commission (1976)

    -Mackay commission (1981)

    -Kamunge report (1988)

    -Koech commission (1997)                                                                            2mks

    1. State two justifications for the declaration of the British East Africa Protectorate into a colony in 1920

    -It would maintain closer ties between the white settlers and Britain

    -The Europeans in the colony would benefit from loan facilities offered by Britain

    2 mks

    1. State two special courts in Kenya

    -Industrial court

    -Rent Restriction Tribunal

    -Business premises Tribunal                                                                    2mks

    1. Mention two reasons why British indirect rule failed in Ukambani

    -The Akamba colonial chiefs used the chance to amass wealth

    -The chiefs were unwilling to impose unpopular colonial policies        2mks

    1. Identify two political developments that took place in Kenya in 1975

    -The murder of J.M Kariuki

    -The arrest of Martin Shikuku and Jean Marie Seroney for claiming that KANU was dead

    2 mks

    1. Mention two types of co-operative societies

    -Producer co-operatives

    -Consumer co-operatives

    -Savings and credit co-operatives (SACCOS)                                               2mks

    1. Name two parliamentary committees that deal with financial issues

    -Public Accounts Committee (PAC)

    -Public Investments Committee (PIC)                                               2mks

    1. State two highlights of the Lennox Boyd Constitution (1958)

    -The number of African representatives in the (legco) was increased to 14

    -The council of ministers was enlarged to 16

    -A council of state was created as a watchdog against racial discrimination

    -an electoral college was constituted                                                 1×2=2mks

    1. Give two reasons why harambee has lost popularity in Kenya today ( 2mks)

    -Negative attitude from the public due to forced contribution

    -Misappropriation of funds by a few individuals

    -High poverty levels among Kenyans

    -The rich in society also call for harambee, making it lose meaning           1×2=2 mks

     

    SECTION B

    15        Mention three plains Nilotes                                                                                             ( 3mks)

    1. a) -The Teso

    -The Turkana

    -The Samburu

    -The Maasai                                                                                                    1×3=3mks

     

    1. Discuss the second organisation of the Maasai             (3mks)

    -They believed in a supreme God (Enkai)

    -Religious leaders like prophets, diviners and medicine men linked society to the spiritual world

    -The Oloibon officiated religious functions like blessing warriors

    -They had several ceremonies marking passage from stage to stage, e.g. the Eunoto ceremony during graduation of Morans

    -Morans lived in manyattas where they were educated and defended the community

    -Prayers and sacrifices were done in shrine to ward off misfortunes                       2×6=12mks

    1. a) State five problems facing Nairobi city                                                                    ( 5mks)

    -Unemployment

    -poor housing/ slums

    -Inadequate social services   -schools and health facilities

    -Congestion on roads due to heavy traffic

    -Poor drainage due to poor planning

    -Environmental pollution

    -High rate of HIV/ AIDS infection

    -Water shortage

    -Street families

    -High crime rate                                                                                             5×1=5mks

     

    1. Discuss the functions of Nairobi             (10mks)

    -An administrative capital of Kenya

    -Is a tourist centre

    -Is an industrial city

    -Is an educational centre

    -A commercial and financial centre

    -Is a transport and communication centre

    -Is a residential centre                                                                                                2×5=10mks

     

    1. a) List three reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborationb with the British                ( 3mks)

    -He wanted British protection against his enemies like the Luo of Ugenya

    -He wished to obtain fire arms

    -He wanted to benefit from British education and Christianity

    -He realized the futility of resisting                                                  1×3=3mks

    1. Discuss the results of nabongo Mumia’s collaboration with the British (12mks)

    -He was elevated to the status of paramount chief

    -The British assisted him to defeat the Luo of Ugenya

    -His kingdom became a base for launching British colonialism in Western Kenya.

    -The Wanga were appointed as administrators in parts of Western Kenya

    -Wanga kingdom was conquered and lost independence

    -Mumia expanded his kingdom with British help                                         2×6=12mks

    1. a) State five ways in which world war II contributed to the outbreak of Mau Mau     ( 5mks)

    -Return of experienced ex-soldiers to spearhead the fighting

    -Failure of the colonial government to compensate ex-soldiers

    -African ex-soldiers discovered that whites were not superior as earlier thought

    -They got influence from other countries that had gained independence e.g. Ghana and India

    -Formation of the UNO which appealed for independence and the right for self determination by      colonized Nations

    -Accessibility to weapons after the war                                                        1×5=5mks

     

    1. Discuss the factors that made the Mau Mau war take a long time             (10mks)

    -Africans knew their topography well

    -Europeans lacked immediate supply of resources and personnel

    -Europeans underestimated the strength of the Africans

    -Africans were united through oaths

    -There were able maumau leaders e.g. General China

    -Africans made their own guns

    -African women were spies who motioned the movement of European soldiers

    -Presence of ex-soldiers who had fought in the WW II

    -Use of guirella warfare=10 mks                                                                   2×5=10mks

     

    SECTION C (30 MARKS)

    1. a) Give five reasons why the constitution is important                                                             ( 5mks)

    -It spells out the duties and rights of the citizen, hence they know what is expected of them

    -It spells out the responsibilities of those in power and limits their authority

    -It ensures equality of all Kenyans

    -It spells out government structure and duties of each organ

    -It is the basis of all law in Kenya                                                                 1×5=5mks

     

    1. Discuss the constitutional amendments in Kenya between 1964 and 1997 ( 10mks)

    -In 1964 the constitution was amended to allow for a unitary government instead of majimboism

    -In 1966 the bicameral legislature was replaced by a single chamber house

    -In 1966 parliament adopted the 2/3 majority as the number of MPs required to pass any constitutional amendment

    -In 1966 members defecting from a party that sponsored them were required to resign and seek a fresh mandate

    -In 1966 parliament passed the Public Security Act empowering the president to detain a person without trial if his/ her conduct was deemed to be a threat to state security

    -In 1968 the president was empowered to altar district and provincial boundaries

    -In 1974 the president was empowered to pardon an election offender

    -In 1982 section 2A of the constitution was allowed, making Kenya a de-fine one party state

    -In 1997 the security of tenure of the AG chief secretary and the controller and auditor general was removed

    -In 1988, the security of tenure of the high court judges and the chairman of the public service commission was removed

    -In 1990 parliament reinstated the security of the AG, and the controller and auditor general

    -In 1991 parliament reverted into a multi-party state by repealing the contentious section 2A

    2×5=10 mks

    1. a) Mention seven factors that promoted the adoption of multi- party democracy in Kenya         (7mks)

    -Unpopular KANU policies e.g. expulsion of critics

    -Rigging of the 1988 general election through the ‘mlolongo’ system

    -Adoption of political pluralism in Zambia and Togo where ruling parties were swept out of power.

    -The Saba Saba riots of July 1990 proved that many Kenyans supported political pluralism

    -Pressure from the donor community like IMF and World Bank which pegged aid to pluralism

    -Role of pressure groups like the press, lawyers, the church and the diplomatic community

    -The Saitoti review committee of 1990. Many Kenyan’s wanted pluralism

    -Repeal of section 2A of the constitution which allowed pluralism             1×7=7mks

     

    1. What role is played by political parties in kenya’s development ?                         ( 8mks)

    -They offer alternative policies for the economic growth of Kenya

    -They have created democratic space through which the electorate can choose competent leaders

    -Parties promote freedom of association where people air their views

    -They keep the ruling party on its toes, ensuring transparency and accountability is achieved in government

    -They carefully scrutinize government expenditure of public funds

    -They provide checks and balance to the government in power. Abuse and misuse of power is reduced

    -They are training grounds for political leadership

    -They educate the electorate on their rights and responsibilities

    -They create free flow of ideas on national growth                                      1×8=8mks

    .           a)         State three reasons for which the President can dissolve Parliament           ( 3mks)

    1. i) -when the life of parliament has expired

    -When parliament passes a vote of no confidence in the government

    -When the president wants to call a snap election                            1×3=3mks

     

    State the occasion when the President attends the National Assembly                    ( 2mks)

    1. -During the official opening of parliament

    -During the presentation of the annual National Budget

    1. Explain five Constitutional provisions that can cause an elected Kenyan President to lose his office                                     ( 10mks)

    -After a successful election

    -If he is ill-health / mentally or physically incapacitated

    -If he is declared bankrupt by a court of law

    -If the president fails to be elected as a member of parliament for his constituency

    -If he resigns voluntarily

    -If parliament passes a vote of no confidence in the government

    -If he loses an election to arrival presidential candidate in a multi-party democracy

    2×5=10 mks

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE  3

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 2

    311/1

    Section A: (25 Mks)

    Answer all the questions in this section

    1           State two functions of the Kambi among the Mijikenda.                                         2mks

    1. State the main economic reason for the migration of the Luo into Kenya in the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                                       1 mk
    2.  Give one factor which facilitated the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan Coast before AD 1500                                                                                                                                    I mk

    4            State two important roles of Mekatilili in the Agiriama opposition to British rule in Kenya

    2mks

    5    Identify two social consequences of the Uganda Railway in Kenya.                              2mks

    6    State two major grievances of Early political organizations in Kenya between (1919-1939)

    2mks

    7    State the main role of IBEAC during the colonial period in Kenya.                              1 mk

    8    Give one reason for the Maasai collaboration with the British.                                     1 mk

    1. State two conditions one has to fulfill in order to be naturalized as a Kenyan citizen 2mks
    2. Mention two constitutional reforms introduced in 1964 in Kenya 2mks
    3. Name one ex-officio member of the National Assembly in Kenya.                                    1 mk
    4. Give two challenges of the coalition government of Kenya. 2mks
    5. Identify one source of external revenue in Kenya. Imk
    6. What is the meaning of the term “Rule of Law” as used in Kenya. 1 mk
    7. State two reasons which the Government of Kenya has introduced to curb the problems facing the

    Judiciary                                                                                                                           2mks

    1. Name one non-combat unit of the Army in Kenya. 1 mk

    17 Give one economic impact of National philosophies in Kenya since independence.       I mk

     

    SECTION B:    (45 Mks)

    Answer any Three questions.

     

    1. (a) Give five reasons why the Bantu migrated from Shungwaya area. 5mks

    (b) Explain the results of the migration and settlement of the Bantu in Kenya               l0mks

    19 (a) Identify five methods employed by Seyyid Said to promote the Long distance trade during

    the 19th  C                                                                                                                       5mks

    (b)     What were the effects of the Long distance trade on the people of East Africa         10mks

    1. (a) Name three political parties in Kenya which took part in the Lancaster House Conference

    of 1962.                                                                                                                      3mks

    (b) Explain the contribution of African Women in the Mau Mau movement in Kenya 12mks

    1. (a) Give five reasons for the influx of Africans to towns during the colonial period in Kenya. 5mks

    (b) Explain the reasons why the colonial government encouraged white settlers to come to Kenya.

    10mks

     

     

     

    SECTION C; (30 MKS)

    Answer any two questions

    1. (a) Show how a Kenyan citizen can be responsible to the state.             5mks

    (b) Describe the functions of the Chief Justice in Kenya.                                                 10mks

    23        (a) List three classes of prisons found in Kenya.                                                     3mks

    (b) What measures has the Kenyan government undertaken to solve the problems facing the prisons Department.                                                                                                         12mks

    1. (a) Identify the symbols of National Unity in Kenya.             3mks

    (b) Explain the factors that limit National Unity in Kenya.                                    12mks

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE 3

    311/1

    SECTION A 25 MKS

    1. Functions of the Kambi among the Mijikenda:

    – Settle disputes among the members of the community

    – Acted as the final court of appeal on Judicial matters

    – They presided over religious matters/ ceremonies

    -They had powers to declare war / blessed warriors/ make peace                                   Any 2×1=2 mks

    1. Main Economic reason for the migration of the Luo into Kenya:

    – Being nomadic pastoralists  they were looking for pasture and water for their animals

    – They were looking for food

    – They were searching for better fishing grounds                                                            Any lxl — 1 mk

    1. The factors which facilitated the coming of the Arabs before A.D. 1500.

    – Availability of the monsoon winds that enabled their ships to sail

    – They were skilled boat makers and had knowledge in map reading

    – They took control of the Red Sea to stop any invasion from an enemy

    – Availability of good deep ports both in East Africa Coast and Southern Arabia          Any 1×1 = 1 mk

    1. Roles of Mekatilili in the Agiryama resistance:

    – Administered oaths to encourage the Agiryama to fight the British

    – Forwarded the problems of the Agiryama to the British

    – Gave full support to her people against the British                                            Any 2×1=2 mks

    1. Social results of the Uganda Railway line:

    – Led to settlement of Europeans in the interior of Kenya/ white highlands

    – Facilitated the movement of Christian Missionaries to the interior who set up churches and schools

    – Led to cultural and social interaction between different races

    – Settlement of Asians in Kenya during the colonial after independence

    – Growth / emergence of urban centres

    Any 2×1=2 mks

    1. Grievances of early political organizations 1919-1939:

    – Land alienation

    – Forced labour

    – Better wages / working conditions

    – Taxation

    Any 2×1=2 mks

     

    1. Roles of IBEAC CO.

    – Administer Kenya on behalf o f the British                                               lxl-1 mk

    1. Reasons for Maasai collaboration with the British:

    – They had been weakened by animal and human disease e.g cholera and rinderpest

    – The prolonged drought had weakened their economic base/ loss of cattle

    – Severe famine of 1891, forced them to look for British help

    – The rise of the Nandi as a power had weakened them

    – Lenana wanted to maintain his position

    – The kedong massacre made them to fear the British

    – To get military support from the British against her enemies                             Any 2×1 = 2 mnks

     

    1. Conditions for one to be Naturalized as a Kenyan Citizen:

    – Should be over 21 years

    – Has resided in Kenya for more than 5 year

    – Must be of good character

    – Prove that he/she is ready to remain in Kenya after naturalization

    – Should have knowledge in both English and Kiswahili                                     Any 2×1=2 mks

    1. Constitutional changes Introduced in Kenya in 1964:

    – Abolition of Regional Assemblies

    – Queen of England was no longer the head of state in Kenya

    – Kenya became a Republic

    – Creation of the post of an executive president

    – The Governor’s office was abolished.

    – Post of an executive president was set up                                                         Any 2×1= 2mks

    1. Ex-officio member of parliament:

    – The speaker

    – The Attorney General

    Any 1×1 = 1 mk

    1. Challenges of coalition government in Kenya:

    – leadership wrangles

    – disagreements between members of different parties

    – there is no binding agreement between parties Any 2×1=2 mks

    1. External sources of revenue in Kenya:

    – IMF

    – World Bank

    – Commonwealth

    – European Union

    Any  other correct answer. 2×1=2 mks

     

    1. – it means that all the people of Kenya irrespective of their status race, or religion are governed by

    the same law

    – All are equal before the law                                                                      correct answer      1 mk

    1. Reforms in Kenya’s Judiciary

    – there has been increased legal education awareness campaigns eg by Kituo Cha Sheria

    – improvement in terms and conditions of Service for Judges

    – A commission formed in 2003 to look into the conduct of some Judges. 23 Judges suspended.

    – more legal officers have been recruited to reduce backlog of cases in courts.

    Any  2 correct x 1 = 2 mks

    1. The Non-combat unit of the army:

    – transport corps

    – medical corps

    – supplier corps

    – women service corps

    – office of the chaplain

    Any 1×1 = 1 mks

    1. Economic impacts of National philosophies in Kenya:

    – promoted Africanisation of Kenya’s economy. The people of Kenya can now actively participate in their own economy.

    – improvement in transport and communication

    – expansion in the agriculture sector

    – led to formation of co-operative societies.                     Any other correct answer 1 x 1 = I mk

    SECTION B:   45 MKS

    1. (a) Reasons for Bantu migration from Shungwaya:

    – attack from the Cushites

    – increase in population

    – internal conflicts

    – outbreak of diseases

    – to look for more land for settlement

    5×1= 5mks

    (b) Results of the Bantu migration and Settlement in Kenya:

    – it led to the spread of iron technology to other Kenyan communities eg the Luo

    – cultural interaction between the Bantu and other Kenyan communities.

    – displacement of some communities e.g the Luo

    – arrival in Kano plains displaced the Abagusii

    – the Bantu being farmers spread knowledge of agriculture e.g the Kwavi Maasai borrowed the idea from the Bantu

    – increase in  inter-community trade e.g the Luo and Abagusii exchanged baskets  for iron

    – Increased warfare – the Bantu fought the oromo at the Coast, they fought

    with the Luo in Nyanza, fought with the Kalenjin

    – led to population increase in areas where they settled

    – intermarriage – eg Abaluhya and Kalenjin                                                 Any 5×2=10 mks

    1. (a) How Seyyid Said promoted long distance Trade:

    – he encouraged the settlement of Indian Banyans in Zanzibar whom he used to finance the caravans to the interior

    – introduction of a common custom duty throughout his area of Jurisdiction

    – introduced the use of foreign currency e.g copper coins.

    – Wrote letters of introduction to, caravans going to the interior for easy identification

    – encouraged traders from other countries to trade with Zanzibar

    – He signed treaties with the foreign traders

    – Arab and Swahili traders who went to the interior carried the flag of the Sultan as  symbol.

    Any 5×1=5 inks

    (b) Results of Long Distance Trade on the people of East Africa:

    – introduction of new crops to the Coast e.g rice, sugar cane, mangoes

    – growth and expansion of trade

    – Coastal towns like Mombasa and Lamu became major centres of commerce

    – Emergence of a wealthy class of merchants both at the coast and interior e.g chief Kivoi, Ngonyo and Mwakikonga.

    – introduction of foreign goods- beads, cloth, plates

    – introduction and spread of Islam to the interior

    – development of trade routes which later expanded to roads during the colonial period.

    – development of plantation agriculture in Mombasa and Malindi due to slave trade

    – money economy replaced barter system of trade.

    Well explained   any correct 5×2=10 mks

    1. (a) Political parties which took part in the Lancaster House Conference of 1962:

    – Kenya African National Union (KANU)

    – Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU)

    – African People’s Party (A.P.P)

    3×1=3 MKS

    (b) Contribution of women in the Mau Mau Liberation Movement in Kenya:

    – some women actively took part in the resistance against the British e.g Marshall Muthoni, Nduta Wa Kore

    – supplied the Mau Mau fighters with food, ammunition, clothes etc

    – they composed songs to win support from the people for the Mau Mau fighters The songs gave courage to men to join the movement.

    – they acted as spies for the fighters

    – they refused to give out secrets of the Mau Mau movement even if they were tortured

    – many were detained and put in concentraction camps but they did not surrender

    – They took part in oathing, with some being the administrators of the oaths

    – acted as a link between the rural villages and the fighters in the forest Any 6×2=12 mks

    1. 21. (a) Reasons for the influx of Africans to towns during the colonial period in Kenya:

    – to escape forced labour and taxation in the reserves

    – look for jobs in the industries found in towns

    – the reserves were congested and unfertile, this forced them to seek settlements in towns

    – availability of recreational facilities in urban centres attracted the Africans

    – to establish their enterprises/ businesses in towns.                                                  Any 5×1=5 mks

    (b) Reasons why the colonial Government encouraged White Settlers in Kenya:

    – the colonial government aimed at making Kenya a white man’s country-.

    – that settlers would finance the administration of the colony

    – the economic activities of the settlers would help finance the concentration of the railway and it’s maintainance

    – the settlers were to produce raw materials for the British industries

    – to stop Asian influence in Kenya

    – the Kenyan Highlands were suitable for European settlement in terms of climate and soils

    Any 5×2= 10 mks

    SECTION C; (30 MKS)

    1. (a) Responsibilities of the Citizen to the state in Kenya:

    – should obey the laws of the country

    – to pay taxes

    – take part in national development

    – to respect other people culture/ listen to their views

    – to take part in voting / democratic process

    – not to discriminate against others

    – to promote good health habits / HIV/AIDS

    – To fight corruption.                                                                                     Any 5×1=5 mks

    (b) Functions of the Chief Justice in Kenya:

    – the chief Justice is the head of the judiciary

    – Chairs the judicial service commission which is responsible for appointment of judges

    – determines the amounts of charges / fees in courts

    – to swear in a new president and cabinet ministers

    – Advises the government incase the president has to be removed due to  in capacitation. ill-health etc.

    – determines the setting up of Kadhi’s courts with the help of chief Kadhi

    – can exercise constitutional powers / functions as in new advocates of the High Court

    – to supervise lower courts e.g magistrates.

              Any 5 well explained 5×2= 10 mks

    1. (a) Classes of prisons found in Kenya:

    – Principal institutions – for serious crimes e.g Kamiti, Naivasha maximum

    – District I and II prisons – found at the district level

    – Youth Institutions – Borstal and corrective training centres e g Shikutsha in Kakamega and Shnno la Tewa in Coast Province Any 3 x I = 3 mks

     

    (b) Measures to solve problems facing the prisons Department in Kenya:

    – cases can now be heard within a short period of time to reduce the time taken by prisoners in remand

    – to reduce congestion in prisons, the government released about 1 1 500 prisoners in December 2003

    – the government has provided good clothes and bedding facilities

    – purchase of new vehicles (coaches) to easen transport of prisoners

    – better food and medical services have been provided by the government

    – prisoners can today get in touch with the world through reading of Newspapers and watching on T.V’S

    – Provision of better library services

    – pay increase for the prison warders

    – plans are under way to build better houses for the warderss

    – provision of Guiding and Counselling Services to curb the spread of HIV/ AIDS VCT’s in prisons                                                                         Any 6  well explained x 2 = 12 mks

    1. (a) Symbols of National Unity in Kenya.

    – the National Flag

    – National Anthem

    – Coat of Arms                                                                                                            3×1=3 mks

    (b) Factors that limit National Unity in Kenya

    – tribalism – favouring of people of one’s ethnic group It creates hatred and find enmity

    – discrimination on racist lines

    – religious conflicts

    – corruption

    – Greed for leadership and wealth

    – leaders who make irresponsible statements

    – poverty

    – Nepotism

    – Ignorance                                                                 Any 6 well explained 6×2= 12 mks

     

     

     

    SAMPLE  4

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A ( 25 Marks)

    Answer ALL the questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

    1. Name Two historical sources of information on the East African Coast. (2mks)
    2. Give Two communities whose ancestors settled in Mt. Elgon. (2mks)
    3. Identify one factor that facilitated contact between the Coast and the outside world by the end of the 16rh Century.                                                                                                          (1mk)
    4. What was the main Economic activity of the Borana during the pre-colonial period?(1mk)
    5. Name Two Omani dynasties which ruled the Coast of Kenya before 18th Century. (2mks)
    6. State Two ways in which the synnerton plan benefited Africans.             (2mks)
    7. Identify the main feature of the system of education in Kenya during the colonial period.             (1mk)
    8. Give Two factors that facilitated development of urban centres during the colonial period.             (2mks)
    9. Identify Two problems faced by the Africans who lived in the reserves between 1953 and 1963.             (2mks)
    10. State Two roles of welfare organizations in Kenya during the colonial period. (2mks)
    11. Give one role played by the civilians during the struggle for independence in Kenya.

    (1mk)

    1. How did the colonial land policies promote settler agriculture in Kenya?             (2mks)
    2. Why was the independent constitution of 1963 known as “Majimbo”? (1mk)
    3. State Two fundamental rights of the individual which a person in prison is deprived of.(2mks)
    4. Give Two reasons why the chief’s baraza is important in Kenya.             (2mks)

     

    SECTION B( 45 Marks)

    Answer any three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

     

     

    1. a) Give five reasons for the migration of the Miji-Kenya from their cradleland into Kenya.                                                                                                                                    (5mks)
    2. b) Describe the political organization of the Abaluhya during the pre-colonial period.

    (10mks)

     

    1. a) State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the East African Coast.            (3mks)
    2. b) Describe the Portuguese conquest of the East African Coast.                         (12mks)

     

    1. a) State three factors that gave rise to urbanization in colonial Kenya.               (3mks)
    2. b) What was the impact of urbanization in colonial Kenya.                                           (12mks)

     

    1. a) Give five reasons for the rise of independent churches and schools.               (5mks)
    2. b) Explain the factors that promoted the struggle for independence in Kenya.    (10mks)

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION C ( 30 Marks)

    Answer any Two  questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

     

    1. a) Give three core functions of the chairman of the Electoral Commission of Kenya.

    (3mks)

    1. b) Explain the factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya.                                                                                                                                       (12mks)

     

    1. a) Identify three local authorities in Kenya.                                                                  (3mks)
    2. b) Explain the powers of the minister for Local Government over local authorities.                                                                                                                                            (12mks)

     

    1. a) Identify the functions of the cabinet in Kenya.                                                         (5mks)
    2. b) Discuss how the Government of Kenya controls public finance.                                    (10mks)

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE 4

    311/1

     

    SECTION A- 25MKS

     

    1. Historical sources of information on the East Africa coast
    • Ptolemy’s Geography
    • Periplus of the Erythrean sea
    • Christian topography
    • Greco- roman documentary
    • Excavated archeological sites
    • Coins and pottery

    2×1 = 2 mks

    1. Communities whose ancestors settled on mt Elgon
    • Abagusii
    • Abakuria
    • Abaluhya

     

    1. Factors that facilitated contact between the coast and the outside the world by the end of the 16th century
    • Monsoon winds enabled the early visitors to travel to and from the coast
    • Advancement of the boats and ship building technology led to marking of stronger vessels
    • Availability of trade goods

    1×1 =1mk

    1. The main economic activity of the Borana during the pre-colonial period:-
    • Livestock rearing

    1×1 =1mk

    1. Omoni dynasities which ruled the coast of the Kenya before 18th century:-
    • Busaidi
    • Yorubi
    • Nabahan
    • Mazrui

    2×1 =2 mks

    1. Ways in which Synnerton plan benefited Africans:
    • -Africans were issued with the title deeds
    • Africans were given loans
    • Africans were allowed to grow cash crops
    • It introduced special training and research centres

    2×1= 2 mks

    1. Main feature of system of education in Kenya during the colonial period:-
    • It was organized a long racial lines / discriminations.    1×1= 1 mk

     

    1. Factors that facilitated development of urban centres during the colonial period:-
    • Trade
    • Construction of Kenya –Uganda railway / communication lines
    • Colonial administrative ports
    • European settlement in the white highlands.
    • Colonial land policies    2×1 =2mks

     

    1. Problems faced by the Africans who lived in the reserves between 1953and 1963:-
    • Overcrowding
    • Outbreak of diseases
    • Breakdown of cultural practices
    • Food shortages

    2×1=2mks

    1. Roles of welfare organization in Kenya during the colonial period:-
    • They aroused political awareness among the people
    • They organized social activities eg sports and games burial and medical care.
    • They sponsored student to study abroad/ provided education

    2×1=2 mks

    1. Role played by the civilians during the struggle for independence in Kenya
    • They supplied food for freedom fighters.
    • They supplies information to the freedom fighters /spies.
    • They gave moral support to the freedom fighters

    1×1=1 mk

    1. How colonial land policies promoted settler agriculture in Kenya:-
    • The government policy of land alienation availed land for European settlement e.g. while highlands.
    • Creation of African reserves led to overcrowding forcing Africans to work in the settler farms.
    • Declaring some land as crown land denied the Africans access to its use.

    2×1=2 mks

    1. Why the independent constitution of 1963 know as “majimbo”:-
    • The constitution provide for six regional government or federals.

    1×1=1 mk

    1. Fundamental right of the individual which a person in prison is deprived of:-
    • Freedom of movement.
    • Freedom of association.
    • Freedom of expression and speech.

    2×1=2 mks

    1. Reasons why the chiefbarasa is important in Kenya:-
    • It is used to communicate the government policies / decisions to the local people.
    • -Mobilization of local resources.
    • It acts as a forum for people to express their wishes to the government.
    • – It is used to address / resolve minor concerns of the people in the locality / settling local disputes

    2×1=2 mks

    SECTION B

     

    1. (a) Reason that led to the migration of the miji-kenda into Kenya:-             (5mks)
    • Increase in population thus need for land for settlement.

     

    • They were looking for land for cultivation.
    • Internal conflict/ civil wars /fends.
    • Attack by hostile neighbours /external attack.
    • Outbreak of human and animals’ diseases /epidermics.
    • Drought and famine /natural calamities.
    • – Sprite of adventure                                                                                5×1=5 mks

     

    (b) The political organization of the abaluhya.                                                         10 (mks)

    • They had several families with common ancestral which formed the clan
    • A clan occupied a village ( Olukongo ) and its neighbour hoods and each clan was under a village elder.
    • They had a council of elders known as “Abanego” which settled dispute, distributed lands the final court of appeal.
    • The age- group and age- sets compose of people of the generation who were know by different names i.e. “likhula” oluse or “olubaka” which became worriors to defend the lands.
    • The religious leaders also played political roles among the luhya and also served in the council of elders
    • Political neighboring clans would form a Territorial Army and worriors to fight a common army.
    • By the end of 19th century other Aba luhya sub- groups later began having vassal chiefs (Abami) who clamed their authority from the nabongo of the Wanga.

    5×2=10 mks

    1. (a) Reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the east Africa coast.
    • To trade with the coastal people .
    • To counter the growing Islamic influence by spreading Christianity.
    • To form an anti –Muslim alliance with the legendary Christian king prester john believed to have ruled the interior of north east of Africa.
    • To find a sea route to India
    • To explore the coastal of the east Africa
    • For adventure
    • To create a trading empire and colonize the East Africa coast
    • The east Africa coast was of strategic importance because of its deep harbours provided abase for the ships to anchor and fuel.

    3×1=3mks

    1. (b) The Portuguese of the East Africa coast                                                                   (12mks)

    The decision to conquer the coast of east Africa after the return of Vasco da Gama from his voyage in 1499. He reported to the king of Portugal that the conquest of the coastal city states was      a must to enhance Portuguese domination of the Indian ocean trade. He therefore destroyed     Muslim strongholds on the coast as first step.

    • In 1502, Kilwa was conquered by the vasco da Gama who bombarded and Kilwa accepted to pay tribute to the Portugal.
    • In 150, Francisco de’ almeida who was Portugal first viceroy to India attacked sofala , Kilwa and proceeded northwards to destroy and loot much of Mombasa.
    • Between 1505 and 1507 most towns north of mombasa were claimed as part of portuga’ls far east empire.
    • By 1509, the island of pemba and Zanzibar were conquered by the Portuguese colony.
    • By 1515 the whole of the Indian ocean was controlled by Portugal.

    5×2 =10mks

     

    1. (a) Factors that gave vise to urbanization in Kenya
    • The construction of Kenya Uganda railway led to the emergence of number of urban centers along the railway line
    • Asians established shops along the railway line.
    • Some of the colonial administrative posts became urban centres such as Nyeri and Kisii.
    • Some pre-colonial administrative centres such as Mumias also became urban centres
    • Mining activities led to development of urban centres such as Magadi.
    • Commercialization of farming also promoted the growth of towns e.g Eldoret.Nakuru and Nairobi

    3×1 =3mks

    (b) Impact of urbanization on the Africas in colonial Kenya.

    • People of different wthnic groups interacted. This was important for the development of national consciousness.
    • Africans from urban centres formed welfare associations that acted as good training ground for political leadership e.g the Luo union.
    • Many Africans got jobs in urban centres
    • Some became unemployed and turned to social evils e.g robbery and prostitution.
    • Poverty led to the establishment of slums.
    • Social structures in the rural areas were disrupted by the migration of men.
    • Racial segregation was most rampant in the urban centres
    • A number Africans acquired technical skills from the European and Asian employers.
    • Some Africans sold their produce to the urban communities and improved their income.
    • Some Africans in urban centres such as Nairobi and Mombasa converted to Islam

    6×2 =12mks

    19        (a) Reasons for the rise of independent churches and schools.

    • Africans were opposed to European cultural ways hence they wanted churches that would incorporate Africans cultural practices such as polygamy and circumcision.
    • They emerged as a reaction against colonial discrimination and exploitation
    • They were formed to enable Africans to provide leadership in their own churches and schools.
    • Some were formed by Africans leaders who claimed to have received a divine calling e.g. John Owallo of the Nomiya church.
    • -Some churches were established because of difference in the interpretation of the bible.
    • Mission churches were not accommodative to Africans ways of worship like dancing and drum beating. The independent churches allowed free worship.
    • The schools were to provide wider educational facilities and Africans and have control over what was being taught.
    • They sensitized on their rights and the evil of colonialism

    1×5 =5mks

    • The trade union movement in Kenya played a role in mobilizing workers to fight for their rights in the absence of the parties; the union provided a forum for political agitation.
    • The National political parties , such as KANU, KADU inspired nationalists leaders to champion the cause for Kenyans independence.
    • Nationalist’s leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta and Tom Mboya provided political leadership to the masses.

     

     

    • The constitutional reforms such as the Lyterton, Lennox- boyd constitution and the lanchaster House conferences provided for increased Africans representation in the Legco.

    10×1 = 10mks

    20        (a) The functions of the chairman of the electoral commission in Kenya :-

    • Announcing election results
    • Announcing the dates of election and By- Elections
    • Publishing notices of election and nominations and arrange for printing of ballot papers.

    3×1 =3mks

    (b) Factors that are likely to interfere with free and fair elections in Kenya:-

    • Ethnic loyalties/ polarization
    • Party loyalties
    • Harassment of voters by rival groups
    • Incompetent election officials
    • In accessibility of polling stations
    • Transport difficulties.
    • Communication problems between the head quarters and the polling stations
    • Extreme weather conditions
    • Illiteracy of some voters
    • Corruption of some candidates and their supporters.
    • Insufficient distribution of election materials
    • Use of negative propaganda by party leaders / supporters.
    • Insecurity / fear
    • Gender insecurity
    • Use and misuse of mass media

    12×1 =12mks

    21        (a) The local authorities in Kenya are:-

    • City councils
    • Municipal councils
    • County councils
    • Town councils
    • Urban and area councils

    3×1 =3mks

    (b) The powers of the minister for local government over local authorities:-

    • The minister caries out general supervision of the activities of the local authorities to ensure that they follow the regulation of the central government.
    • The minister streamlines local authorities affairs.
    • The minister can recognize local authorities through amalgamation of two or more local authorities
    • The minister can order for an inquiry and suspend or dissolve a local authority.
    • He has power to overrule the decision made by local authorities
    • The minister in conjuctio9n with the public service commission appoints senior officers of the councils e.g. the town clerk and the auditor general.
    • He approves the by-laws made by the local authorities.
    • He receives and assesses the annual reports on the performance of the local authorities.
    • He exercises financial control over local authorities by withdrawing grants , appointing inspectors to audit the local authorities and approving levies, rates, taxes and rent increases

    6×2 =12mks

     

     

    22        (a) Function of cabinet in Kenya:-

    • To formulate national and foreign policies to guide the country
    • To supervise the implementation of government policies by respective ministries
    • To initiate development projects by ministries in different parts of the country.
    • To initiate / approve government bills for discussion by parliament.
    • To discuss important national and international issues.
    • To prepare budgetary estimates for the respective ministries.
    • To collectedly defend government policies.

    5×1 =5mks

    (b) How the government of Kenya control public finances:-

    • All intended expenditure is approved by parliament.
    • All report on expenditure from ministries are scrutinized by the public accounts committee and public investment committee
    • The controller – and Auditors – general audits ministries and government department and report the findings to parliament. The auditor- General of state corporations audits expenditure of all state corporations.
    • The permanent secretaries in the ministries account for all the money allocated to their ministries.
    • The Kenya anti- corruption commission created in 2004 investigates corruption cases and recommends prosecution of suspects.
    • The government contracts are advertised and awarded according to the procurement procedures.
    • Supplementary expenditure by government ministries are approved by parliament.
    • Remove evasion being curbed by the use of x-ray scanners to verify cargo arriving at the port of Mombasa
    • Government formulated the public officers Ethics Act 2001 to compel Kenyans to shun completion. This encourages those handling public money to spend it for the intended purpose. Embezzlement of public funds attracts heavy penalties.

    5×2 =10mks.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 5

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A   (25 Marks)

    Answer ALL questions in this section.

    1. Give one religious reason of the migration of the Cushite into Kenya.

    (1 mk)

    1. Give two social activities of the Somali in the 19th century.             (2 mks)
    2. Give two factors which favoured the growth of long – distance trade. (2 mks)
    3. Give the MAIN event which marked the end of Portuguese rule at the sea African Coast.             (1 mk)
    4. State two reasons which can make one to loose Kenyan citizenship. (2 mks)
    5. Give one political factor that may cause conflicts in Kenya.             (1 mk)
    6. What do you understand by the term “constitutional amendment”?             (1 mk)
    7. Give two roles of the leader of official opposition. (2 mks)
    8. Give two types of taxes subjected to Africans during colonial period. (2 mks)
    9. Give two features of missionary education in Kenya during the colonial period. (2 mks)
    10. What is the meaning of the term “terminative role” (1 mk)
    11. State two contributions of Daniel Arap Moi in education system in Kenya between 1979 and 2002.                         (2 mks)
    12. Name first prime minister in Kenya. (1 mk)
    13. Identify two special courts in Kenya.             (2 mks)
    14. State the MAIN reasons why national holidays are important. (1 mk)
    15. Identify two peaceful ways of resolving conflicts. (2 mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION B (45 MARKS)

    Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

     

    1. a) Give three Western communities who are linguistically related to the Abagusii. (3 mks)
    2. b) Describe the similarities between political organization of the Ameru and Agikuyu.                         (12 mks)

     

    1. a) Outline the stages in the Portuguese conquest of the East African Coast.             (5 mks)
    2. b) Explain five problems encountered by the missionaries in East Africa. (10 mks)

     

    1. a) State five methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya. (5 mks)
    2. b) Explain problems encountered by the IBEA company in the administration of Kenya.             (10 mks)

     

    1. a) Give three resolutions of the 1st Lancaster House Conference. (3 mks)
    2. b) Explain the role of women in liberation struggle.             (12 mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION C (30 MARKS)

    Answer any TWO questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

     

    1. a) Give five conditions that can make one to loose parliamentary seat in Kenya. (5 mks)
    2. b) Describe the functions of the speaker of the national assembly. (10 mks)

     

    1. a) Give five rights of a citizen. (5 mks)
    2. b) Explain five elements of a good citizen. (10 mks)

     

    1. a) Give three factors which led to the introduction of multi – party democracy in Kenya.

    (3 mks)

    1. b) Explain challenges of multi – party democracy in Kenya.             (12 mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAAMPLE PAPER 5

    311/1

     

    SECTION A

    Give one religion reason for the migration of the Cushites into Kenya                   ( 1 mk)

    1. Introduction of Islam                                        (1mk)

     

    Give two social activities of the Somali in the lathe                                                            ( 2 mks)

    1. – Polygamies marriage

    – Exercise between male and female circumcision.

    – Prayed to one God – Waq.

    – Had ritual for marriage and burial                                                                          (1 x 2 = 2mks)

     

    1. factors which favoured long distance trade
    • Dola of middlemen
    • Availability of porters
    • Presence of trade goods.
    • Market for goods./ Demand of ivory
    • Security from interior communities / some ducts support the trade                                                                (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

     

    1. Main event which marked end of Portuguese ( 1 mk)
    • Seizure of fort Jesus by Omari Arabs

     

    1. State two reasons which can make one to loose Kenyan citizenship (2 mks)
    • Disloyalty to the country.
    • Collaboration with Kenyan enemies.
    • Imprisonment for one 12 months within first four year of acquiring citizenship.
    • Being out of country for 7 yrs/ more without informing the embassy.
    • If citizenship lose through fraud.
    • Denunciation by parliament.                                 (1x 2= 2 mks)

     

    1. Give own political factor that may cause conflict in Kenya             ( 1 mk)
    • Election dispute.
    • Incitement by politicians.          (1 x 1 = 1mk)

     

    1. What do you understand by the term constitutional Amendment

    – Introduction of changes to the existing constitution.                                              (1 x 1= 1mk)

     

    1. Give two rules of leader of official opposition.
    • Check on abuse / excess use of power by the executive.
    • Provide alternative policies
    • Present main of the opposition
    • Work closely with PAC and PIC to check on government expenditure.   (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

     

    1. Give two type of lakes subjected in African during the colonial period
      • Hut tax
      • Poll tax
      • Own tax                                (1 x 2 = 2 mks)

     

    1. Give two features of missionary Education in kenya during the colonial period ( 2 mks)
    • Elementary education
    • Technical in approach
    • Denominational
    • Done at mission stations                          (1×2= 2 mks)

     

    11        State two contribution of Daniel Arap Moi in Education System in Kenya between 1979 and 2002

    • It refers to a state where parliament stands automatically dissolved once a vote of no confidence in parliament and government is passed.

     

    1. Contribution of Moi
    • Government subsidy of education
    • Provision of business and scholarships.
    • Construction of schools and college.
    • Provision of school rule programme.       (1×2=2 mks)

     

    1. Name the first Kenyan prime minister.                                                                    ( 1 mk)
    • Jomo Kenyatta.

     

    1. Special court.
    • Court marital.
    • Industrial court.
    • Rent tribunal.
    • Juvenile court.

     

    1. Importance of National holidays.
    • To promote national unity and instill a sense of patriotism.

     

    1. Peaceful ways of resolving complicate.
    • Mediation
    • Negotiation
    • Conduction
    • Arbitration
    • Religions action.          (2×1=2 mks)

     

    SECTION B (45 Marks)

    1. a) Groups related to Abagusii
    • Luhya
    • Abakuria
    • Suba                                                                                                    (3×1=3 mks)

     

    1. b) Similarities of Ameru and Agikuyu political organization.
    • In both the father is the head of the family.
    • Both had clan system and elder.
    • In both council of elders maintained law and order.
    • Both had age-set system.
    • In both communicate, junior warriors defended the community.       (5×2 = 10 mks)

     

    1. a) Stage in Portuguese conquest of the sect African coast.
    • 1500 Pedro Alvares Cabral attacked Sofala.
    • 1502 Vasco da Gamma attacked Kilwa and demanded tribute.
    • 1503 – Lourensco Darasco attached
    • 1505 Fransisco d’Almeida conqeured Mombasa and Kilwa.
    • 1506 – 07 Tristao da Cunha conguered Lamu.
    • 1509 – Mafia, Dember Zanzibar were conguered.           (5×1=5 mks)
    1. b) Problems faced by missionaries.
      • Language barrier.
      • Inadequate
      • Poor transport and communication network.
      • Hostility from some African.
      • Resistance from slave trades.
      • Competition from Islam.
      • Tropical conditions – climate and disease.       (5×2 = 10 mks)

     

    1. a) Methods used in partition.
    • Treaty signing.
    • Hiring of chiefs.
    • Military conquest.
    • Divide and rule tactics.                                        (5×1= 5 mks)

     

    1. Problem encountered by IBEA Co.
      • Lack of enough capital.
      • Scarcity of natural resources.
      • Poor transport network.
      • Lack of navigable rivers.
      • Poor co-ordination between local officially and head office in England.
      • Inexperienced administrators.
      • Hostility from locate.
      • Lack of enough administrators.
      • Tropical conditions.         (5×2 = 10 mks)

     

    1. a) Resolution of 1st Lancaster House conference.
    • Increase in African representation in Legco.
    • Legco to name 3 seat, 20 to be for minority and 33 for Africans.
    • Alteration in the composition of council of minister (4 officials, 4 Africans, 3 Europeans and 1 African)
    • Africans to form political parties’ countrywide.
    • Introduction of election on a common roll.
    • Lifting of state of emergency. (3×1= 3 mks)

     

    1. Role of women.
      • Encouragement to men while fighting.
      • Provided food to the fighters.
      • Individualism direct military confrontation.
      • Acted as spies.
      • Conveyed arms to sightless.
      • Participated in demonstrations.
      • Led men in taking oaths.
      • Took care of homes as men fought.
      • Participated in liberation talks eg Priscah Abwao who participated in 1st Lancaster House conference.       (6×2 = 10 mks)

     

    SECTION C (30Marks)

    1. a) – Lose of parliamentary seat.

    – Loss of Kenyan citizenship.

    – Imprisonment for a term exceeding six months/ death penalty

    – When one is elected a speaker of national Assembly.

    – When one is declared bankrupt.

    – Unsound mind/ insane.

    – Failure to attend of consecutive sessions of parliament without permission of the       speaker.

    – Defection from one party to another.

    – Resignation.                                                                                                 (5×1= 5 mks)

     

    1. Function of the speaker.
      • Swearing in of Mps.
      • Presides one all debates in parliament.
      • Guides debate.
      • Enforces parliamentary standing orders.
      • Spokesman of the National Assembly.
      • Declares a seat vacant.
      • Foreheads discussed bills to the president for Assent.
      • Receives Mp insectores from other countries to the National Assembly.

     

    1. a) Rights of a citizen.

    – Life

    – Expression.

    – Association.

    – Property ownership

    – Conscience

    – Movement

    – Protection from arbitrary search

    – Protection from discrimination.                                                                  (5×1= 5 mks)

     

    1. Elements of a good citizen
      • Loyalty to the state.
      • Patriotism
      • Observe law
      • Respect leaders
      • Justice for all
      • Give ideas on national matters
      • Report law breakers.
      • Mindful of other people’s properties.           (5×2 = 10 mks)

     

    1. a) Causes of multi party democracy.

    – Corruption

    – KANU’S unpopular policies.

    – Recommendation of Saitoti committee

    – Pressure from civil society.

    – Role of religious groups.

    – Influence from other countries eg Zambia.

    – Pressure from western countries

    – Rigging of 1988 election.

    – Political changes in Soviet Union which leads to political reforms.

    – KANU’S response to critism.                                                                      (5×1= 5 mks)

     

    1. Challenges of malt-party democracy.
      • Formation of very many parties.
      • There is lack of alternative policies among parties.
      • Personality differences among leaders.
      • Election of bogus politicians due to euphoric.
      • Extra expenditure by government on parties.
      • Leadership wrangles.
      • Establishment of coalitions.
      • It has encouraged ethnicity.
      • Harassment by the government of the day.
      • Most of the people are not well informed about mult-party democracy.
      • International community has continued to interfere with the running of the country.
      • Bribery of voters due to poverty.       (5×2 = 10 mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 6

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A:

    Answer all questions.

    1. Identify two electronic sources of information on History and government             (2 marks)
    2. What is the main basis of classification for the Nilotes (1 mark)
    3. State two political functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi                             (2 marks)
    4. Outline any two factors that facilitated the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coast by 1500 AD

    (2 marks)

    1. State two demerits of democracy. (2 marks)
    2. Identify two functions of fort jesus                                                                          (2 marks)
    3. Give two reasons why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British                 (2 marks)
    4. Name two independent church movement established in Nyanza by 1940 (2 marks)
    5. What was the main economic reason for the construction of Kenya-Uganda railway.

    (1 mark)

    1. Give one recommendation of the Phelp Stokes commission in Kenya in 1924 (1 mark)
    2. State two rights and privileges an alien may enjoy in Kenya (2 marks)
    3. State one negative consequence of the introduction of pluralism in Kenya (1 mark)
    4. State two terms of the Anglo-Germany agreement of 1886 (2 marks)
    5. State the main role of the court martial (2 marks)
    6. Give two reasons why the Kenya government prepares a budget every year. (2 marks)

    SECTION B

    Answer any 3 questions.

    1. a) What economic factors led to the migration of the Bantus                           (5 marks)
    2. b) Describe the social-political organization of the Agikuyu in pre-colonial Kenya (10 marks)
    3. a) Give factors that facilitated the establishment of British control over Kenya during the 19th century                                                                                                                        (5 marks)
    4. b) Explain why Akamba resistance against colonial rule failed                          (10 marks)
    5. a) Outline three reasons why there existed no African trade Unions in Africa upto 1914.

    (3 marks)

    1. b) Explain the role played by the Kenya federation of labour during the colonial period                         (12 marks)
    2. a) State five areas of priority which the sessional paper No. 10 of 1965 emphasized in relation to development planning in Kenya.                                                                               (5 marks)
    3. b) Discuss the political developments in Kenya between 1963 and 1983 (10 marks)

    SECTION C;

    Answer any 2 questions.

    1. a) State seven problems facing local authorities in Kenya. (7 marks)
    2. b) How does the ministry of local government ensure that local authorities carry out duties effectively?                                                             (8 marks)
    3. a) Give seven reasons which can occasion a by-election in Kenya.                       (8 marks)
    4. b) Explain the functions of the chief justice in Kenya (7 marks)
    5. a) List down the composition of the cabinet             (3 marks)
    6. b) Explain the functions of the cabinet                                                   (12 marks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE PAPER 6

    311/1

     

    1. Two electronic source of information on history and government (2mks)
    • Micro – film
    • Radio
    • Audio – visual sources i.e – television, videos

     

    1. Main basis of classification for the Nilotes  (1mk)
    • Environment i.e. plain, highlands, lake

     

    1. State two political functions of the Orkoiyot among Nandi  (2mks)
    • Blessed warriors before they went for war
    • Settled disputes among councilors of elders and members of the clan
    • He was symbol of unity among the Nandi

     

    1. Factors that facilitated the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan coat by 1500 A.D
    • Monsoon wind – the N.E and S.E that blew their ships to and from the sea
    • Arabs were skilled in marine technology, boat making and map reading
    • Ports of southern Arabia were good calling places and deep harbours
    • Control of the Red sea – kept away their enemies                                                             (2mks)

     

    1. State two demerits of democracy
    • Promotes dictatorship by majority
    • Encourages class struggle and corruption
    • Democratic government is always slow and wasteful
    • It may perpetuate incompetence                                                                             (2mks)

     

    1. Identify two functions of fort Jesus
    • Store of arms
    • Provision for captives
    • Watch tower
    • Administrative base
    • A hiding place against attacks by enemies
    • Storage of food                                                                                                         (2mks)

     

    1. Why Nabongo Mumia collaborated with the British
    • He wanted British civilization i.e. education and religion
    • Wanted modern fire arms for his army
    • Wanted to expand his kingdom
    • He saw it was futile to resist
    • Wanted British protection against his enemies i.e. Luo of Ugenya, Bukusu and Nandi
    • Wanted to consolidate his position in the whole of western Kenya
    • He wanted to boost his positional image and prestige             (2mks)

     

     

    1. Name two independent church movement established in Nyanza by 1940             (2mks)
    • Nomiya Luo church
    • Dini ya Roho
    • Joroho
    • Mumboism                                                                                                                (2mks)

     

    1. Main economic reason for the construction of Kenya – Uganda railway  (1mk)
    • To exploit economic potential of the interior of Kenya

     

    1. Give one recommendation of the phelp stokes commission in Kenya in – 1924 (1mk)
    • Creation of uniform system of education
    • Training teachers
    • Construction of schools in rural areas for African to be established by local native council

     

    1. State two rights and privileges an alien may enjoy in Kenya  (2mks)
    • Right to own properties
    • Protection of the law (2mks)

     

    1. State one negative consequences of the introduction of pluralism in Kenya (1mk)
    • Has caused a lot of disunity because parties tend to have tribal inclinations
    • It has caused divisive politics and promoted tribalism
    • Has led to loss of lives and properties as members of different parties fight

     

    1. State two terms of the Anglo Germany agreement of 1886
    • The sultan of Zanzibar was given 16km coastal strip and offshore island of lamu and Zanzibar
    • German got territory between R.umba and River.Ruvumba in the south
    • German got territory north river of R.umba and up to jumba

     

    1. State the main role of the court martial
    • Enforce and ensure discipline within the armed forces             (1mk)

     

    1. Give two reasons why the Kenyan government prepares budget every year
    • Easy for government to prioritize its needs, giving prominence to the most urgent ones
    • Enables government to identify source of government revenue
    • Government identifies development projects to finance in the coming year
    • Government balances its revenue and expenditure needs
    • Members of parliament get a chance to monitor how public resources are utilized (2mks)

     

    SECTION B: Answer any three questions

     

    16.(a) What economic factors led to the migration of the Bantus

    • Search for fertile lands
    • Drought and famine
    • Population pressure
    • Human and animal diseases
    • Knowledge of iron smelting encouraged the Bantus to migrate
    • Search for areas with rivers to water their animals                                                 (5mks)

     

    (b) Describe the social – political organization of the Agikuyu during the Pre-colonial period

    Social

    • Family was the basic social unit
    • Several families made up a clan
    • At puberty boys and girls were initiated into adulthood through rites such as circumcision
    • Initiated boys formed age set ‘riika’
    • Agikuyu worshiped one supreme God ‘Ngai’ who lived on mt. Kenya (kirinyaga)
    • Had priests who offered prayers
    • They offered sacrifices to their God for thanks giving in sacred places
    • They believed in ancestral spirits
    • They also had medicine men, rain makers, and prophets
    • There was division of labour                                                                                  (5mks)

     

    Political

    • Agikuyu were politically decentralized
    • The smallest political unit was a family headed by the father
    • Several families made up a clan
    • Such clan was made up of several sub clans (mbari) with a common descendant and usually living in the same ridge
    • The clan was ruled by the council of elders ‘kiama’
    • The council enforced moral codes of conducts (religious, administrative and judicial roles)
    • The council ‘kiama’ was headed by a muthamaki who coordinated the activities of the mbari
    • Several elders (aramati) formed a higher council of elders ‘kiama kia athamaki’
    • They acted as a court of appeal and administered justice in the community e.t.c
    • The agikuyu also had an age set system who provided warriors who carried out raids on their neighbours and defended the community from external attacks.                        1 x 5=5mks

     

    17.a) Give factors that facilitated the establishment of British control over Kenya during the 19th century

    • The Kenyan communities were not united
    • The British had superior military tactics
    • The British used treachery when dealing with some communities
    • The Kenya – Uganda railway facilitated the movement of the British
    • Some communities had weak economic bases 1 x 5=5mks

     

    1. b) Explain why the Akamba resistance against the British failed
    • Some of the akamba became greedy and allied themselves with the British to enrich themselves
    • The Akamba were politically segmented hence were unable to offer a coordinated resistance
    • The famine of 1899 weakened their military capacity
    • The missionaries had also pacified some section by actively undermining their religious beliefs and traditional practices
    • Disruption of the akamba caravan  trade and raiding activities by the British led to the loss of their sources of livelihood                                                                       5 x 2 =(10mks)

     

    18.a) outline three reasons why the existed no African trade unions in Africa up to 1914

    • The majority of Kenyans were illiterate and lacked the knowledge to run workers union
    • The colonial government fought attempts by Africans to form workers organizations
    • Migrant labour system was against establishment of search unions

    (1×3=3mks)

    1. b) Explain the role played by Kenyan federation of labour during the colonial period
    • It kept the spirit of African nationalism alive especially after the banning of KAU
    • It educated African workers on their rights
    • It improved the living and working conditions of African workers
    • It created a collective bargaining power for all workers
    • It prepared some African nationalists for leadership roles i.e. Tom mboya and martin shikuku
    • It secured international support for the cause of African nationalism to sent letters o the international confederation of free trade unions and international labour organization

    6 x 2=(12mks)

    19 a) State five areas of priority which the sessional paper 10 of 1965 emphasized in relation to development planning in relation to development planning in Kenya (5mks)

    • Individual properties and ownership be guaranteed Under this the government would not nationalize private property without adequate compensation
    • It encouraged proper management of agriculture both in public and private sectors through consolidation and registration of land
    • It emphasized on progressive taxation, distribution of wealth and income to bring social equality
    • Kenyans to be motivated by a sence of patriotism to their country and not to be driven by a greedy desire for personal gain
    • It encouraged mutual responsibility through which national development can be realized
    • It emphasized on provision of education as a means of achieving good citizens inspired with the desire to serve your fellow men.
    • The government to provide medical care and social security as away of improving amenities for a better society
    • Ensure equal opportunities to all citizens, eliminations of exploitation and discrimination

    1 x 5=5mks

    1. b) Discuss the political development in Kenya between 1963 and 1983.
    • Voluntary disbanding of KADU in 1964 making Kenya a defactoof one party state
    • Abolition of majimbo in 1964
    • Abolition of the post of prime minister 1964
    • 1966 – vice president of KANU was replaced with eight provincial vice presidential vice presidents due ideological difference in KANU
    • 1966 – a constitutional amendment was made which stated that if a person resigned from a party which elected him to parliament her had to resign his parliament any seat and eek fresh mandate from the electorate
    • 1966 – the bicameral legislature was dispended
    • 1969 – KPU was banned following riots in kisumu
    • 1969 – tom mboya was assassinated in Nairobi
    • 1975 – Josiah mwangi kariuki was brutally murdered in Ngong forest
    • 1978 – jomo kenyatta – first president of the republic of Kenya died and Moi vice president assumed presidency for 90 days and finally was elected second president of Kenya
    • 1982 – Kenya experience a coup de tat by some air force servicemen
    • 1982 – A constitutional ammendmentfollowed introducing section 2(a) making Kenya a de jure one party state
    • 1983 – Charles njonjo was named traitor for plotting to overthrow moi’s government
    • 1983 – Moi banned tribal organization as a way of promoting national unity 1 x 10=(10mks)

     

    SECTION C: answer any two questions

    20.a) state seven problems facing local authorities in Kenya

    • Some are small to operate independently high population – strains resources
    • Lack of adequate finances to fund their activities
    • Inefficient revenue collection system
    • Misappropriation of funds by corrupt officers
    • Political interference
    • Lack of qualified personnel and financial management
    • Too much control from the central government
    • Over employment strains their finances (ghost workens)widespread corruption among employees
    • Election of illiterate councilors
    • Poor infrastructure
    • Some local authorities are too large to be managed effectively
    • Grants from the central government are inadequate                                                1 x 7=        (7mks)

     

    1. b) How does the ministry of the local government ensures that the local authorities carry out their duties effectively
    • The minister for local government carries out general supervision on the local authorities to ensure they conform to the laid down procedures
    • The minister has the power to overrule some of the decision of the authorities
    • By-laws made by the authorities do not become effective until the minister approves them
    • The minister has the power to investigate activities of any local authorities if need be
    • Senior officers of the council are appointed by the central government
    • Local authorities are required to submit their annual report to the ministry of local government

    1 x 8=(8mks)

    1. a) Give seven reasons which can occasion a by-election in Kenya
    • Death of an MP
    • Resignation of the incumbent MP
    • Imprisonment – more than six month imprisonment of an MP
    • If a member of parliament misses eight consecutive parliament session
    • If an MP ceases to be a Kenyan citizen
    • If a sitting MP is found to have committed election offence and the results are nulified by the high court
    • If the sitting MP is declared bankrupt by a court of law
    • If the MP defects from the party that sponsored him              (8mks)

     

    1. b) Outline two function of the chief justice in Kenya
    • Head of Kenya judiciary
    • Chairperson of judicial service commission i.e. advices the president on the appointment, promotion or removal of judges of the court of appeal and high court
    • Prescribes fees to be charged by the courts
    • Swears in the president and the cabinet ministers
    • Plays an advisory role in the removal of president on grounds of incapability
    • The chief justice – in consultation with the chief kadhi, determine the establishment of kadhi courts
    • He/she posses a wide range of discretionary powers and can exercise them whenever need arises

    1 x 7=(7mks)

    22.a) what is the composition of the cabinet

    • The president
    • The Vise president
    • The ministers
    • The attorney general             (3mks)
    1. b) Explain the function of the cabinet.
    • Advising the president on government policy
    • collectively determining government bills and amendment to the existing laws
    • Ensuring the implementation of government policy by the civil servants
    • Collectively defending policy, both inside and outside parliament
    • Representing the president at national and international functions
    • Discussing matters of national and international importance
    • Ministers are spokesmen on matters pertaining to their ministries and answer questions raised in parliament                                                                                             2 x 6=  (12mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 7

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

     

    Answer all questions in this section

     

    1. Identify the first home of the Abasuba before they settled in Kenya.             (1mk)
    2. Mention the main Economic activity of the river lake Nilotes in pre-colonial period.             (1mk)
    3. State two social reasons that motivated the Portuguese interest in the Kenyan Coast.                                                                                                                                                (2mks)
    4. Identify two inland communities who participated in the long distance trade in Kenya.             (2mks)
    5. Name the first two Christian missionaries in Kenya.             (2mks)
    6. Identify the Chartered company that administered Kenya between 1888-1894. (1mk)
    7. State two communities that showed a mixture of resistance and collaboration during the British occupation of Kenya.                         (2mks)
    8. Give the main reason for the construction of the Uganda railway line.             (1mk)
    9. Name the institution that effected colonial policies and programmes in Kenya before 1907.             (1mk)
    10. State any two functions of the chief in colonial Kenya.             (2mks)
    11. Identify the appointing authority of the chairman of the Independent Electoral Commission of Kenya.                                     (1mk)
    12. Explain the term –terminative role of parliament as it applies to Kenya.             (2mks)
    13. Identify the type of constitution in Kenya.             (1mk)
    14. State two symbol of national unity in Kenya             (2mks)
    15. State the main economic obligation of a good citizen in Kenya.                            (1mk)
    16. Apart from Nyayoism , identify other two national philosophies that have been used in Kenya after independence             (2mks)
    17. Give the highest level of prisons in Kenya             (1mk)

     

     

     

    SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

    Answer any three questions from this section

     

    1. a) Give three western Kenya’s communities who are linguistically related to the  Abagusii.                                                                                                                                (3mks)
    2. b) Describe social organization of the Abagusii in the pre-colonial period.                       (12mks)

     

    1. a) State five reasons that enabled the British to establish their rule over Kenya with ease.                                                                                                                                        (5mks)
    2. b) Explain what made the Agiriama to resist the British invasion into their territory.                                                                                                                                                (10mks)

     

    1. a) Give ways in which the colonial government  supported settler farming in Kenya.                                                                                                                                                (5mks)
    2. b) Explain the effects of settler  farming in colonial Kenya.                                   (10mks)

     

    1. a) State three reasons why trade unionism was more active in Nairobi and Mombasa than other areas of Kenya during the colonial period.                                                                 (3mks)
    2. b) Discuss the role played by educated African nationalists in the struggle for independence in Kenya.                                                                                                                                 (12mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

    Answer any two questions from this section.

     

     

    1. a) Mention three classes of Human rights                                                                (3mks)
    2. b) What are the survival rights of children in Kenya                                                (12mks)

     

    1. a) Identify five sources of Kenya’s judicial laws.                                                    (5mks)
    2. b) What are the functions of the judiciary                                                                (10mks)

     

    1. a) Mention the three pillars of Nyaoyoism.                                                             (3mks)
    2. b) Explain how the philosophy of Nyaoyoism contributed to Kenya’s social development since 1978.                                                                                                                    ( 12mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE PAPER 7

    311/1

    1. Identify the first home of the Abasuba before they settled in Kenya

    – Buganda                                                                                                             1 x 1 mk

    1. Mention the main economic activity of the river-lake Nilotes in the pre-colonial period.

    – Fishing                                                                                                               1 x 1 mk

    1. State two social reasons that motivated the portuguese interest in the Kenyan Coast.
      • Desire to spread Christianity
      • Desire to meet their legendary King
      • Desire to wage crusade against muslims at the Coast. (1 x 2 mks)
    2. Name two inland communities who participated in the long distance trade in Kenya.
      • The Akamba
      • The Agikuyu (1 x 2 mks)
    3. Name the first two Christian Missionaries in Kenya.

    –     John Krapft

    –     Johann Rebman

    1. Identify the chartered company that administered Kenya between 18
      • Imperial British East African Company ( R. B. E. A. Co.) ( 1 x 1 mk)
    2. State two communities that showed a mixture of resistance and collaboration during the British occupation of Kenya.
      • The Akamba
      • The Agikuyu
      • The Luo
    3. Give the main reason for the construction of the Uganda railway line

    –     To promote trade with the outside world by encouraging the exploitation of available resources and enable the colony sustain itself                                                                               (1x1mk)

    1. Name the institution that effected colonial policies and programmes in Kenya before 1907

    – The executive council                                                                                              (1 x 1 mk)

    1. State any two functions of the chiefs in colonial Kenya
      • Maintained public order
      • Judged petty cases
      • Responsible for clearing roads and foot paths
      • Collected taxes
      • Controlled illegal brews
      • Controlled use of illegal drugs
      • Controlled the carrying of weapons             ( 1 x 2 mks
    2. Identify the appointing authority of the chairman of the independent Electoral Commission of Kenya.

    –     The president

    1. Explain the term- Terminative Role of parliament in Kenyan

    –     Means that parliament has the power to pass a vote of no confidence in the president / government by a two thirds vote majority, forcing the government to resign                    ( 2 x 1 mks)

    1. Identify which type of constitution is Kenya’s

    – Written constitution                                                                                                 (1 x 1 mk)

    1. State one symbols of national unity in Kenya

    – National Anthem

    – The flag

    – Court of arms

    – National arms                                                                                                     ( 1 x 2 mks)

    – National awards

     

    1. State the main economic obligation of a good citizen in Kenya

    –     Paying of taxes to the government                                                                ( 1 x 1 mk)

     

    1. Apart from Nyayoism, identify other two national philosophies that have used in Kenya after independence.
      • Harambee
      • African socialism ( 1 x 2 mks)
    2. Give the highest level of prisons in Kenya

    –     Principal institutions                                                                                      ( 1 x 1 mk)

     

    SECTION B ( 45 MKS)

    1. a)Give three western Kenya’s Communities who are linguistically related to the Abagusi
      • Abaluhya
      • Abasuba
      • Abakuria ( 1 x 3 mks)
    1. b) Describe social organization of the Abagusii in the pre-colonial period

    –     Basic units of the society were clans

    –     Each clan had a symbol, commonly a wild animal

    –     Boys and girls were iniated into adulthood by circumcision.

    –     They believed in a supreme God- Engono

    –     They prayed through their ancestral spirits

    –     Had diviners who interpreted messages of the ancestral spirits

    –     Believed ancestral spirits could bring misfortunes if annoyed

    –     The sun (Eriba) was regarded as holy and prayers offered through it.         (2 x 6 mk)

     

    1. a) State five reasons that enable the British to establish their rule over Kenya with ease
      • Presence of the IBEACO which provided iniatial capital
      • Disunity amongst Kenya’s societies
      • Some communities collaborated and helped the British.
      • Use of indirect rule in many parts of Kenya
      • The British had superior weapons / army
      • Home government assisted financially ( 1 x 5 mks)
    2. a) Give ways in which the colonial government supported settler farming in Kenya
      • Construction of roads and rail to connect farmers
      • Ensured the flow of cheap labour into their farms
      • Gave settlers security
      • Agricultural and veterinary extension services
      • Provided settlers with loans
      • Encouraged them to form cooperation ( 1 x 5 mks)
    1. b) Explain the effects of settler farming in colonial Kenya

    –     Development of agricultural based industries

    –     Development of research institutes to research on plants and animal diseases

    –     Creation of employment in agro based industries

    –     Promoted trade between Kenya and the world in export of agricultural produce.

    –     Roads and rails developed to serve settler areas.

    –     Farmers organizations like the Kenya farmers Associations were started to promote

    settler farming

    –     Encouraged the growth of agricultural cooperatives

    –     Encouraged forced labour for Africans in Europeans farms                         ( 2 x 5 mks)

     

    1. a) State three reasons why trade unionism was more active in Nairobi and Mombasa than other areas of Kenya during the colonial period.
      • The two towns had more money and more wage labour
      • Educated elite were more in the towns and could offer leadership
      • Most social, political and economic injustices were felt by the dwellers of the two towns.
      • Mass media in the two towns easily disseminated political awareness.
      • The towns were metropolitan and had no cultural barriers. ( 1 x 3 mks)
    1. b) Discuss the role played by educated African nationalist ion the struggle for independence in Kenya

    –     Formed political parties to fight for independence

    –     Made Africans problems known in the international for a

    –     Enlightened Africans on their rights and freedom

    –     Pressured for the release of political detainees

    –     Some we elected to parliament and took grievances of Africans into the House.

    –     Some organized trade unions to fight for the welfare of African workers.

    –     They took part in the necessary negotiations like the Lancaster House conferences           ( 2 x 6 mks)

     

    SECTION C. ( 30 MKS)

     

    1. a) Mention three classes of Human rights
      • Social economic and cultural rights
      • Solidarity rights
      • Civil and political rights
    1. b) What are the survival rights of children in Kenya

    –           Rights to life and should be protected from anything that endanger their lives

    –           Right to good medical care their good health should be ensured e.g by vaccinating them

    –           Good clothing to protect them from cold and diseases

    –           Goods shelter e.g. what they can call home / house

    –           Right to name and identify – they should be named and should be citizens of a particular country.

    –           Good food – they should be given a balanced diet.                                       ( 2 x 6 mks)

    1. a) Identify five sources of Kenyans judicial law .
      • African customs
      • Religion
      • Legislation / Acts of parliament
      • British common law
      • Judicial precedents
    1. b) What are the functions of the judiciary?

    –     Settle legal disputes amongst individual or between individuals and states

    –     Exercises justice guarantees the rule of law

    –     Develop laws by setting precedents

    –     It’s the guardian of the constitution

    –     Arbitrates in the administration in the administration of the estates of the deceased

    by appointing trustees and appoint receives for bankrupt business.

    • Swears in the president and the cabinet before they take office.
    • Approves / recommends children to approved school             ( 2 x 5 mks)
    1. a) Mention the three pillars of Nyayoism
      • Peace
      • Love
      • Unity             ( 1 x 3 mks)
    1. b) Explain how the philosophy of Nyayoism contribution to Kenya’s social development since 1978.
    • Improved medical services e.g Nyayo wards were constructed.
    • Expansion of education e.g. more schools, colleges and feer were financial through the spirit of love
    • Encouraged, cooperation, understanding and unity amongst all Kenyans.
    • Encouraged attention to the plought of people with disabilities and other disadvantaged groups in the spirit of minding about other peoples welfare
    • Promoted the preservation of African cultures since it was based on African cultural values of hospitality
    • Improved the spiritual / social welfare of Kenyans e.g many churches were constructed in the spirit of Nyayoism                                                 2 x 6

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 7

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A

    1. Who are the Dahallo people of Kenya.             (1mk)
    2. Give two reasons to explain why the Abagusii remained in the Kano plains for too long before settling in the Kisii highlands .                                                                                   (2mks)
    3. What factors contributed to the Nandi and Kipsigis split during the mid 18th Century.                         (2mks)
    4. Mention two roles of the “Thuondi” among the Luo community.             (2mks)
    5. Give the main reason that led to the collapse of the earliest trade between the Greeks, Persians, Romans, Chinese and Arabs in the ( 5th A.D).                                                     (1mk)
    6. Describe any two problems faced by the Portuguese captains in their efforts to execute their roles.                         (2mks)
    7. Give the significance of chief Kivoi to the development of the long distance trade in E. Africa.             (1mk)
    8. What was the main function of the British forts in Nandi land?             (1mk)
    9. Mention any two conditions that the Agiryama were served before Fadhili bin Omari that ended their resistance?             (2mks)
    10. What factor contributed to the disintegration of the Coast African Association in 1955?                                     (1mk)
    11. How did the Atlantic charter signed in 1941 inspire African nationalist in Kenya? (1mk)
    12. Mention any two disadvantages of squatterdom?             (2mks)
    13. Who among the governors declared the 1952 state of Emergency in Kenya. (1mk)
    14. Give two reasons that made women to participate in the Mau Mau movement? (2mks)
    15. What was the main advantage of district associations to Kenyans.             (1mk)
    16. Under what circumstances may violent method be used in resolving conflict. (2mks)
    17. Mention any factor that may limit ones freedom of movement.             (1mk)

    SECTION B

    1. a) Describe the social organization of Somali during the pre-colonial period.            (5mks)
    2. b) Explain the results of the migration and settlement of the Somali.                    (10mks)

     

    1. a) Give any four proposals made by Ian Macleod to the constitution.                    (4mks)
    2. b) Discuss the features of the Kenyan Constitution at Independence.                     (11mks)

     

    1. a) Describe the causes of the Maasai collaboration.                                                            (7mks)
    2. b) Explain the results of the Maasai collaboration.                                                 (8mks)

     

    1. a) Briefly describe the factors that led to the issuing of the Devonshire white paper of 1923.                                                                                                                                   (5mks)
    2. b) Discuss the results of the Devonshire white paper of 1923.                                (10mks)

    SECTION C

    1. a) Give three reasons why Daniel Moi and Ronald Ngala decided to form KADU?    (3mks)
    2. b) Describe any five achievements of KADU in the 1960’s.                                   (5mks)
    3. c) What problems were faced by KADU in the 1960’s.                                           (7mks)
    4. a) Under the following headings, describe the achievements of former president Daniel Moi during his era.

    (i)  Political                                                                                                                (5mks)

    (ii)  Social                                                                                                                   (5mks)

    1. b) Discuss the factors that made the Nyayo era unpopular.             (5mks)
    2. a) Explain any five roles of the cabinet.                                                                   (5mks)
    3. b) Discuss the functions of the chief justice.                                                                       (5mks)
    4. c) Describe the factors the E.C.K takes into account while setting up electoral boundaries.

    (5mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE PAPER 8

    311/1

     

    1. Who are the Dahallo people of
      • They are the remnants of the Southern Cushites who were absorbed by larger groups.
      • They settled at the lower Tana.

    ( 1 x 1= 1mk)

    1. – They were obstructed by the Kipsigis who were migrating westwards.

    –           The maasai were also quite wild                                                        ( 2 x 1) = 2mks

     

    1. Maasai attacks.

    –           Drought                                                                                               ( 2 x 1) = 2mks

    1. Defending the community against external attacks
      • Raiding neighbouring communities such as the Nandi, Maasai and Abagusii.

    ( 2 x 1) = 2mks

    1. – The fall of the Roman Empire                                                           ( 1pt x 1) = 1mk
    2. Few men and troops
      • Terrible climate hence diseases
      • Constant rebellions from the local peoples because of their harsh rule.

    ( 2 x 1) = 2mks

    1. Chief organizer of the trade .He collected and transported ivory to Mombasa

    (1pt x 1) = 1mk

    1. To protect the railway and road.             (1pt x 1) = 1mk
    2. The Agiryama would offer a certain number of people as labourers for European

    settlers and public works.

    • A certain number of able bodied young men were to serve in theKings Africans Rifles.
    • The British would occupy all the land to the North of R.Sabaki (2pts x 1=2mks)

     

    1. The departure of their leaders francis khamisi and Ronald Ngala who joined the Mombasa African Democractic Union and the Legco.                         (1pt x 2) = 2mks
    2. By declaring that when the 2ndwar ends, all subject peoples were to be left to enjoy

    the right to self determination.                                                                      (1pt x 1) = 1mk

     

    1. Livestock reduced

    –           Plots to cultivate were too small.                                                      (2pts x 1=2mks)

    1. Evelyn Barring             (1pt x 1) = 1mk
    2. – The colonial administration forced them to provide communal labour which

    involved constructing roads and terraces in the reserves when there were no men.

    • The colonial soldiers also forced them to collect water and firewood for them

    (2pts x 1=2mks)

    1. At the formation of KANU, they all became KANU branches.             (1pt x 1) = 1mk
    2. – When law and order is broken and the alternative is the use of force.
      • Incase of serious social unrest .
      • Striking students or workers streets mobs and bandits.             (2pt x 1) = 2mks)
    3. – State of emergency.
      • Trespassing is not allowed
      • Lawful detention and imprisonment             (1pt x 1) = 1mk

     

    1. a) Describe the social organization of the 
      • The Somali believed in the existence of God(wak) who was all powerful.
      • They conducted prayers to their God and sacrificed to him when need arose.
      • They were socially organised into clans made up of related families
      • They conducted initiation of boys and then grouped them into age sets
      • Clans were headed by council of elders who settled clan disputes maintained law & order etc.
      • They had religious leaders who mediated between the people and their God.
      • They practised polygamous marriage
      • In the 16th Century they were converted into Islam hence adopting Islamic culture.

    (Any 5pts x 1 = 5mks)

    1. Explain the results of the migration and settlement of the Somali.
      • Conflicts e.g. the Somali & Oromo hence caused many deaths .
      • Displacements e.g. the Somali displaced the Mijikenda out of Shungwaya
      • Formation of alliances e.g. the Somali joined their cousins the Rendille & Samburu against the Turkana.
      • Cultural interation e.g. the Somali taught the Bantu’s the art of circumcision & the age set system
      • Intermarriages e.g. the Somali intermarried with the Bantu’s Mijikenda & even the Maasai
      • Trade intensified e.g. the Somali traded with the Samburu & Maasai.
      • It led to redistribution of population in Kenya e.g. the Mijikenda were scattered at Shungwaya and had to change the course of their migration.
      • Led to population expansion in the coastal region because of the arrival of new people.
      • Economic interation e.g. the Bantu’s adopted arrowhead making & cattle breeding from the Somali whereas the Somali adopted crop cultivation from the Bantu’s
      • Assimilation e.g. Some Somali peoples were absorbed by the Arabs.
      • Language enrichment – some Somali words were adopted from the Oromo & the Rendille
      • Social interation – worship patterns portrayed e.g. they adopted some worship styles from the Arabs             (Any 1 x 10 = 10mks)

     

    1. a) Give any four proposals made by Ian Macleod to the constitution.
      • The Legco should have 53 elected members, to be elected on a common roll.
      • 20 seats would be set aside for the minority groups. i.e. 10 Europeans, 8 Asians & 2 Arabs.
      • 12 specially elected members would be elected by the legco members to make 65 members.
      • The Cabinet would be made up of 4 Africans, 3 Europeans & an Asian.
      • Voting qualifications were amended .All Kenyans above 40 yrs would be allowed to vote & those over 21 yrs who were literate & earning .
      • The Bill of rights was introduced .
      • Kenyans were allowed to form political parties.
      • Any private property taken by the government was to be compensated .

    (Any 1 x 4= 4mks)

    1. b)

                            –           It provided for the establishment of a federal government.

    –           The  queen remained head of state but delegated her duties to the governor.

    –           The governor was head of state & was to be assisted by the prime minister.

    –           It spelt out that the party with the majority forms the government.

    –           It advocated for multi partism.

    –           It spelt out the duties and obligations of individuals(Bill of rights)

    –           It provided for the establishment of a national assembly which was bicameral ½  houses.

    –           It spelt out powers and responsibilities of the central governments and

    the regional government.

    –           It established regional governments with regional assemblies and presidents

    –           The judiciary was to be an independent & impartial body to ensure justice & to

    prevent corruption.

    • It protected the civil service from abuse or corruption in recruitment & promotion procedures by creating the public service commission to hire, promote , dismiss & discipline civil servants.
    • It ensured impartiality and honesty by setting up an independent electoral commission
    • The constitution provided for an elaborate scheme for the protection of the minority rights.
    • Citizenships was included i.e. all indigenous communities automatically became

    citizens & some of the immigrant population.                      11  x 1 = 11mks

     

    1. a) Describe the causes of the Maasai collaboration.
      • The Maasai had been weakened by numerous human and cattle diseases at the time of British penetration.
      • The Maasai had been affected by natural calamites such as drought and locust invasion.

    This led to the loss of a large number of livestock , the lifeblood of their economy.

    • There occurred severe famine which resulted in a high death toll in 1891 forcing them to seek food from British forts.
    • The emergence of the Nandi as a strong power had adverse implications on Maasai economic & military power, the Nandi raided their villages with impunity.
    • The Maasai had engaged in civil wars for half a century & were therefore weak by the time of the coming of the British .
    • Lenana hoped to get assistance from the British against his brother Sendeyo with whom he was engaged in a succession dispute.
    • Lenana wanted to consolidate his position and that of his Kingdom by collaborating with the British.
    • The Kedong massacre whereby Lenana was greatly impressed by the by military might.
    • Lenana was threatened by the Agikuyu whom he had fought hence needed protection.
    • The maasai wanted help to get back their women & children who had been left in the custody of the Agikuyu during the 1891 famine & whom the Agikuyu were refusing to surrender

    7 x 1= 7mks

    1. b) Explain the results of the Maasai collaboration.

                            –           Lenana was recognized as the paramount chief of the maasai in 1901.

    –           The Maasai were employed as mercenaries against other communities

    –           The purko maasai were further divided into two section loita & Ngong leading to

    the separation of related clans.

    • Led to massive land allenation .
    • Led to the creation of reserves e.g. the Laikipia and Ngong”
    • The British curtailed the Maasai freedom to conduct their rituals with only a five square mile reserve being created for their initiation rites.
    • There was a total disruption of their cattle economy territorial integrity.The number of livestock was reduced leading to loss of wealth.
    • Lenana was able to defeat his rivals such as Sendeyo.
    • The British helped the Maasai in disease control and during famine and drought .
    • Lenana & his people gained materially from By raids in terms of livestock leading to accumulation of wealth.                                     8 x 1= 8mks

     

    1. a) Briefly describe the factors that led to the issuing of the Devonshire white paper.
      • The influence of the “Dual Mandate”(a book of the league of nations that has regulations concerning colonial mandates)According to this book it proved that Britain was committed to the principle of trusteeship whereby she was interested on its African population than European settlement.
      • The Indian opposition to the privileged position of European settlers.
      • The rise of race conflicts i.e. African versus European dominion and also European versus Asians conflict.
      • The decision by the colonial government to ban racial segregation apart from the white highlands only, disappointed the settlers who didn’t want the ban to be lifted hence they sent a delegation to London to see the colonial secretary.

    The duke of Devonshire.

    • The need to avert a racial war.
    • After interviewing both Europeans and Asians, the Devonshire white paper was published with certain terms.
    • The Africans general resentment on land alienation, force labour , taxation system, kipande system, low wages & no political representation.

    5 X 1 = 5mks

    1. Discuss the results of the Devonshire white paper.
      • The Devonshire white paper saved Kenya from becoming another Rhodesia or South African.
      • In theory settler’s dominance was weakened but in practice the white paper upheld the dominance of the settlers more than that of the Africans e.g. segregation in residential areas in towns continued, they dominated the economy because they retained the white highlands, high grade house continued to belong to whites & low grades for Africans etc.
      • The European demand for self government was rejected .
      • Delamere and other settler leaders sought assistance from Rhodesia and S.A to enable them to establish in their control.
      • The papers did not satisfy the Asians since they did not gain access to the highlands.
      • Although more Asians came to Kenya, the Asians did not achieve equality with Europeans through a common electoral roll.
      • The Indian congress refused to cooperate with the government; they declined to hold elections for the legislative council seats offered to them.
      • All Asians seats , five in all were not occupied until 1933.
      • Africans were to be represented by a nominated missionary.
      • African representation was established in theory but it was not put into practice until; 1944.Africans did not have much say in the colonial government
      • Local native council were established for the Africans. 10 x 1 = 10mks
    2. a) Give three reasons why D.A Moi & Ronald Ngalal decided to form KADU.
      • Mor & Ngala had same ideological views that differed with other leaders. They advocated for a federal system of government while the KANU group were advocating for a unitary system of government –Moi and Ngala felt that the larger group ie the kikuyu and Luo dominated the parity by taking up all the key leadership positions
      • The KADU group also felt that the KANU group were made up of too many people who were radicals and urban oriented.
      • Party elections were not conducted in transparent manner.
    3. Describe any five achievement of KADU in the 1960s.
      • It united the smaller communities in the country e.g the Kalenjin, Abaluhya, Maasai & coast communities .
      • It mobilized Africans against colonial domination
      • It provided political education to the Africans hence sensitising them on the need for self government.
      • It participated in the second Lancaster house conference hence contributing to the formulation of the independence constitution for the short time it was an opposition party, it helped play the role of any opposition party by ensuring checks and balances on the KANU government.
      • It proved to the colonial government that Kenyans were able to rule on their own because it had able leaders.                                     (5 x 1 = 5mks)

     

    1. The problems that KADU faced in the 1960s.
      • The party members experienced a lot of pressures from their rivals in KANU to decamp & merge with them.
      • Wrangles between senior officials undermined the party’s operations .
      • There were suspicions that certain ethnic groups were dominating the party.
      • Persistent lack of funds impeded the party’s activities.
      • Illiteracy among the majority of the members left the top leaders with too much responsibility party affairs.
      • The colonial government was major stumbling block, since it was determined to manipulate the party.
      • Opposition from other minor parties who gave KANU encouragement but discouraged KADU e.g. Kenya freedom party that comprised mostly Asians and two European members.
      • Lacked the support of Kenyatta who had already been identified as an indisputable leader by the majority of Kenyans.                                                  7 x 1 = 7mks
    1. a) Under the following headings, describe the achievement of former president

    Daniel Moi during his era.

    1. Political
    2. Social

     

      • His Nyayo philosophy of peace, love and units enhanced national unity .
      • There was also peace to some extended e.g. any coup de tat was suppressed immediately, the Somali secessionist bandits who kept troubling Kenyans were dealt with accordingly.
      • Kenyans were able to work and freely move in the country without fear of attack or loss of property.
      • He improved relations with neighbouring nations and other states e.g. he re-opened the border with Tanzania in Nov, 1983, he was chairman of the O.A.U. for two yrs etc.
      • On the intenatonational scene, he represented Kenya in several meetings of the U.N and the commonwealth.
      • He handed over power to Kibaki peacefully and never made any attempt to cling to power with the use of the military.

     

    1. Social
      • He conducted several harambee’s to improve the living conditions of all wananchi e.g. the harambee for the physical impaired persons that raised a record 7.5 m sh.
      • He paid special attention to the development of education by conducting harambee’s to increase the number of schools, universities & middle level colleges & changing the educational structure to the 8.4.4 to promote vocational subjects hence self employment.
      • There was expansion of medical facilities & services e.g. Nyayo wards across the country .
      • He encouraged and participated in tree planting & soil conservation activities e.g. building gabions e.t.c
      • He contributed to enhancing the status of women in society by appointing women to serve in senior positions.
      • In 200 , he declared HIV/AIDS a national disaster & followed suit by encouraging researchers, organizing campaigns on its control, involving the World Health Org so as to sell drugs cheaply to Kenyans affected etc.                                                (5 x 1 = 5mks)

     

     

     

    1. Discuss the factors that made the Nyayo era unpopular among the Masses.
      • Corruption e.g. grabbing of public utilities e.g land, embezzlement of funds, Goldenberg scandal etc.
      • Violations of human rights e.g. arbitrary arrests, mysterious deaths/ murders e.g Ouko, Muge, land clashes, tortures etc.
      • Poverty became rampant due to a weakened economy
      • These negative activities affected diplomatic links with donor countries hence isolating her.
      • The 8.4.4 system was a failure because it was implemented in a hurry. It lacked trained teachers for vocational subjects.
      • The D.F.R.D was a failure because it lacked high level administrator and professional offices.It lacked coordination between district, provincial and national offices
      • Tribalism, nepotism facilitated inefficiency in key parastatals.
      • The independence of the judiciary was in theory but practically he interfered with cases. Cases involving the high cadre were usually ignored.
      • Authoritarianism 5 x 1 = 5mks

     

    1. a) Explain any five role of the Cabinet.

                –           Advice the president & assist him.

               Supervise government ministries .

                –           Explain government policy to the people.

                –           Participate in law making.

                –           Defend the government policy.

                            –           Lay down guidelines on Kenya’s domestic and foreign policy.

    –           Initiate new bills and table government bills in parliament.

    –           Formulate and prepare the budget.                                        5 x1 = 5mks

    b          Discuss the functions of the  chief justice.

    –           He/ she is the head of the Kenyan judiciary.

    –           Chairman of the judicial service commission.

    –           Prescribe fees to be charged by the courts.

    –           Swears in the president and the Cabinet ministers.

    –           He/she plays an advisory role in the removal of a president on the grounds of incapacity

    –           Swears in the newly qualified advocates of the high court

    –           The chief justice in consultation with the chief kadhi determines the establishment of

    Kadhi courts.

    • Had a wide range of discretionary powers and can exercise them whenever need arises.

    (5 x 1 = 5mks)

    1. c) Describe the factors the E.C.K takes into account while setting up electoral boundaries.

                            –           Population density i.e. the number of people who live in an area & how close they

    live to each other.

    • Means of communication in the area i.e public & other modes of transport.
    • Geographical features in the area which may break up or unite the community.
    • Boundaries of other administrative departments e.g. district divisions & locations.
    • Political influence e.g. giving out a constituency in favour of certain powerful personalities.

    ( 5 x 1 = 5mks)

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 9

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A: ( 25 MARKS)

    Answer all the questions in this section in the Answer Booklet provided

    1. Give two unwritten sources of the history of Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period.                                                                           (2mks)
    2. State two ways in which the Abaluhya and the Luo interacted during the pre-colonial period.                                                                         (2mks)
    3. Identify two economic activities which the Maasai acquired as a result of interacting with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya.                                                                            (2mks)
    4. State one way in which the monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan Coast and the outside world.                                                                            (1mk)
    5. Give two reasons why the missionaries promoted legitimate trade in Kenya in the 19th                                                                          (2mks)
    6. What was the main challenge faced by the education sector in Kenya during the colonial period?                                                                                        (1mk)
    7. Name two communities in Kenya that showed mixed reaction to colonial rule. (2mks)
    8. Name the organization which was formed by the African elected members of the legco in 1957.                                                                        (1mk)
    9. State two duties of African chiefs during the colonial period.                      (2mks)
    10. State one way in which the office of the presidency promotes national unity in Kenya. (1mk)
    11. State two ways in which the Swynnerton plan affected the African farmers.          (2mks)
    12. Give two ways in which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans

    to urban centres.                                                                                                                   (2mks)

    1. List one type of direct democracy                        (1mk)
    2. What is conflict resolution?                        (1mk)
    3. Name one ex-officio member of the local authority.                        (1mk)
    4. Name the temporary committee appointed by the President to deal with issues of

    disagreement in the cabinet.                                                                                                   (1mk)

    1. List one constitutional change introduced by section 15A that was passed by the 10th parliament of Kenya.                                                            (1mk)

     

    SECTION B: 45 MARKS

    Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

    1. (a) Give five  results of the migration of the cushites into Kenya during the pre-

    colonial period.                                                                                                       (5mks)

    • Describe the socio-political organization of the Somali during the pre-colonial period.                                                               (7mks)

     

    1. (a) Give seven factors that led to the  decline of  the Portuguese rule at the Kenyan Coast.                                                                                                                                             (7mks)
    • Describe the results of the collaboration between Mumia of Wanga and the British.                                                          (8mks)

     

    1. (a) Give three terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923.                                    (3mks)

    (b)       What are the challenges facing land policies in Kenya since Independence?      (12mks)

     

    1. (a) Explain five characteristics of the political organizations which were formed in

    Kenya prior to 1939.                                                                                                (5mks)

    (b)       Discuss the political contributions of Oginga Odinga in Kenya between 1957

    and 1992                                                                                                                 (10mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION C: 30 MARKS

    Answer any Two questions from this section in answer booklet provided.

    1. (a) Give six circumstances which may force the government to limit different rights

    and freedoms of the individuals.                                                                              (6mks)

    • Explain the effects of the Harambee philosophy to national development since its inception.                                                          (9mks)

     

    1. (a) Explain seven functions of the Electoral commission of Kenya.                          (7mks)

    (b)       What are the problems faced by the prison inmates in Kenya?                            (8mks)

     

    1. (a) Identify the reasons why the Kenyan government prepares an annual national

    budget                                                                                                                        (7mks)

    • Explain the problems faced by the government of Kenya in the collection of revenue.                                              (8mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE PAPER 9

    311/1

    SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

    1. Two unwritten sources of the history of Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period. (2mks)
      • Archeology /Paleontology
      • Oral traditions
      • Anthropology
      • Linguistics
      • Genetics Any 2×1=2mks
    2. State two ways in which the Abaluhya and the Luo interacted during the pre-

    Colonial period                                                                                                     

    • through trade
    • they intermarried/marriage
    • they fought wars with each other
    • through raids for livestock
    • Sports e.g wrestling /cultural exchange any 2×1=2mks

     

    1.  Identify two economic activities which the Maasai acquired as a result of interacting with the Agikuyu during their settlement in Kenya.

     

    (i)Trade

    (ii)farming                                                                              any 2×1=2

    1. State One way in which the Monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the Kenyan coast and the outside world.
      1. The Monsoon winds facilitated transport of goods to and from Arabia.
      2. Facilitated movement of traders who established themselves

    along the Kenyan coasts.      Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

     

    1. Give two reasons why the missionaries promoted legitimate trade in Kenya in the 19th century.
      1. to replace the illegal trade in slaves
      2. To supply Europe with raw materials
      3. To help the missions become self sufficient   Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

     

    1. What was the main challenge faced by the education sector in Kenya during the colonial period.

    (i) Organized along racial lines /discrimination                               Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

    1. Name two communities in Kenya that showed mixed reaction to colonial rule.
      1. the Agikuyu
      2. the Akamba
      3. Luo                Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

     

    1. Name the organization which was formed by the African elected  members organization.
      1. The African Elected members organization

    Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    1. State two duties of African Chiefs during the colonial period.
      1. Collected taxes for the colonial government
      2. Settled petty disputes
      3. Recruited labour for the settlers or colonial government
      4. Administered justice on behalf of the colonial government
      5. Agents of the colonial governments. Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

     

    1. State one way in which the office of the presidency promotes national unity in Kenya.
      1. All Kenyans are are united under one president and therefore minimizes conflict/Act as a symbol of national unity.   Any 1 x 1 =1mk

    b   creates one  centre of power

    1. State two ways in which the Synnerton plan affect the African farmers
    • (i) Fertile African land begun to be surveyed and enclosed while

    Title deeds were issued to land owners

    • (ii) Africans were allowed to grow cash crops.
    • (iii) Training and research institutions were established in such fields as Foresty, Agriculture, veterinary and water department.
    • (iv) African were allowed to borrowed loans and also use title deeds us security for the loans they had borrowed. Any 2 x 1 = 2mks

     

    1. Give two ways in which the colonial government controlled the migration of Africans to urban centres.
    • (i) Taking head counts of those who were supposed to live in urban centres
    • (ii) Introducing the Kipande system
    • (iii) Enacting strict rules about migrations into urban centres /creation of reserves.
    • (iv) Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centres lived there. Any 2 x 1 = 2mks
    1. List one type of direct democracy
    • (i) Referendum
    • (ii) Recall
    • (iii) Initiative
    • (iv) Plebscite Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    1. What is conflict resolution
    1. Conflict resolution is a means of creating, peace and understanding among the warring parties/ or means an end to hostilities thus making

    a situation where peace exists and there is harmony and meaningful development for all.          Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    1. Name one ex-officio of the local authority.
    • (i) District commissioner
    • (ii) The clerk Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    1. Name the temporary committee appointed by the president to deal with issues of disagreement in the cabinet.
      1. Ad hoc committees          Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    1. (a) List one constitutional  change introduced by  section  15A that

                            was passed by the 10th parliament.

    Creation of the post of a Prime minister and two deputy Prime ministers

    Any 1 x 1 = 1mk

     

    SECTION B: 45 MARKS

    1. (a) 5 results of the migration of the cushites into Kenya during the pre-colonial.
    • The cushites people intermarried with the people they came into contuct

    such as the Pokomo and Borana

    • Their settlement in Kenya led to the expansion of trade in the region.
    • Demand of Agricultural produce by the Somali led to the expansion

    of agriculture in northern eastern Kenya

    (iv)Their settlement led to the increased conflicts between the communities

    over resources such as water and pasture.

    (v)Their migration and settlement led to the displacement and redistribution of people in area where they settled.

    (vi)Led to cultural exchange between the Somali and the people they came into contact with for  example the neighbouring communities adopted Islam from the Somali.

    (vii)Assimilation of some communities they came into contact e.g the Oromo.

    (viii)Their settlement in high agricultural potential areas i.e encouraged some of them to practice crop farming.

    (iv)The Cushitic speaking communities brought the practice of circumcision and some characteristics of age-set system organization.          Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

     

    • The socio-political organization of the Somali during the pre-colonial period.
    • The basic political unity of the Somali was the clan. Each clan had its pre-colonial period.
    • A council of elders was in-charge of day to day affairs of the clan e.g making clan decision and settled disputes
    • The Age-set system was an important institution among the Somali and are male members of the society belonged to the age-sets. Performed the specific roles/duties.
    • The Somali had leaders called sultan whose role was mainly advisory
    • There existed Warriors whose main duty was to protect community against external attacks and acquire possessions for the community.
    • There existed people with responsibility e.g Sheikhs and medicimen. The were highly regarded in the community and their opinion were sought before important decisions were made.
    • Some cushites were converted to Islam and their cultural practices were governed by the teaching of the Koran.
    • They believed in God whom they called (Allah) Waq.
    • They practiced polygamy
    • They believed in life after death
    • They worshipped Waq at special sites or shrines.
    • They believed in life after death.
    • The cushites initiated the youth through circumstance. Any 10 x 1 = 10mks

     

    1. (a) Seven factors that led to the decline of the Portuguese rule at the Kenyan

    Coast

    • Portugal was a small country with a small population, she was unable to send administrators to administer her overseas possessions.
    • The Portuguese officials were unscrupulous, greedy and corrupt. They amassed personal wealthy and this provoked hostility in the local people.
    • Portugal’s annexation by Spain between 1580 and 1640. this weakened Portuguese control over her trading calonies, as her attention was diverted back home.
    • The Portuguese hated and despised the local people and they did not attempt to establish friendly relations with them.
    • Frequent rebellion by the coastal people especially the people of Mombasa, who adversely affected trade.
    • Invasion by Zimba warriors in 1558 ( Man-eaters). They disrupted life at the coast settlements by ransacking the towns and Massacring the the inhabitant.
    • The competition of European powers e.g Britain, Dutch over the control of the East coast trade. They used their commercial efficiency and superior skills in Naval warfare to undermine Portuguese power.
    • Invasion of the east coast by Muslim nations 1588. A Turkish expedition led by Amir Ali bey  invaded the coast and destroyed  Portuguese monopoly of trade.
    • Siege of Fort-Jesus 1696, the Sultan of Oman laid siege to Fort Jesus for 33 months. The seizure of Fort Jesus in 1698 marked the end of the Portuguese rule at the East Coast. Any 7 x 1 = 7 mks

     

    • The results of the collaboration between Mumia of Wanga and the British.
    • The Wanga people lost their independence
    • Mumias capital, Elureko became the administrative headquarters of the British in Western Kenya.
    • The Wanga people gained some territory in parts of Samia, Busoga and Bunyala.
    • Mumia officially became a paramount chief in 1909
    • Mumia obtained firearms and manufactured goods e.g cotton cloth.
    • The Wanga Princes and Relatives were used to administer the surrounding communities as headmen.
    • Mumia was largely relied on by the British when it became to appointments of African chiefs and headmen.
    • The British were able to establish their rule over Western Kenya with the assistance of Wanga soldiers. The soldiers were used to subdue the Nandi, Bukhusu and Luo.
    • Mumia and his people acquired education and religion.
    • The rule of Wanga agents in other parts provoked hostility and resentment from their neighbours. Any 8 points = 8mks

     

    1. (a) Three  terms of the Devonshire white paper of 1923

    (i)        The White highlands were to be reserved for Europeans settlement only.

    (ii)       John Arthur a Missionary was nominated to the legco to represent the

    interests of Africans.

    • Racial segregation was abolished in residential areas
    • The settlers were to maintain their representation in the legco.
    • Asians were to elect five members to the legislative council but not in the same electoral roll as Europeans.
    • The colonial secretary was to exercise strict control over the affairs in the colony
    • The restrictions on immigration of Asians were lifted
    • The possibility of self government by whites was rejected.
    • The colonial office was to keep closer control of the colony and the interests of Africans were to be of major importance. Any 3 x 1 = 3mks

     

    • Challenges facing land policies in Kenya since independence
    • Issuing of bogus title deeds some influential personalities allocated land which earlier had been sold off to other people, lowering the economic value of title deeds.
    • Land grabbing public utilities e.g schools has been grabbed by influential personalities in thegovernment.
    • Current inequalities in land ownership. A few families own huge pieces of land in the country while the majority of the poor are starved of land.
    • Communal land rights
    • Conflicts over use of land between the pastoralists communities and farming communities in many parts of the country over the use of water resources become scarcer.
    • Use of forested land. There has been consisted conflict between some conservationists communities living around the forests and the government over the use of land.
    • Lack of capital for demarcation Any  9 x 1 = 9mks

     

    1. (a) Five characteristics of the political organizations which were formed in

    Kenya prior to 1939.

    • They were all ethnic –based /tribal based
    • Most of them were led by missionary educated Africans.
    • Most of them were supported materially and morally by Asian community.
    • Most of them demanded an end to European oppression and exploitation rather independence from colonial rule.
    • They co-operated closely although they were confined to single ethnic communities. Any 5 x 1 = 5 mks

     

    • The political contributions of Oginga Odinga in Kenya 1957 and 1992.
    • In 1957 he was elected to legislative council and helped in the formation of AEMO.
    • In January 1960, Oginga participated in the first Lancaster House conference, plans for Kenyan’s independence were discussed.
    • Oginga was a founding member of KANU in 1960. The party helped regain’s independence.
    • Odinga participated in the second Lancaster House Conference. That was in 1962 when final preparations for Kenya’s independence were made.
    • When Kenya became independence on December 12, 1963, Oginga Odinga was appointed minister for Home Affairs.
    • He with the Lou Thrift and Trading corporation built the Maseno Store and Ramogi Press which published newspapers.
    • He with some others like Kaggia sought for the compensation of Mau Mau fighters and give land to those who didn’t have.
    • He formed Kenya’s People Union ( KPU) in 1966 but was banned in 1969.
    • In 1980 he was appointed the chairman of the Cotton Lint and marketing Board.
    • He with others formed FORD in 1992 during the multi-party era.
    • He published the book ‘ Not yet Uhuru which urged Kenyans to do away with neo-colonialism
    • He spearhead the struggle for the re-introduction of pluralism in Kenya in the 1990’s leading to the repealing of section 2A of the constitution in December 1991. Any 10 x 1 = 10mks

     

    SECTION C:

    1. (a) Six circumstances which may force the government to limit different rights

    and freedoms of the individuals.

    • One’s freedom of expression be denied if he uses it to incite people against the government
    • If one is convicted of murder, he or she can be denied the right to life
    • In terms of curfew and public emergencies freedom of movement can be restricted in order to restore law and order.
    • Freedom of Assembly can be denied if one else it to threaten the security of the state.
    • Freedom of worship can be deprived if one uses it to divide or to undermine the government.
    • Freedom of liberty is denied to the criminals who are confined to ensure public security is upheld.
    • Incase the government would want to use ones property for public utility e.g road construction he/she can be denied right to own property but with compensation.
    • Bankruptcy may deny one’s right to be voted be for. Any 6 x 1 = 6 mks

     

    • Effects of the Harambee philosophy to national development since its inception.
    • The movement enabled the collection of funds to build hospital, health centers and the establishment of specialized units in government hospitals.
    • The movement has led to the development of Education in Kenyag it has seen the construction of schools, raising funds for schools fees and construction of colleges of technology.
    • It has enabled the collection of funds for the improvement of infrastructure such as roads, rural electrification and provision of water.
    • Harambee projects donors especially NGO’s ( Non-government Organisations) which have been given a lot of aid to support their projects.
    • It has made collection of funds possible to help the less fortunate members of the society
    • The Harambee spirit has promoted international ,continental sporting and cultural activities
    • Harambee movement has promoted agricultural development. For example construction of cattle dips and purchasing of agricultural farms, irrigation schemes has been built.
    • There has been collective participation in development programmes by different groups which has promoted unity.
    • It has helped inculcate hard work in people Kenya.
    • Transport facilities have been improved and expanded through Harambee efforts e.g collective buying of buses and matatus. Any 9 x 1 = 9mks

     

    1. (a) Seven functions of the Electoral commission of Kenya.
    • to prepare and distribute ballot materials
    • To register and maintain a register of voters
    • To provide security during elections through the police force.
    • To appoint election officials e.g Returning officers in charge of constituencies
    • To supervise the polling exercise
    • To supervise vote counting and announce presidential and parliamentary winners.
    • To determine constituency boundaries
    • To organize presidential, parliamentary and civic elections.
    • Clear party candidates for participation in election
    • Conducting language proficiency tests for aspiring candidates.
    • Promoting voter education country wide/civic education. Any 7 x 1 = 7 mks

     

    • What are the problems faced by the prison in mates in Kenya?
    • Congestion lending to poor living conditions
    • Easy spread of diseases – particularly contagious ones
    • Sexual deprivation/ denial of conjugal rights
    • Physical torture by fellow inmates and police warders.
    • Unattended /long pending cases
    • Restriction movements/solitary confinements
    • Hard labour
    • Loss of dignity and self-esteem /intimidation
    • No income even after working for long hours
    • Sexual molestation from some prisoner warders /inmate (homosexuality)

    Any 8x 1 = 8 mks

    1. (a) Reasons why the Kenyan Government prepares an annual national budget.

    (i)        Help the government to identify sources of revenue

    (ii)       To enable the government to prioritize its needs.

    (iii)      Enable the government to approve government expenditure

    • Enable parliament to account for funds borrowed/donated for developments
    • Accomplish already started projects
    • Enable the government to estimate the financial requirements for its needs
    • Help the government to identify its departments and allocate duties appropriately thus enhancing accountability.
    • Enable the government to explain the tax structure to the public.
    • Give useful information to those organizations and individuals who may want to keep track of the government expenditure.
    • Creates confidence among foreign countries interested in investing in the country
    • To give parliament an opportunity to approve government expenditure
    • Enable government improve its methods of accounting for public expenditure to avoid deficits. Any 7 x 1 = 7 mks

     

    • Problems faced by the government of Kenya in the collection of revenue
    • Poor economic performance
    • Due to a low growing economy there has been a depressed demand for goods and services since production cost is high.
      1. Tax Evasion

    – This has been a common phenomenal practice by crooked businessmen who want to make huge profits without paying taxes.

      1. Political Interference

    – The culprits here are political big-wigs who have influence over employment in the Kenya Revenue Authority (KRA)

      1. Unqualified personnel.

    – In recent past most key employees have  been political appointees who mainly serve the interests of their godfathers.

      1. Lack of funds – inadequate funds has undermined tax collection since the all systems tax collection requires a good amount of money.
      2. Corrupt official senior KRA officers have from time denied the government millions shillings since most of the taxes end in their pockets.
      3. Retrenchment – Due to the  structural adjustment programmes (SAPS) many employees have been sucked hence reducing the pool for tax collection.
      4. Lack of foreign aid
    1. Absence of Foreign aid particularly from multilateral donors has stagnated the economy hence lesser exports and tax accruing from it has been realized.
      1. Poor Agricultural performance

    – Poor climatic conditions have in the recent past led to poor harvests hence less tax collected by the government bearing in mind that Kenya is an agricultural based economy.

      1. Inefficiency  in the Kenya Revenue Authority

    – Gross inefficiency in this sector has been caused by absence of competitive salaries hence employees spend more time in their own affairs to make ends meet.     Any 8 x 1 = 8mks

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SAMPLE PAPER 10

    HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT PAPER 1

    311/1

    SECTION A ( 25 MARKS)

    Answer ALL questions

     

    1. Identify the main source of History of the Kenyan communities during the pre-colonial period.                         (1mk)
    2. State two social ways in which the Maasai interacted with the Agikuyu in the pre-colonial period.                         (2mks)
    3. Give two possible archeological evidences which may be used to clarify that early visitors reached the Kenya coast.             (2mks)
    4. Mention two roles of the Portuguese captain in administering the Kenyan coast? (2mks)
    5. State two ways through which mission station promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya.             (2mks)
    6. Give major implication of the public security Act of 1966.             (1mk)
    7. Mention two disadvantages of representative democracy in Kenya.             (2mks)
    8. Identify two groups that monitors human rights in Kenya.             (2mks)
    9. What has undermined the Harambee split in Kenya?             (2mks)
    10. State the main role of the opposition political parties in Kenya.             (1mk)
    11. Name the ordinance that introduced the local government in Kenya during the colonial period.                         (1mk)
    12. What was the contribution of trade Union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya?                         (2mks)
    13. State one reason why the agreement reached by both parties must be written down during mediation.             (1mk)
    14. Name the chief accounting officer in every government ministry.             (1mk)
    15. Identify the main challenge which is facing cultural heritage in Kenya.             (1mk)
    16. Why did the Kenya government initiate the constituency Development fund. (C.D.F)?                                                                                                                                              (1mk)
    17. What is the main function of Kenya armed forces?             (1mk)

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)

    Answer three questions

     

    1. a) State five positive economic effects of Bantu migration and settlement in Kenya in the pre-colonial period.                                                                                                      (5mks)
    2. b) Describe the political organization of the Ameru in the pre-colonial period.            (10mks)

     

    1. a) Give three reasons why Sayyid Said took direct control of the settlements along the coast of Kenya in 1806.                                                                                                    (3mks)
    2. b) Explain six economic benefits of the Oman rule along the Kenyan Coast during the nineteenth Century.                                                                                                          (12mks)

     

    1. a) What were the political characteristics of the political parties which were formed in Kenya after 1945.                                                                                                               (3mks)
    2. b) Why did the British government soften her attitude towards the colonization of Kenya between 1945 and 1960?                                                                                             (12mks)

     

    1. a) In what ways did the colonial government control African  migration to urban centres.                                                                                                                                               (3mks)
    2. b) Explain the role played by Oginga Odinga in the struggle for independence in Kenya.                                                                                                                                     (12mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION C ( 30 MARKS)

    Answer two questions

     

     

    1. a) What is the political significance of good citizenship to one’s own country?            (3mks)
    2. b) Explain circumstances which may lead to deprivation of citizenship in Kenya.                                                                                                                                                            (12mks)

     

    1. a) State five functions of the high court of Kenya.                                                  (5mks)
    2. b) Explain legal factors which undermine the administration of justice in Kenya?            (10mks)

     

    1. a) Identify three external organizations that provide revenue to the government of Kenya.                                                                                                                                     (3mks)
    2. b) What challenges face the budget in Kenya.                                                         (12mks)

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    MARKING SCHEME

    SAMPLE PAPER 10

    311/1

     

    SECTION A. (25 MARKS)

     

     

    1. Main sources of history of the Kenya communities during the pre- colonial period.

    –           Oral tradition                                                                                      1×1=1mk.

     

    1. Social ways in which Maasai interacted with the Agikuyu in pre-colonial period.
      • Through intermarriages.
      • Through sports
      • Through traditional ceremonies             2×1=2mks

     

    1. Possible archeological evidences which may be used to clarify that early visitors reached Kenya Coast.

    –           /Coins/currency/

    –           /Chinese pottery./                                                                               2×1=2mks

     

    1. Roles of Portuguese captain in administering coast.

    –           To collect taxes

    –           Heavy duties on imports and exports.

    –           Suppress rebellion by mobilizing the army

    –           Supervise the ruling families / Administrators.

    –           Protect the coast from Turkish and Egyptian attacks.                                   2×1=2mks

     

    1. Ways in which mission stations promoted the spread of Christianity in Kenya

    –           The needy found homes and thus they were converted / freed slaves.

    –           Were centres of learning / schools where learning / cateclist were preached to.

    –           Served as health centres where sick were preached to.

    –           The missionaries mixed freely with people thus converted them to Christianity.

    2×1=2mks

     

    1. One major implication of the public security Act of 1966.

    –           Gave the president power to detain citizens opposed to him / government.

    –           Gave the president power to control the press                                  1×1=1mk

     

    1. Disadvantages of representative Democracy in Kenya.

    –           It ignores the interest of minority.

    –           Encourages class struggle and corruption as the better placed, elected form the government

    and protect their interest ignoring the rest.

    • Consultation takes long before decision are reached.
    • Leaders elected have ethnic value.
    • Number mathers in election, incompetent may be elected.
    • Elected minority take decisions without consulting the electorate. 2×1=2mks

     

    1. Groups that monitors human Rights in Kenya.

    –           Amnesty international

    –           FIDA (federation of women Lawyers)

    –           Religious groups

    –           Members of parliament

    –           The police force

    –           The media – print and electronic / pressure groups.                                     2×1=2mks

     

    1. What has undermined Harambee

    –           Missiappropriation of funds.

    –           Forced harambee hence negative altitude from public.

    –           Poverty where do not contribute.

    –           Calling harambee for material gain                                                               2×1=2mks

     

    • Main role of opposition political parties

    –           Act as watch dogs of the ruling party./ keep the ruling party on its toes.    1×1=1mk

     

    1. The ordinance that introduced local authorities in Kenya.

    –           The village headmen ordinance 1902                                                                        1×1=1mk

     

    1. The contribution of trade union movement in the struggle for independence in Kenya.
    • Mobilized workers against colonial government by striking
    • Brought workers together from all over the country to promote nationalism.
    • Motivated workers to sustain the struggle for their political rights / self governance.
    • Provided national political parties with funds .
    • Trade union leaders became prominent leaders of political associations that fought for independence                                                              2×1=2mks

     

    1. One reason why the reached agreement between parties must be written down during

                mediation.

    • Each party Must be committed to it / shows commitment to each party to it.   1×1=1mk

     

    1. Chief accounting officer in every government ministry.

    –           The permanent secretary                                                                                1×1=1mk

     

    1. Main challenge facing cultural heritage in Kenya.

    –           The influence of foreign cultural heritage.                                                    1×1=1mk

     

    1. Why the government intiated C.D.F
    • To ensure equitable distribution of national resources.
    • To enhance economic development / alleviate poverty.             1×1=1mk

     

    1. Main function of Kenya Armed Forces

    –           Protect the country from external attacks.                                                    1×1=1mk

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SECTION B (45 MARKS)

     

    1. a)         Economic effect of Bantu migration and settlement in Kenya in the pre- colonial

                                        period.

    • Population increased as they arrived in large numbers there was increased demand for goods / consumption/
    • Led to the spread of agricultural activities to non agricultural communities eg Cushites, Luo.
    • Trading activities were intensified with neighbours.
    • Led to spread of iron working/ iron Technology/
    • High population led to increased labour and hence increased production.           5×1=5mks

     

    1. Political organization of Ameru
    • First level of authority was the family each with head who solved disputes and mediated between members.
    • Families formed the clan which was under council of elders (Gaarue-Kiama)
    • Kiama executed decision made by meru parliament settled disputes.
    • The military force – Ramare enforced decisions house of elders, parliament, maintained law and order, defended society from outside attacks.
    • The house of elders sent representatives to the Njuri Ncheke – the most powerful institution which passed law for the community, administered justice,
    • Njuri Ncheke was final court of Appeal – solved land inheritance disputes
    • The people called Agambi represented the accuser or accused before the Njuri Ncheke.
    • The meru monarchy lead by Raibon was ceremonial, he was consulted on legal matters, was chief political arbitrator, had prophetic powers 5×2=10mks

     

    1. a)         Why Sayyid Said took direct control of settlements a long the coast of Kenya.

    –           To ensure revenue from taxes was remitted oman.

    –           To prevent coastal governors of the coastal settlement from declaring themselves

    independent.

    • Control the Indian ocean
    • For maximum economic control.             3×1=mks

     

    1. Economic benefits of Oman rule a long the coast of Kenya .
    • Led to expansion of trade between Kenya and Arabia.
    • Led to establishment of clove plantation a long the coast / new crops were introduced- cloves
    • Led to expansion of trade in the interior / long distance trade.
    • Intensified participation in slave trade .
    • Development of towns at the coast and intrior.
    • Indian Banyans were invited who facilitated trade with introduction of their money / introduction of currency/.
    • Led to the rise of wealth African machants.             6×2=12mks

     

    1. a)         Political characteristic of political parties formed after 1945.

    –           They had a national outlook as members were drawm from different ethnic groups.

    –           Their main objective was to fight for independence.

    –           They were led by educated elites.

    –           Had a large membership.                                                                               3×1=3mks

     

    1. Why the British government softened her altitude towards the colonization of Kenya.
    • The election of British labour party 1945 which aimed at ending colonial rule.
    • The development of nationalistic unrest after the second world war facilitated by service men.
    • Mau mau movement forced British government to agree with principle of self rule under majority.
    • Rise of USA and Former USSR which were against colonial rule.
    • Formation of UNO which advocated for human rights and freedom.
    • The gaining of independence by India 1947 and Ghana
    • Colonialism was expensive eg with resistances
    • The formation of trade union used international forum to fight colonialism.
    • The pan Africa movement demanded Africa for Africans
    • The formation of national political parties             6×2=12mks

     

    1. a) How colonial government controlled African Migration to Urban centres.

    –           Taking head count of those who were supposed to live in urban centres.

    –           Enacting strict rules about migration into urban centres.

    –           Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in urban centres lived

    there.

    • The introduction of urban pass- Kipande
    • The creation of A frican reserves from where movement was controlled. 3×1=3mks

     

    1. Roles played by Oginga Odinga in the struggle for independence.

    –           1947-1949       -elected as a member for the central Nyanza District council

    –           Mobilized the Luos to join Kenya Africa Union (KAU) at the time Kenyatta visited Kisumu

    to make it mass party

    • 1957 Oginga was elected to legco to represent central Nyanza.
    • Oginga with others formed A.E.M.O.- he was AEMO chairman.
    • They rejected Helton and Lennox Boyd constitutional reforms – demanded more African representation.
    • Demanded the release of Jomo Kenyatta from jail.
    • Oginga formed (K.I.M)Kenya independent movement with others, rejected mult racial concession of Kenya National party and special seats.
    • 1960 He attended first Lancaster House conference along with others
    • 1960, with others formed KANU- elected vice president – demanded for independence.
    • 1962 attended second Lancaster House conference which drew the independence constitution.
    • Become minister for Home Affairs in the coalition government of KANU and KADU.
    • Refused to form the government without Kenyatta.
    • 1964- become first vice president and minister of Home Affairs.             6×2=12mks

     

    1. a) The political significance of being good citizen to a country

    –           Good citizen promoted peace and stability hence development.

    –           Promotes law and order hence enjoyment of rights and freedom.

    –           Promotes the good name of the country hence encourages foreign investm, etcent

    –           Promotes political unity / integration / cohesiveness/.                                 3×1=3mks

     

    1. What may lead to deprivation of citizenship.
    • The citizen by registration, naturalization, parliamentary approval becomes disroyal by action of speech.
    • Registered, or naturalized citizen is jailed in term of one year within five years of registration.
    • When one obtain citizenship through fraud or false representation of facts during registration.
    • The registered citizen lives outside the country continuously for 7 years not in service of Kenya or in any organization which Kenya is a member and fails to register with Kenya
    • Parliament can renouce the citizenship of a person.
    • When registered or naturalized work with an enemy or support enemy during war with Kenya                                                             6×2=12mks

     

    1. a) Functions of high court of Kenya.

    –           Interprets the constitution to determine whether the disputes is constitutional or not.

    –           Tries criminal and civil cases involving a large amount of money.

    –           Corrects mistakes made in decision by lower courts

    –           Hears appeals from decision of professional displinary triburials, eg law society of

    Kenya, Kenya  Medical and Dentists Association.

    • Hears appeals from lower courts, – from Resident and chief magistrates courts.
    • Deals with petitions arising from presidential and parliamentary and determine petition finally.
    • Hear disputes arising from territorial wars or seas.
    • Can order for retrial in a case where trial was illegal or null.                         5×1=5mks

     

    1. Legal factors undermining the administration of justice.
    • Lack of awareness by the general public on their rights and legal procedures.
    • Inadequate personnel and equipment for detecting and investigating crime leading to inadequate evidence.
    • Some laws applied in Kenya are too colonial / foreign.
    • The unwillingness of some members of public to give information and also act as witnesses.
    • Abuse of constitutional privillages by the president.
    • The use of outdated customary laws that have not been harmonized with current situation makes their interpretation difficult.
    • The judicial officers are few in service             5×2=10mks

     

    1. a) External organizations that bring revenue to Kenya.

    –           The world Bank.(W.B)

    –           The international monetary fund(IMF)

                –           The African Development Bank.                                                                   1 x3 = 3mks

     

    1. Challenges facing the budget in Kenya.
    • Rapid population growth leads to greater demand for government services hence straining available resources.
    • Corruption of government personnel- misuse money set aside for various protects and services.
    • Tax evasion by individuals, businessmen, farmers etc will deny government revenue.
    • Poor global economic performance which affect budgeting.
    • The over borrowing by government affect the budget
    • The price fluctuation on agricultural goods make government revenue not stable.
    • Natural calamities eg floods, drought, AID epidemic affect budget
    • The devaluation of the Kenya shilling means the cost of living will be higher and thus affect budget.
    • The high expenditure in the defence and education
    • The high cost of petroleum products.             6×2=12 mks