Checking KCSE 2019 results via KNEC SMS code and online portal

Candidates who sat for the 2019 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education, KCSE, examinations can check their results using the KNEC SMS Code, KNEC online portal or visiting their former schools. This can only be possible once results have been announced by the Education Cabinet secretary. Here are the ways you can use to receive your results:

  • Using  KNEC SMS code 20076
  • Using an online KNEC portal
  • Visiting respective school 

CHECKING KCSE 2019 RESULTS USING SMS CODE 20076

This is the most effective and fastest way of checking for the results. To get 2019 KCSE results via SMS a candidate is required to send an SMS with your full Index Number to 20076. The service is viable for all the three network providers in the country Safaricom, Airtel and Telkom networks.

Access the 2019 KCSE results via SMS by sending the full index number (11digits) of the candidate followed by KCSE to 20076. For example 23467847002KCSE then send to 20076. After the full index number no spacing between the last number and the initials KCSE.

The cost of each SMS is Sh.25.

NB: Candidates must wait for official release of the results before sending an SMS.

FOR A COMPLETE GUIDE TO ALL SCHOOLS IN KENYA CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW;

Here are links to the most important news portals:

CHECKING KCSE 2019 RESULTS USING THE KNEC ONLINE PORTAL

Schools can access and download the results for all candidates via the KNEC online portal.

Here is the procedure:

  • Visit the Official KNEC website; https://www.knec-portal.ac.ke/
  • Then, click on Online results. You will be prompted to enter the user name and password. This credentials are similar to those used during registration of candidates.
  • The results for the whole centre would be shown on the screen.
  • Select the format that you wish to transfer the results to for downloading and printing.

VISITING YOUR FORMER SCHOOL FOR THE HARD COPY RESULTS

Finally, candidates can check their KCSE 2019 results by visiting  their former schools a day after the official release of the exam.

Important Notes on Release Of Examinations Results

It is important to note the following concerning the KCSE results released by KNEC;

Examination Results Slips and Printouts

Each of the institutions that enter candidates for the KNEC examinations shall receive a hard copy of the institution’s examination results printout and result slips which captures the following information:

  • Institution’s Code and Name

This appears on the top left side of the printout. The institution’s code is a unique number by which an examination centre is identified by the Council. This is the number that an institution should always quote whenever communicating with KNEC.

  • Candidates Details

Below the institution’s name and code are details of the candidates. These details include the index number of the candidate, year of examination, gender, individual subject grades and the mean grade.

WHAT THE VARIOUS SYMBOLS ON YOUR RESULTS DENOTE

The important features of the examination results are as indicated below:-

  • X – denotes an absent candidate. A candidate is declared absent if he/she did not sit for one or all papers in the examination. However, for the KCPE examination results, the symbol AB indicates an absence;
  • Y- denotes that the candidate was involved in an examination irregularity. For the KCPE examination results, the symbol 00 indicates an irregularity;
  • P- denotes that the candidate’s examination results have been pended due to infringement on the entry requirements for the examination e.g. incorrect KCPE details for entry in KCSE examination;
  • W- denotes that the candidate’s examination results have been withheld on suspicion that the candidate has been involved in an examination malpractice and investigations are ongoing;
  • U- denotes ungraded examination results due to infringement of the awards criteria.

Mean Grade Award Descriptions

  • Mean grade will be X, if a candidate is absent in all subjects
  • Mean grade will be Y, if one or more subjects are cancelled.
  • Mean grade will be U, if the entry requirements for the KCSE examination are not met
  • Mean grade will be CRNM, if the course requirements for the Teacher education, Business and Technical examinations are not met
  • Mean grade will be P, if results are pended
  • Mean grade will be W, if the examination results are withheld;

The details of pended, withheld and irregularities are communicated to the institution through the Sub County Director of Education at the time of release of the examination results and are received by the institutions at the same time with the examination results.

Release Of Certificates

Once certificates for a specific examination are ready for collection/dispatch from KNEC, the institutions shall be informed through the mass and print media, Sub County Directors of Education and/or the heads of institutions.

All certificates for regular candidates are issued through the Heads of Schools/Institutions and to private candidates through the Sub County Directors of Education.
The Kenya National Examinations Council reserves the right to withdraw a certificate for amendment or for any other reason should this be necessary.
Upon the release of KCPE and KCSE examinations, the candidates can access their results through SMS number provided during the official release of results. The KCPE candidates are expected to access their result slips through the KNEC website immediately after release of the examination in their respective schools.

Download the full centre’s results, after they have been announced, at: https://www.knec-portal.ac.ke

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The Late Mugabe is an Icon Of Africa’s Liberation Struggle- President Kenyatta, Leaders Eulogize Former Zimbabwean Leader

President Uhuru Kenyatta has today eulogized fallen Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe as an icon of Africa’s liberation struggle and an elder statesman who relentlessly championed for African dignity.

The President said the founding father of independent Zimbabwe will forever be remembered for his contribution to the liberation of many African nations which benefitted from the veteran liberator’s material and tactical support in the 80’s and 90’s.

“The late Comrade Mugabe was an embodiment of the Pan-African spirit, offering immeasurable assistance and solidarity to many other African countries in their struggles to end colonial rule and apartheid,” the President said.
President Kenyatta spoke at Rufaro National Sports Stadium in Harare, Zimbabwe, where he joined other world and regional leaders, and thousands of Zimbabweans at the state funeral service of former President Robert Gabriel Mugabe who died aged 95 at a Singapore hospital last week.

He said former President Mugabe was always mindful of African interests and never shied away from pushing for the ownership and prudent utilization of African resources for the benefit of its people.
“The late President Mugabe has left an indelible mark in the history of Zimbabwe and the African continent at large, through his political astuteness and zeal for the political and economic liberation of Africa,” the Kenyan leader said.
The President who was accompanied by Devolution CS Eugene Wamalwa and former Vice President Kalonzo Musyoka said throughout his lifetime Cde Mugabe kept on challenging Africa to stand tall and find its place and voice among the community of nations.

“As an African leader and intellectual giant, he was firm and steadfast regarding Africa’s quest to address the challenges facing the continent. He was unwavering in his insistence that Africa’s problems demanded African solutions,” he said.
President Kenyatta challenged African leaders to stand firm and champion the continent’s interests in honour of its independent heroes saying this is the only way to give a befitting tribute to departed African statesmen.

“The onus is now on us to keep the hope alive and deliver on the dream of a truly free and prosperous Africa,” the President said adding that despite being shunned by some for his fervent belief in the African cause, Mugabe maintained close working relationships with his continental counterparts.
In honour of the late Mugabe, the President called on the continent’s leaders to guard against negative influences and manipulation that erode common values and aspirations for socioeconomic emancipation and prosperity.
“As African leaders, we should continue to champion African interests as an enduring tribute to the late Comrade Mugabe and other departed icons of the African political and economic liberation struggle,” the President said.

Other African leaders who spoke at the sombre funeral service included the host President Emerson Mnangagwa, Theodore Obiang Nguema (Equatorial Guinea) and Cyril Ramaphosa (South Africa) as well as former presidents Jerry Rawlings and Sam Nujoma of Ghana and Namibia respectively.
President Mnangagwa described the late Mugabe as a revolutionary leader, a patriot and a nationalist who believed in Pan-Africanism that put empowerment of the people ahead of all other partisan interests.

“Today Southern Africa mourns the sad loss of a frontliner, today Africa weeps, grieving over the loss of a true pan-African. Our motherland is in tears, our region is in grief and our continent is in sorrow, above all a family is stricken and in deep sorrow,” President Mnangagwa mourned his predecessor.

He pointed out that the late founding father of Zimbabwe was a great scholar, a thinker, a teacher and above all a true African who inspired the continent by speaking for the oppressed.

President Ramaphosa who apologised for the recent spate of xenophobic attacks in his country said the flare-ups were not good for the unity of Africa.

The South African leader assured that his government was taking proactive measures to ensure that all people continue to live together in an environment of sustainable peace and harmony.

As part of the state send-off ceremonies, the fallen former Head of State was accorded a 21-gun salute and a military fly past as part of the full presidential military salute.
Born in 1924, the late Mugabe who started out as a trained teacher and rose through the liberation struggle to earn his country independence in 1980 and thereafter led Zimbabwe for 37 years as founding president and father of the nation until 2017 will be remembered by many for his fiery and passionate speeches, and witty anecdotes.

A staunch Catholic, a powerful orator and a political maverick, the late Mugabe leaves behind a widow, Mrs Grace Mugabe and three children-Bona, Robert Jnr and Chatunga Bellermine.

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KCSE Agriculture 443/3 project 2021 pdf download (Instructions and Marking Schemes)

The 2021 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) instructions and marking schemes for Agriculture 443/3 Project have been released by the Kenya National Examinations Council, Knec.

The Examination will be done by candidates from July 2021 to January, 2022. The Project Component is mandatory for the candidate to be graded.

As usual, there are two alternative projects, namely Project A and Project B. Each school should select only one alternative. It is therefore necessary for the Agriculture teacher to discuss the alternatives with the School Principal and the candidates so as to select the most appropriate alternative.

The Agriculture Teacher will mark all candidates’ projects.
The projects should be accessible for monitoring by authorized KNEC agent(s).

KCSE 2021 AGRICULTURE 443/3 PROJECT GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

The Agriculture teacher, School Principal and candidates should discuss the alternative projects and make a suitable choice appropriate for the school as soon as this document is received from the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC).

Each candidate should read the instructions, conceptualize and write a brief description of how he or she plans to carry out the project. The candidate should keep this write up in his or her project portfolio (file or folder). The portfolio can be physical or electronic in a computer or other digital storage devices. The electronic portfolio should also be accessible to the School Principal, and Deputy Principal.

The candidate should then submit a summary of his/her project requirements to the Agriculture teacher who will then compile for the school to provide the inputs.

Each candidate is required to maintain a collection of evidence of performance on the specified milestones at different stages of project implementation. The pieces of evidence should include write-ups, photographs and video recordings (where appropriate).

Maintenance of a project portfolio of evidence will be monitored and assessed.

The candidates are individually required to keep records of their project activities and observations, which they will later use to write the final project report.

Each candidate should be supplied with an adequate number of ruled A4 papers on which to write the initial project description and final project report. Each of these should be between 1, 000 and 1, 500 words. Alternatively, the report can be typed and printed.

In addition, each candidate should be given a declaration form which will make the cover page of the report.

The school should provide adequate security for the candidates’ projects.

The project chosen by the school must be seen and treated as an examination. It must therefore be the candidate’s true and unaided work. At the same time, the scores awarded by the Agriculture teacher must be objective and remain confidential.

The Agriculture teacher should assess each candidate’s project from time to time using the marking scheme and time lines provided by KNEC and enter the marks in the individual candidate project assessment sheets. It is important that the marks are entered in the project assessment sheets immediately after each assessment.

All the project assessment sheets must be kept under lock and key in the School Principal’s office in a sealed envelope. They should be made available only to the Agriculture teacher whenever the teacher is going to assess the project or an authorized KNEC agent. The sheets must be returned to the School Principal immediately after each assessment.

The School Principal should check to ensure that scores are entered on the assessment sheets after every assessment. In the absence of the School Principal, the Deputy School Principal should be in charge of the custody of the documents.

The candidate scores on the project, together with a pictorial evidence of the entire school project status will be electronically submitted to KNEC twice. Milestone I by 15th October 2021 and milestone II by 31st January 2022.

The Agriculture teacher should transfer the total score of each candidate from the assessment sheet to the Manual Mark Sheet. The scores, together with a photograph showing the project status for the entire class at the time the last assessment was done should be uploaded on the KNEC Portal. The photograph should be in .gif or .jpeg format.

It should capture the school Principal, Agriculture teacher and candidates standing at their respective projects in full school uniform. This should be done following the time lines provided.

The index numbers of candidates should be entered in assessment sheets and manual mark sheets in ascending order ensuring that all candidates have the same Index Numbers as in the final examination.

The KNEC Portal will only be accessible for the uploading of scores from 15th September to 15th October 2021 for milestone I and 1st to 31st January 2022 for milestone II. The scores once uploaded cannot be accessed for alteration.

The Agriculture Teacher should write a brief report about the centre using the centre report form provided by KNEC.

The project implementation and assessment should be completed by the end of January 2022.

At the end of the project, the School Principal must ensure that the Assessment Sheets and
Manual Mark Sheet are duly filled, signed and stamped. All the candidates’ Agriculture Project Reports, Project Assessment Sheets, Manual Mark Sheets and Project Report Form for the centre should be packed and handed over to the Sub-County Director of Education in the first week of February 2022.

The Sub-County Director of Education will then hand over all the documents to the Kenya National Examinations Council.

Also read;

2021 Knec projects for KCSE candidates: Project Instructions and How to capture Milestone 1 and 2 marks and photos

KCSE 2021 Computer Studies 451/3 Projects, KNEC Instructions To Candidates and Marking Schemes

PROJECT A: VEGETABLE CROP PRODUCTION

  1. Each school should select only one crop from the following:
    a) Carrots (Daucus carota) e) Capsicum (Capsicum annuum)
    b) French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) f) Beetroot (Beta vulgaris)
    c) Tomatoes (Solanuma lycopersicum) g) Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
    d) Bulb onions (Allium cepa) h) Eggplant (Solanum melongena)
  2. The Project work should be carried out by the candidates in the Form IV class between 26th July 2021 and 31st January 2022.
  3. The variety of crop should be suited to the ecological zone of the school.
  4. The school should acquire seeds or seedlings to be able to provide them to the candidates at the time of planting.
  5. Each candidate should be allocated a space on which to carry out the project. Candidates are not limited to the 4m x 3m plot. They are encouraged to use other innovative ways of growing the selected crop. The candidates’ projects should be numbered according to the candidates’ Index Numbers in ascending order.
  6. After space allocation, candidates should be instructed to grow the selected crop up to harvesting by applying appropriate agronomic and management practices.
  7. The Agriculture Teacher should assess each candidate’s project using the marking scheme provided by KNEC.
  8. The Agriculture Teacher should then mark each candidate’s project report out of 20 marks using the guidelines provided by KNEC. The marks for each candidate should be entered in the appropriate column on the assessment sheet.
  9. The total score of each candidate should then be transferred from the assessment sheet to the manual mark sheet. Ensure that these scores are entered according to candidates’ index numbers in ascending order.
  10. The project should be concluded and handed over to the school by the end of January 2022.

PROJECT B: LIVESTOCK REARING

  1. Each school should select only one type of livestock from the following:
    a) Chicken – (two per candidate)
    b) Rabbits – (two per candidate)
    c) Pigs – (one per candidate)
    d) Goats/sheep – (one per candidate)
    e) Calf – (one per candidate)
  2. This project should be carried out from July 2021 and candidates should conclude it by the end of January 2022, when they should hand over the project to the school. The school should then make appropriate decision and arrangement on how best to rear the livestock or dispose of them.
  3. Schools choosing this project shall be required to provide each candidate with the following facilities:

(a) Housing structures

Each candidate should be provided with appropriate housing structure for the class of livestock selected by 5th August 2021 latest. The housing structures should be bought or made by the school. The dimensions of the housing structure should be appropriate to the class of livestock selected. It is important to ensure the following:

(i) Proper ventilation and lighting;
(ii) The roof should be waterproof if the housing structure is to be kept outdoors;
(iii) The floor of the housing structure may be weld mesh, slatted timber, earthen or concrete;
(iv) Housing structures may be singly or in several units attached horizontally. The chicken/rabbit houses may be placed on top of each other up to a maximum of three tiers;
(v) Housing structures can be placed indoors or outdoors depending on design and security arrangements;
(vi) Each house should be lockable. One of the keys to the house should be labelled and kept at the Head teacher’s office. The other key should be kept by the candidate for regular use.

Each candidate should;

  • Write his or her full index number on the housing structure provided;
  • Equip the house with a feeder and waterer;
  • Equip the cage with a record keeping card;
  • Inventively make other preparation on the cage to make it ready for rearing the livestock.

(b) Livestock

A school selecting this project should acquire and give the selected class of livestock to candidates by 15th August 2021.

Note: Procurement of livestock is the responsibility of the school and NOT that of the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC).

(c) Means of weighing

The school should provide a portable means of weighing or estimating weight up to 100 kg.

(d) Feeds

The school should provide enough feeds to each candidate for feeding the livestock.

4. After the candidates have been provided with the facilities outlined in (2) above, they should be instructed to:
(a) weigh the livestock accurately and record their weights on a record card;
(b) rear the livestock up to the end of second term;
(c) keep records of the activities carried out and observations made during the rearing period. These records will be used by the candidates to write their final report. The records should be written on a record card and hung securely inside the cage.
(d) avail the records to the agriculture teacher or KNEC agent whenever required.

5. The Agriculture teacher should assess each candidate’s project two times (the 1st for milestone I and the 2nd for milestone II) using the marking scheme provided by KNEC. The scores for milestone I assessment should be uploaded by 15th October 2021 and the ones for milestone II by 31st January 2022.

6. The Agriculture teacher should then mark each candidate’s project report out of 20 marks using the guidelines provided by KNEC. All the marks for each candidate should be entered in the appropriate column of the assessment sheet.

7. The total score of each candidate should then be transferred from the assessment sheet to the manual mark sheet. Ensure that these scores are entered according to candidates’ index numbers in ascending order.

8. The project should be concluded and handed over to the school by the end of January 2022.

Fire destroys Girls schools’ dormitory

An early morning fire today gutted a dormitory at Al Maktoum Girls High School in Kajiado town.

The fire which broke out at around 5am Wednesday, destroyed beddings and students’ personal belongings leaving 56 students without a place to sleep.

Villagers rushed to the scene to help put out the fire but it had already spread and engulfed everything.No student was injured during the morning incident as they were already awake and attending morning prayers at the mosque.

Kajiado Central Sub-County Police Commander David Loronyokwe confirmed the incident adding that an electric fault is suspected to have caused the inferno.

“Nothing was salvaged during the incident as the fire was too fierce and efforts by locals to put it out proved futile.  We suspect the fire was caused by an electric fault. There were no casualties and the students are all safe,” said Loronyokwe.

Residents who helped put out the fire blamed the county government for not responding to their appeals during fire outbreaks.

They noted that there was no firefighting equipment in the town despite being the county’s headquarters.

Kajiado town had witnessed several fire incidences in the past one month. Barely a fortnight ago, fire razed a Children’s home within the town leaving 15 children who resided in the institution homeless.

On Monday, another fire razed a dormitory at Olkejuado Boys High School destroying property worth thousands of shillings.

The school had to rely on water bowsers from private organizations to help put out the fire, which gutted the dormitory that housed 80 students.

See also;

2021 form ones reporting dates, selection results and admission letters

2021 Form One Selection Results through SMS

 How to download 2021 form one admission letters online.

Form one selection results and admission letters 2021 (Check admission results and letter)

2021 form one selection results announced (See how to get the results and other details)

How to receive 2021 Form One Selection Results via SMS Code 22263 (See selection criteria and how to download admission letters)

2021 Form One Selection Portal; Get selection results and download your admission letter

How to download Form one 2021 admission letters for National schools, Extra County Schools, County schools in kenya, Form one selection results

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2019 Kenya Secondary Schools Sports, KSSSA,National term 2 games; Final day results

“`Kenya Secondary Schools, KSSSA, National Term 2 Games- 2019“`

*FINAL DAY; SATURDAY 3RD AUGUST, 2019*

Flash Results

*⚽Soccer Boys under 20*
✅Playoff: Ebwali 3 vs 0 Olbolsat
✅Final: St. Anthony’s vs Dagoreti… Ongoing..

*⚽Soccer Girls under 20*
✅Playoff: Arch Bishop Njenga 7 vs 1 Njambini*
✅Final: Nyakach 2 vs 0 Itigo
*🏆Nyakach are the new champs.*

*⚽Copa Soccer Boys Under 16⚽*
✅Playoff: Dagoreti 0 (4) vs 0 (2) Boys Town
✅Final: Serani 1 vs 0 Koyonzo
*🏆Serani are the new champs.*

*⚽Copa Soccer Girls Under 16⚽*
✅Playoff: Kobala 1 vs 0 Njambini
✅Final: Wiyeta 2 vs 1 Maeni

*🏐Volleyball Boys*
✅Playoff: Namwela 3 vs 0 Lang’ata (25-20, 25-23 ,25-17)
✅Final: Mogonga 3 vs 0 Lelmokwo (25-15, 25-19, 25-13)
*🏆Mogonga are the new champs*

*🏐Volleyball Girls*
✅Playoff: Pasenga 0 vs 3 Soweto (16-25, 12-25, 13-25)
✅Final: Cheptil 2 vs 3 Kwanthanze (26-24, 13-25, 22-25, 25-18, 05-15)
*🏆Champions Kwanthanze*

*⚾Netball Girls*
✅Playoff: Bukokholo 37 vs 28 Karuri
✅Final: Nyakach 30 vs 36 Kaya Tiwi
*🏆Kaya Tiwi successfully defend their title*

Egypt to host AFCON 2019

The Confederation of African Football,CAF, has announced that Egypt will host the AFCON 2019. Egypt hosted four African Cup of nations tournaments in 1957, 1974, 1986 and 2006. Egypt now replaces Cameroon; whose hosting rights were stripped off due to inadequate preparations.

AGRICULTURE GRADE 5 LESSON NOTES- NEW CBC SYLLABUS PDF

AGRICULTURE GRADE 5 LESSON NOTES

1.0 Conserving our Environment
1.1 Soil Conservation
1.1.1 Soil recovery
Soil is important in a number of ways. They Include:
 It’s our life support system
 It provides anchorage for plant roots
 It holds water and nutrients
 It’s a home for various micro-organisms
 We build on soil.
Therefore soil plays a vital role in our environment. As without soil human life would be very difficult.
It’s therefore a resource that should be guarded with a lot of caution. This is why to keep this resource in good we should limit chances of various factors doing away with it.
 Soil erosion is the removal of the top soil from one place to another by means of water, wind, or animal activities.
 Eroded soils by water are deposited to other places by siltation.
 Silt is the deposited soil and is rich in humor such soil very fertile. It comprises of organic matter and can be recovered. Silty soil is slippery when wet, not grainy or rocky
Soil recovery/restoration
 This is the process of collecting eroded soil from its deposition back to the farm for farming.

Importance of soil recovery  Soil conservation is key to environmental sustainability  It helps protect natural resources and watersheds,  restores habitats for plants and wildlife,  Improves water quality, and makes soil healthier.  Soil conservation also creates economic opportunity.
We should therefore look for eroded places and recover the soil and conserve our environment for the future.
 Runoff water is the water that runs on the ground at high speed and it removes the soil from its path leaving behind a gully.
 Soil eroded by runoff are deposited at the river banks, on the sides of the roads or in places where there are cover crops.
 Recovering soil is important to crops because it is very fertile, comprising of decomposed organic matter.  Runoff water has the energy to detach soil particles by scour and to transport entrained soil materials either in suspension or by pushing or rolling larger particles.

Observing runoff

Soil deposit site
1.1.2 Soil Improvement
 Soil improvement is the addition of soil nutrients to poor and non-productive soils. This can be done by addict organic manure.
Methods of soil conservation  These include fallowing,  using compost, manure, crop residues,  Using fertilizer trees (e.g Calliandra and Pygeum africana),  intercropping legumes with cereals and including the principles of conservation agriculture (crop rotation, ensuring permanent cover for the soil and no disturbing of the top soil layer).

 Organic manure can be prepared by the use of organic materials such as plants materials, animal waste, food remains or kitchen wastes. This can be done by the method of hip compost or pit compost.
 With hip compost, the organic materials are hipped on the ground and left to decompose for some time and then transported to the farm where planting takes place.

Constructing compost pit
In the absence of compost pit or residue pit, we may use drum or wood pallet as compost bin.”

Wood pallet compost pit
Drum
 On the other hand, pit manure is prepared by digging underground and dumping all organic waste materials inside. These materials are left for sometimes to decompose then are used in the farm to improve soil.
 Once the waste materials have decomposed fully we can plant a suitable crop in the waste pit.

 Dumping green and dry plant remains, food remains and kitchen wastes in a pit situated on a poor soil site is a god farming practice.
 This is because once the organic waste materials decay, they release nutrients that are required for the growth of pants.
 Therefore if an area has poor soil, it can be improved using organic manure, a crop can be grown successfully.
Importance of conserving soil 1. The soil is literally the foundation of plant life. A tree will not be a tree without soil. While there are some plants that can live in water or air, most plants need to be rooted to the ground. It is the soil that provides nutrition to this plant life. It is through this vegetation that nourishes the humankind and the animal kingdom. Plants are important resource of food and fuel and of wood and other by-products that make our other life functions possible. 2. The soil additionally supports the animal kingdom. Our agriculture also relies on soil, for its location and for other functions to be derived from its existence. It will be almost impossible to support the animal and human life without land. 3. The soil is necessary for water supply. This is the magic of nature. The land is also necessary to ensure the quality of water we derive from our earth. Soil and water co-

exist. So do we and soil co-exist? Taking good care of our soil equates to taking care of our water supply.
1.2 Water Conservation
Water conservation is the process of retain water in the soil for planting. Water conservation can be done through mulching, shading, and cores cropping.
i. Mulching
 Is the process of soil water conservation by spreading dry leaves or planting on the ground surface where the crops are planted.
 The dry leaves are called mulch where they are used to conserve soil water/moisture.
 Mulching prevents direct sunshine to the soil surface which lowers the rate or evaporation.
ii. Shading
 This is done by constructing a shade structure and covering its top with dry leaves.
 This is usually constructed on top of seedbeds to protect the seedling from the scotching sun and also to protect the soil from losing water through evaporation.
10 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
iii. Cover Cropping
 Cover cropping is the process of soil water conservation through planting short crops that spread wide on the ground.
 Plants used for cover cropping are bean plants, peas and green grams.
 Water just like soil, is an important resource in our environment for farming practices. We can use mulching, cover cropping and shading to conserve soil moisture.
 These farming practices reduce loss of water from the soil.
 Conserving water ensures that water in our farms is well used throughout the growing season
11 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
It is important to conserve water because it is an important resource for farming in our homes. Without water, the plants will not grow to produce food for us.
Importance of water conservation
 Without fresh water you will die in just a few days.
 Conserving water is important because it keeps water pure and clean while protecting the environment
 Water conservation reduces energy use and can even save your household money.
1.3 Living better with wild animals
 Wild animals are very useful to use. Some are dangerous like the leopard and the lion.
Importance of wild animals
1. Wildlife provides nutrients to humans
2. People depend on wildlife for their livelihoods
3. Wildlife has cultural significance
4. Wildlife is important for the economy
5. Protecting wildlife creates more jobs
 Wild animals generate revenue through local and international tourism. Some animals destroy our crops and some kill our domestic animals.
 We can scare and keep away wild animals without killing them.
 We can keep away animals by the use sounds, using smells and use of smelly and bitter tasting plants.
12 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
i. Use of Sounds
Some animals are often scared by sounds made by people talking or shouting. Animals like monkeys and squirrels can be scared away by the use of sounds made by radio. A radio is switched on and put in a plantation to scare wild animals’ away.
ii. Using Smells
Some wild animals are repellant to bad smells. Smells can be produced by burning items such as rugs, plastics or tires. This smell is used to keep away animals such as rodents.
13 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
iii. Use of Smelly and bitter tasting plants
Some animals avoid smelly and bitter tasting plants. This method keeps away root eaters (rodents) such as the mole from destroying farm plants, and digging holes in the farm.
iv. Care and Safety from Wild Animals
Some wild animals can be dangerous. They can attack us or even kill us, they include the wild dog, wild cat and monkeys. Such animals can also transmit dangerous diseases such as rabies. We should always keep a safe distances from wild animals. We should not touch or provoke wild animals.
1.4 Growing Climbing fruit Plants
 Fruits are source of food rich in vitamins.
 They are important for our bodies for growth vitamins are nutrients needed by the body to repair warm out tissues.
 Climbing fruits plants have a stem called a vain. Vains are weak and therefore are needed to be supported using wood or wires.
 Such fruits plants can also be made to climb along the fence. They include the passion fruits, grapes, blackberries, kiwi fruits, raspberry fruits and gooseberry fruits.
14 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
1.4.1 How to Plant
 Climbing fruit plants can be planted from seeds or from stem cutting. Fruits seeds can be found from the market or can be prepared at home for planting.
 To prepare fruits seeds, get a fruit from a tree or from the market, extract seeds from it and wash.
 Dry the seeds on the sunlight and select the best seeds for planting. Prepare a seedbed and plant your seeds.
 Always water your seeds regularly until the seeds germinate. After germinating and the seedlings are strong, you can transfer them to their place of planting.
15 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 This process of transferring seedlings from the seedbed to their place of planting is called transplanting.
Passion fruit seeds
 To prepare stem cutting select a sweet able fruit plant to get the stems form. Using a knife, cut the stem into small pieces of about one feet.
 Insert the cuttings into a planting site such as a container or a socket. Take care of the planted cutting by watering them, shading and removing weeds. When the cuttings start to develop leaves and roots, you can transplant them to their new places.
stem cuttings
16 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 Young climbing fruits plants should be taken care of. We should make a shade of them to prevent them from direct sunlight.
 We should also construct a support structure using strong poles and wires for the fruit plant to support itself on.
 We also need to guide the plant along wires the process of guiding a climbing fruit plant along a wire is called Training.
Ways of training a plant
 A grower trains plants to:
 Improve flower or plant appearance and management,
 improve flower and fruit size and quality and
 to protect plants from damage.
 Training plants is done by:
o supporting,
o thinning,
o stopping,
o disbudding and
o pruning.
 Water the young fruit plant regularly and apply manure at its roots. Artificial fertilizer can also be used at minimal quantities to ensure safe food, protect the plant from any weeds by weeding them regularly by uprooting weeds from the stem.
1.5 Managing Climbing fruit plants
 This is taking care of the plant to ensure that it grows until the harvesting stage. The process of managing fruits plant include, watering, weeding, manure application, training and harvesting.
 This can be well achieved by developing a project schedule.
17 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 The planted climbing fruit plant should be watered regularly on the established site.
 Weeding should be done to reduce competition from weeds for nutrients, water and light.
 It is important to make a shade over the young plants. The shade protects them from direct heat of the sun. It is important to make a fence around them.
 A fence protects them from being damaged by animals.
 Well-rotted manure should be applied from time to time to ensure that the fruit plants grow healthy.
 Climbing fruit plants also need to be supported so that they grow well and receive adequate light.
i. Harvesting
 Fruits can be harvested at their right time of harvest. Once the fruits are mature, they should be harvested. The right time for fruit harvesting can be determined by observing the colour of the fruit.
18 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 Some fruits like the yellow passion fruit turn their colour to yellow and become a bit softer, smoother and sweet smelling. Some fruits such as the passion fruits fall of from the tree when they are ready for harvesting.
ii. Harvesting Process
 Climbing fruit plant can easily be damaged during the harvesting process. We should take care not to pull the fruits from climbing fruit plant.
 Pulling the fruits can damage both the fruit and the plant. Tender fruits such as berries should be placed in small container immediately after harvesting to prevent damage.
19 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
DOMESTIC ANIMALS
2.0 Domestic Animals
 Domestic animals are the animals that are kept at home. They include cow, donkey, chicken, duck, horse, rabbit, cat, dog etc.
 Domestic animals are important to human life because:
o They provide, meat for food, milk,
o security, eggs,
o manual Labour and
o May be sold to generate income.
o Some animals like cows, donkey, horses and rabbits produce wastes to make manure.
20 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Animal welfare
 Domestic animals are of great use to us. They should be treated well and showed love.
 To care for domestic animals,
o They should be kept clean and
o Given medication for good production.
o Food and water should be provide pastes and
o Parasites should be controlled and treated to ensure good health among domestic animals.
o Water should be given to them and
o They should be protected from extreme temperatures.
Uses of animals
Cat
 Its kept for beauty
 Provide safety against rats at home
Rabbit
 Provides meat
 Kept for beauty at home
Dog
 Provides security at home
 Used for transport
 Provides companionship
21 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Pig
 Sold to give us money
 Provides pork and bacon
Fish
 Is a source of food
Camel
 Used for transport
 Provides milk.
Horse
 Used for sports
 Used for riding
 Used during war
Camel
 Provides labour when ploughing land
 Used for transporting goods and people
 Provides fur
Bees
 Gives us honey
 Pollinate our fruit crops
 All domestic animals are important to us. Some domestic animals provide beauty at home, others provide security while others provide us various food products such as meat, milk and honey.
 Some domestic animals also provide us with transport.
22 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 Various communities in Kenya use some of the domestic animals during cultural ceremonies e.g. the Somali community use camels as payment for dowry during marriage ceremonies.
 We should therefore love and take care of all the domestic animals. We should also encourage other people to treat them well.
23 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
3.0 GARDENING PRACTICES
3.1 Indigenous Food Crops
 Indigenous food crops are the crops that grow naturally in the garden. Some of these indigenous food crops have been adopted by human beings and they are now grown artificially to provide food for Kenyans Examples of these crops include; spider weeds, arrow roots, cassava, sorghum, sweet potatoes and black night shade.
 Indigenous foods crops are much important to our nutrition because they provide required nutrients and minerals to our body.
 They provide carbohydrates from root tubers, vitamins from leafy crops and minerals such as zinc and iron from plant like the black night shade and the spider weeds.
Night shade spider sheet
24 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Sweet potato arrowroot
Cassava sorghum
 Indigenous foods are foods that our great grandparents used to eat
 These foods benefit us in a number of ways like providing us with carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins that protect us from diseases, they also help in healing of wounds.
 Also when surplus are sold they generate income
 Some these plants need to be handled with care like stinging nettle can cause an itching sensation on the skin and should be handled with care. Ensure you put on gloves when handling such leaves.
25 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 Therefore they are important in reducing food shortage and hunger in the country. Most of these crops can be grown using organic manure, hence no need of buying expensive artificial fertilizer.
3.2 Vegetable gardening practices
 Vegetable gardening is the process of growing vegetable crops. Vegetable group are important to our bodies because the provide carbohydrates to the body.
 Vitamins are best nutrients for the body because they protect our bodies against diseases. Vegetable crop include; tomatoes, cabbage, kales, spinach, cucumber and carrots. A vegetation is a part of a plant that is used as food.
Preparing a seedbed
 A part from providing food, vegetables can also be sold to earn income for farmers.
 Some vegetable are first raised in a nursery before being transplanted. A nursery bed is a small area of land for raising young seedling before they are transplanted to a permanent place called a seedbed.
 A nursery bed is prepared to comprise of fine soil particles. Fallow are made using a stick or an index finger, after leveling the nursery bed and mixing the soil with organic manure.
26 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Sowing seeds on a nursery bed
 The seeds are then spread along the fallows in the process called drilling. Cover the seeds with a thin layer of fine soil.
 Apply dry plant materials to mulch the nursery bed and water it on top of the mulch.
Care for the vegetable seedlings in the nursery
 Vegetable seedlings are taken care of by constructing a shade on top of them to prevent being weakened by direct sunlight and to preserve water, by preventing water lose from the nursery bed through evaporation.
 The seedlings should be watered regularly and weed removed from their midst. When the seedlings are ready, you should transplant them into a seedbed.
Preparing a seedbed for planting vegetable seedlings.
 Transplanting seedlings in the seedbed should be taken care of. This is through weeding, watering and application of fertilizer or manure. Dried up seedlings after transplanting should be replaced in the process called gapping.
 Other practices such as mulching, shading application of pesticides to control pests and diseases are important. Pruning of some vegetables such as tomatoes is needed. This is cutting of excess branches.
 Tall tomatoes varieties need to be trained, so that they grow upright. Once the crops are ready, they need to be harvested in time.
27 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
 It is important to keep records of various gardening activities such as the date of planting. This can help us to estimate the expected date of harvesting.
 Some vegetables such as cabbages take between two to three months before they are harvested. Other vegetables may take longer than this.
 Some vegetable fruits are harvested when they are big in size and when they start changing colour. E.g. tomatoes and hot pepper turn red while some pumpkins turn orange.
 However, other vegetable fruits such as sweet pepper may still be harvested when they are green in colour.
 The ripe fruits are picked by the hand. Care is taken so as not to damage the skin of the fruit. Harvesting of the fruit should be done at the right time to avoid over ripening which lowers their quality.
 For leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach, it is good to harvest when the leaves are tender and green. The lower outer leaves are broken from the stem to allow the plant to produce more.
 The cabbage head is removed by cutting the base of the stalk with a sharp panga.
 Bulb onions are harvested when the top leaves start bending and turning yellow. Soil is loosened around the bulbs and then the bulbs are pulled out.
28 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
3.3 Innovative Gardening
3.3.1 Vertical and Horizontal Gardening
29 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
30 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Vertical gardening is crowing crops above the ground. This is used to minimize the space for practicing crop production. It can be used in places where is enough land to practice gardening on a large piece of land. This practice also save water.
The importance of vertical gardening is that it is easy to control weeds, pest and diseases. Crops produced from vertical gardens are also clean because they don’t get into contact with soil.
31 | P a g e “ Q u a l i t y i n e v e r y l e s s o n
Leafy vegetables such as kales and spinach are harvested when they large enough to use for cooking. They are carefully plucked using hands to avoid uprooting the whole plant.
Fruit vegetables are plucked when they are ripe. Tomatoes should be carefully picked when they are ripe.

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FORM 4 AGRICULTURE SCHEMES OF WORK TERM 1-3

SCHEME  OF  WORK           AGRICULTURE  FORM  FOUR             TERM  ONE  2021-2026  

WK/NO

L/

NO

TOPIC   /

SUBTOPIC

LESSON / SPECIFIC

OBJECTIVES
TEACHING / LEARNING

ACTIVITIES
MATERIALS

/

RESOURCES

REF. REM.

1

1

POULTRY PRODUCTION

Composition of an egg.

By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

Identify parts of an egg.

Describe the parts of an egg.

Drawing and labeling an egg.

Breaking an egg to examine its internal structure.

Eggs,

 

Chart – parts of an egg.

KLB BK IV

Pg 1-2

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 1-2

 

Incubation of  eggs.

Define the term incubation of eggs.

State characteristics of eggs for incubation.

Q/A and discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 3-4

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 2

 

Egg candling.

Describe candling of eggs. Practical activity. Observing internal structure of an egg.

Make deductions from the observations.

 

Cardboard boxes,

Torch, eggs.

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 4

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 3

 

2

Natural incubation.

 

 

State merits & demerits of natural incubation.

Identify management practices of an incubator.

 

Q/A & discussion.

Exposition, discussion & oral questions.

Nesting box. KLB BK IV

Pg 5-6

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 3-4

 

Artificial incubation.

Outline conditions necessary for artificial incubation.

 

    KLB BK IV

Pg 7-8

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 5-6

 

3

Management of an incubator.

 

Merits & demerits of artificial incubation.

 

Highlight management practices of an incubator.

 

State merits & demerits of artificial incubation.

 

 

Brain storming;

Probing questions;

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 8-9

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 5-6

 

Artificial brooding.

Identify requirements for an artificial brooder. Exposition;

Probing questions;

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 10-11

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 8-9

 

4

Brooder & brooder management.

Outline management practices of a brooder. Exposition;

Explanations;

 

Artificial brooder. KLB BK IV

Pg 11-13

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 8-9

 

2

1

Rearing of growers, layers and broilers.

Discuss rearing of growers, layers and broilers. Exposition;

Probing questions;

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 14

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 12-13

 

Chicken rearing systems.

 

  -Free range rearing

   system.

State factors considered when choosing a rearing system.

Identify requirements for free-range system.

State merits & demerits of free rage system.

 

Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 15-17

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 13-15

 

2

– Fold system.

Describe fold system.

State merits & demerits of fold systems.

Q/A & discussion. Chicken folds. KLB BK IV

Pg 17-18

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 15-16

 

– Deep liter system.

Describe the requirements for deep liter system of rearing chicks.

State merits & demerits of deep liter systems.

 

Q/A & brief discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 18-20

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 16-18

 

3

– Battery cage system.

Describe the requirements for battery cage system of rearing chicks.

 

Q/A & discussion. Battery cages. KLB BK IV

Pg 20-21

 

Factors affecting egg production.

Vices.

Identify causes of vices such as egg eating and cannibalism and measures taken for the vices. Discussion: causes and control of vices.   KLB BK IV

Pg 23-24

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 20-21

 

4

Stress.

State causes of stress in birds.

Outline stress management practices.

 

Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 22-23

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 20-21

 

Culling birds.

Define the term culling.

Give reasons for culling of birds.

Brain storming;

Observing characteristics of a good / bad layer.

Discussion.

 

  Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 20-21

 

3

1

Marketing eggs and chicken meat.

State factors considered in sorting and grading eggs for fresh markets.

Outline methods of killing a bird.

Describe dressing of a bird’s carcass.

Teacher’s demonstrations &  discussion.

 

Topic review questions.

 

  KLB BK IV

Pg 24-27

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 22-23

 

2

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION (CATTLE)

 

Raising of the young stock.

 

 

 

Explain the importance of feeding calves on colostrum.

Prepare artificial colostrum.

 

 

 

 

Q/A: qualities of colostrum.

Teacher’s demonstration: colostrum preparation.

 

 

 

Artificial colostrums.

 

 

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 28-29

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 25-26

 

Methods of calf rearing.

State merits & demerits of natural and artificial methods of calf rearing. Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 29-30

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 26-29

 

Weaning of calves.

Describe early & late weaning of calves. Q/A, exposition & discussion. Chart –

weaning guide.

KLB BK IV

Pg 30-32

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 29-30

 

3

Rearing replacement stock.

Describe routine management practices for rearing replacement stock.

Give reasons for carrying out varying routine practices.

Q/A: review common management routine practices.

 

Discussion & Q/A. parasite control, castration, disease control, identification, dehorning.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 32-3

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 30

 

TEST        

4

Calf housing.

Identify types of calf pens.

Outline requirements for calf pens.

Exposition of new concepts.

Q/A & explanations.

 

Calf houses. KLB BK IV

Pg 33-34

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 31

 

Routine management practices in poultry.

Analyze routine management practices in poultry. Q/A: review routine management practices in livestock.

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 34-36

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 31

 

4

1

MILK AND MILKING

Factors affecting milk composition.

 

Highlight factors affecting milk composition.

Brain storming;

Probing questions;

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 36-38

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 32

 

2

Milk secretion and let-down.

Describe the structure of the mammary gland.

Describe the flow of milk from the alveoli to the teat canal.

 

Drawing  and labeling diagram of  the udder.

Exposition of new concepts.

Chart-

Structure of the udder.

KLB BK IV

Pg 38-40

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 33-34

 

3

Clean milk.

State characteristics of clean milk.

Outline essentials of clean milk production.

 

Oral questions & brief discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 40-42

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 34-35

 

4

Milking materials and equipment.

List down necessary milking materials and equipment.

State the purpose of the milking materials and equipment.

 

Brain storming;

Probing questions;

Discussion.

Strip cup. KLB BK IV

Pg 42-44

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 35-37

 

5

MID TERM BREAK

6

1

Milking procedure and technique.

Carry out milking using the correct milking procedure and technique.

Outline rules observed when milking.

 

 

 

Practical activity: milking by hand.

 

Probing questions on milking rules.

 

Lactating cow, basic milking equipment. KLB BK IV

Pg 44-46

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 37

 

Dry cow therapy.

 

 

Milk products.

 

Marketing of milk and beef.

Explain the concept of dry cow therapy.

 

Name various milk products.

Describe marketing of milk, beef & their by-products in Kenya.

 

Explanations & brief discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 46-47

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 38-40

 

2

FARM POWER & MACHINERY.

 

Sources of power in the farm.

 

 

Describe various sources of power in the farm.

State merits & demerits of each source of power.

 

 

 

 

 

Q/A & discussion: animal power, wind power, waterpower, biogas, solar radiation, and fossil fuel.

   

 

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 50-56

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 42-53

 

The tractor:

 

Petrol & diesel engines.

Identify major parts of the tractor petrol & diesel engines.

 

Exposition of new concepts, drawing illustrative diagrams. Chart- petrol engine & diesel engine. KLB BK IV

Pg 57-58

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 53-54

 

3

The four-stroke cycle engine. Describe the four strokes in an engine

State merits & demerits of the four-stroke cycle engine.

 

Exposition of new concepts, drawing illustrative diagrams. Diagrams – The four-stroke cycle. KLB BK IV

Pg 58-61

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 54-55

 

The two- stroke cycle engine.

 

 

 

Structural and functional differences between petrol and diesel engines.

Describe the two strokes in a cycle.

State merits & demerits of two-stroke cycle engine.

 

State structural and functional differences between petrol and diesel engines.

 

Exposition of new concepts,

drawing; illustrative diagrams;

 

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 61-63

 

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 56-57

 

4

Petrol fuel system of a tractor.

Describe the petrol fuel system of a tractor.

State maintenance practices of a petrol fuel system of a tractor.

Block diagram: petrol engine fuel system.

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 63-64

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 60-61

 

Diesel fuel system of a tractor.

Describe the diesel fuel system of a tractor.

State maintenance practices of a diesel fuel system of a tractor.

Block diagram: petrol engine fuel system.

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 64-65

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 60-61

 

7

1

Electrical system of a tractor.

Name the components in the electrical system of a tractor.

Highlight methods of maintaining a tractor battery.

Refer to diagram for electrical system of a tractor;

Brief discussion.

Chart – electrical system. KLB BK IV

Pg 65-67

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 61

 

2

Tractor ignition system.

Name the components of tractor ignition system.

Correct some common faults of ignition system.

Discuss maintenance practices of the ignition system.

 

Refer to a diagram for ignition system of a tractor;

Brief discussion.

Chart – ignition system. KLB BK IV

Pg 67-69

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 62-63

 

3

Tractor cooling system.

Briefly describe air-cooled and water-cooled systems.

Discuss proper maintenance of cooling system.

 

Brief discussion. Chart- water cooling system. KLB BK IV

Pg 69-71

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 63-64

 

4

Lubrication system of an engine.

Describe the lubrication system of an engine.

Outline importance of maintaining the lubrication system.

Exposition;

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 71-72

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 64-5

   

8

1

Power transmission system of an engine.

Explain the function of power transmission system.

State the function of the clutch, gearbox and the differential.

Teacher exposes the parts of power transmission system.

Refer to diagrams to identify parts of a power transmission system;

Brief discussion.

 

Chart- power transmission

system.

KLB BK IV

Pg 72-76

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 64-65

   

2

Tractor servicing.

Describe tractor servicing and maintenance practices.

 

Brief discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 776-77

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 65-6

   

3

Tractor drawn implements.

Classify tractor drawn implements on basis of attachment to the tractor.

List down maintenance practices for a trailer.

 

Teacher’s explanations.

 

 

Q/A: maintenance practices.

Charts-

Tractor drawn implements.

KLB BK IV

Pg 77-80

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 66-7

   

4

Disc plough. Label parts of a disc plough

List down maintenance practices for a disc plough.

 

Q/A: review primary and secondary cultivation.

 

Drawing labeled diagrams.

 

Q/A & discussion.

Chart- Disc plough

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 79-80

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 68-9

   

9

1

Mould board plough. State operational differences between the disc plough and  mould board plough.

 

  Chart- Mould board plough

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 80-82

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 70-1

   

2

Harrows.

Identify types of harrows and their uses.

List down maintenance practices for harrows.

 

Drawing diagrams, Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 82-84

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 72-77

   

3

Other farm implements.

Explain the functional features of subsoilers, ridgers, rotary tillers & mowers.

List down maintenance practices for the

implements.

 

Exposition & brief discussion.

Excursion & exhibitions.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 85-91

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 78-82

   

4

Animal drawn implements.

Identify parts of animal drawn implements and state their functions.

List down maintenance practices for an ox-plough, an ox-plough, and an ox-cart.

State merits & demerits of using animal-drawn implements compared to tractor power.

 

Drawing and labeling an ox-plough;

Probing questions;

Discussion.

Chart:

An ox-plough.

KLB BK IV

Pg 91-94

 

 

Longhorn Bk IV

Pg 82-83

   

10

END  OF  TERM  ONE  EXAMINATION    

 

SCHEME  OF  WORK               AGRICULTURE  FORM  FOUR                 TERM  TWO  2020    

1

1

AGRIC. ECONOMICS III

(PRODUCTION ECONOMICS)

 

Household firm relationship.

 

Define a household and a firm as business terms.

Describe a household and a firm as producers and consumers and their role in a country’s economic growth.

Q/A: review definition of economics, production economics.

Exposition & explanations.

Q/A & discussion.

 

 

  KLB BK IV

Pg 96-97

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 20-21

   

2

Gross domestic product (GDP) and Gross National product (GNP).

 Per Capita Income.

Define the terms GDP & GNP.

Define the term gross national income (GNI).

 

 

Define the term per capita income.

 

Exposition & explanations.

 

 

 

Calculations.

 

 

  KLB BK IV

Pg 97-98

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 87-88

   

3

Contribution of Agriculture to national development. Explain contribution of Agriculture to development.

 

Brain storming;

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 98-9

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 90-91

   

4

Land as a factor of production.

Describe the economic value of production of crops and livestock and space for construction of farm buildings, agro-industries & infrastructure.

List down methods of land acquisition.

Exposition of new concepts;

Probing questions to elicit responses;

Brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 99-100

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 92-3

   

2

1

Labour as a factor of production.

Define the term labour as used in production.

Explain ways of improving labour productivity.

Identify types of labour.

Oral questions & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg  100-2

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 93-4

   

2

Capital.

Define the term capital.

Identify types of capital.

List sources of capital.

Oral questions, exposition & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 102-3

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 94-95

   

3

Management as a production factor.

State functions of a manager in a farm.

Identify good qualities of a manager.

Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 103-4

   

4

TEST     KLB BK IV

Pg  104-

   

3

1

Production function.

Define production function.

State characteristics of variable and fixed inputs.

Q/A: examples of inputs & outputs; variable and fixed inputs;

Brief discussion.

 

  KLB BK IV

Pg 104-6

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 96-7

   

2

Production function curves.

Illustrate and interpret input-output relationship graphically. Worked examples: supervised practice. Graph papers. KLB BK IV

Pg 106-7

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 98

   

3

Increasing returns production functions.

Illustrate and interpret Increasing returns production functions.

Give empirical examples where increasing returns production functions are experienced.

Tabulate inputs and outputs.

Graphical representation of increasing returns production functions.

Graph papers. KLB BK IV

Pg 107-8

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 99

   

4

Constant returns production functions.

Constant returns production functions.

Give empirical examples where Increasing returns production functions are experienced.

Tabulate inputs and outputs.

Graphical representation of constant returns production functions.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 108-9

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 99

   

4

1

Decreasing returns production functions.

Decreasing returns production functions.

Give empirical examples where decreasing returns production functions are experienced.

Tabulate inputs and outputs.

Graphical representation of decreasing returns production functions.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 109-10

   

2

Law of diminishing returns.

State the law oh diminishing returns. Refer to illustrative tables.

Plot graphs from the tables;

Discuss shape of the curve.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 112

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 100-1

   

3

Zones of a PF curve.

Divide a production function into three zones.

Identify rational zones of production.

Q/A: review AP, MP.

Guided discovery of the three zones.

Chart –

Curve showing 3 zones of PF.

KLB BK IV

Pg 113-5

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 101-2

   

4

The principles of substitution.

 

 

Input-input relationship.

State the principles of substitution.

Give examples illustrating principles of substitution.

Identify ways of combining inputs.

Exposition.

 

Illustrative examples, brief discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 115-6

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 102

   

5

1

Product-product relationship.

 

Supplementary and complementary products.

 

Give examples of product-product relationship.

 

Give illustrative examples depicting supplementary and complementary products.

Oral questions: joint products, competitive products.

 

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 116-7

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 103

   

2

The principle of equi-marginal returns.

 

The concept of cost.

State the principle of equi-marginal returns.

 

Determine the cost of production.

Identify the role of cost in production.

List types of costs.

Discussion.

 

 

Exposition;

Worked examples.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 117-9

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 104-5,6

   

3

Types of revenue.

Compute total revenue, net revenue and marginal revenue given the relevant information. Worked examples;

Explanations.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 119-120

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 107

   

4

Farm planning.

State factors to consider when drawing a farm plan. Exposition, Q/A & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 121-2

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 108

   

6

1

Making a farm plan.

Outline steps followed in making a farm plan. Exposition, probing questions & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 122-3

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 109

   

2

Farm budgeting.

Define a farm budget.

Analyse importance of farm budgeting.

Exposition & discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 123

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 110

 

   

3

Types of farm budgets.

Describe types of farm budgets.

Give examples of contexts where certain types of budgets are used.

Draw a partial budget.

Draw a complete budget.

 

Exposition & discussion,

Worked examples;

Supervised practice;

Written exercises.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 124-7

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 110-1

   

4

Farmer’s support services

Extension, training & banking.

 

Describe extension, training & banking as support services to the farmers.

 

Exposition & explanations.   KLB BK IV

Pg 127-8

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 112-3

   

7

1

Credit.

 

 

 

Sources of credit.

 

 

Define the term credit.

Identify types of credit.

Differentiate between hard & soft credit.

List down sources of credit.

Identify problems associated with credits.

 

Detailed discussion

& exposition of new concepts.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 128-130

 

 

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 113-5

   

2

Artificial insemination

&

Agricultural research.

Describe A.I. services provided to farmers.

Identify objectives of Agricultural research.

Give examples of Agricultural research centers in Kenya.

 

Detailed discussion

& exposition of new concepts.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 130-2

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 115-6

   

3

Marketing.

 

Farm input suppliers

Tractor hire service

Cite examples of organizations that help farmers in marketing their produce.

Cite organizations where farmers can obtain farm inputs.

State merits & demerits of tractor hire service.

Cite points of tractor hire service.

Writing initials in full e.g. KPCU.

 

Brief discussion

  KLB BK IV

Pg 132-4

 

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 112-3

 

   

4

Risks and uncertainties in farming.

Define the terms risk and uncertainty.

List types of risk and uncertainties.

 

 

 

Brain storming;

Detailed discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 134-5

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 116-7

   

8

1

Adjusting to uncertainties and risks. Outline ways of adjusting to risks and uncertainties.

 

 

 

Brain storming;

Detailed discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 135-6

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 118-9

   

2

AGRICULTURE ECONOMIC IV (FARM ACCOUNTS)

 

Financial documents.

 

 

 

 

 

Outline details contained in an invoice, receipt, delivery note and a purchase order.

 

 

 

 

Oral questions & brief discussion.

 

 

 

Invoice, receipt, delivery note and a purchase order.

 

 

 

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 139-145

 

Longhorn Bk 4

121

 

 

Books of accounts.

Describe features of the ledger and the inventory. Oral questions & brief discussion.

Illustrative tables.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 146-150

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 124

 

Cash book.

Describe features of the cash book.

Balance cash book.

Oral questions & brief discussion.

Illustrative examples.

 

Cash book. KLB BK IV

Pg 150

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 125

 

3

Journal

&

Subsidiary books of the Journal.

Describe features of the journal & subsidiary books of the journal. Oral questions & brief discussion.

Illustrative tables.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 151-3

 

 

 

 

Financial statements.

Balance sheet.

Describe features of balance sheets.

Prepare a balance sheet.

 

 

Make entries in a balance sheet.

Prepare a balance sheet.

Supervised practice.

Balance sheet. KLB BK IV

Pg 154-7

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 129-130

 

4

Solvency of a business.

Determine whether a business is solvent or insolvent.

 

    KLB BK IV

Pg 154-7

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 130

 

Profit and loss account.

Define a profit and loss account.

Draw a profit and loss A/C.

Compute net profit.

 

Teacher gives format of profit and loss A/C.

Worked examples.

Supervised practice.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 157-9

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 132-3

 

9

1,2

Cash analysis.

Define the term cash analysis.

Draw a cash analysis.

Compute total receipt and total expenditure for a given accounting period.

Worked examples.

Supervised practice.

Written exercise.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 159-162

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 133-4

 

3

AGRICULTURAL MARKETING & ORGANIZATIONS

 

Market and marketing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Define the term market as an institution.

Distinguish between a perfect and imperfect market.

 

 

 

 

 

Q/A: definition.

Teacher’s explanations.

   

 

 

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 164

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 137

 

4

Types of markets.

 

Monopoly.

Oligopoly

     &

Monopsony.

 

Identify features of a monopolistic competition in a market, oligopolistic and monopsonistic markets.

 

Brain storming;

Exposition;

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 165-6

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 137-8

 

10

1

Price theory and demand.

Define the terms price & demand.

Sketch the demand curve.

Explain the term demand schedule.

Exposition;

Curve sketching & explanations.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 166-8

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 139-140

 

2

Factors affecting demand for a commodity.

Outline factors affecting demand for a commodity. Q/A, discussion & explanations.   KLB BK IV

Pg 168-9

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 140-2

 

3

Elasticity of demand.

Explain the concept of elasticity of demand.

Illustrate demand for a commodity.

Calculate elasticity of demand.

Identify types of elasticity of demand.

Illustrate elastic, inelastic  & unitary demand graphically.

Teacher’s explanations.

Graphical illustration.

 

Worked examples. Supervised practice.

 

 

 

Graphical representation of demand.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 170-3

 

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 142-4

 

4

Factors affecting elasticity of demand.

State factors affecting elasticity of demand. Exposition;

Explanations.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 173-4

 

 

11

END  OF  TERM TWO EXAMINATIONS    

 

FORM             FOUR            AGRICULTURE      TERM            THREE    2021  

1

1

Supply

&

Supply-price relationship.

Define the term supply.

Illustrate supply-price relationship.

Sketching supply-price curves.

Refer to supply schedules.

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 174-5

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 144-5

 

2

Factors affecting supply of a commodity.

State & explain factors affecting supply of a commodity. Q/A & detailed discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 175-7

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 145-6

 

3

Elasticity of supply (Es).

Define elasticity of supply (Es).

Calculate (Es)

Q/A: review Ed hence defines Es.

Worked examples.

Supervised activity.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 177-8

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 147

 

4

Determination of market prices.

Explain how market prices are determined.

Determine the equilibrium or market prices of a commodity in a free market.

 

Teacher’s explanation.

 

Q/A : review demand and supply curves.

Plot both curves.

Interpret the graphs.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 178-9

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 149

 

2

1

 

 

 

Price control.

 

 

Marketing and marketing function.

Explain the role of government in price control.

 

Define marketing and marketing function.describe tingfunction. a market.

Brain storming;

Exposition;

Discussion.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 179-183

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 151

 

2

Marketing organizations and agencies.

 

Wholesalers & retailers.

 

 

 

Explain the arbitrage role of a wholesaler.

Identify services provided by retailers.

 

 

 

Brain storming;

Exposition;

Discussion.

   

 

KLB BK IV

Pg 183-4

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 151

 

 

3

Itinerant traders, broker agents & commission agents.

Outline the functions of Itinerant traders, broker agents & commission agents in a market. Exposition & explanation.   KLB BK IV

Pg 184-5

 

 

 

 

4

Packers and processors, marketing boards & auctioneers.

Outline functions of packers and processors, marketing boards & auctioneers in a market. Q/A & detailed discussion.   KLB BK IV

Pg 185-6

 

3

1

Special characteristics of Agricultural products.

Describe bulkiness, weight, volume, seasonality and perishability of Agricultural products. Oral questions & detailed discussion   KLB BK IV

Pg 186-8

 

2

Agricultural organizations.

Kenya sugar authority, Horticultural crops Development Authority, AFC, ADC, and KMC.

 

 

Outline the functions of Kenya sugar authority, Horticultural crops Development Authority, AFC, ADC, and KMC. Probing questions,

Brief discussion

  KLB BK IV

Pg 189-192

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 163-4

 

3

Other Farmers’ Associations:

 KNFU, ASK, 4K-club, YF club.

Outline the functions of other Farmers’ Associations such as KNFU, ASK, 4K-club, YF club. Probing questions,

Brief discussion

Assignment.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 195-7

 

4

Co-operative societies.

Outline the principles of co-operatives.

Highlight functions of co-operatives.

 

Probing questions, brief discussion, & teacher’s explanations.   KLB BK IV

Pg 161-2

 

4

1

AGROFORESTRY

Definition of

agroforestry.

 

Forms of agroforestry.

 

 

Define the term agroforestry.

 

Describe forms of agroforestry.

 

 

 

Probing questions & explanations.

  KLB BK IV

Pg 200-1

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 166-7

 

2

Importance of agroforestry.

Explain the importance of agroforestry.     KLB BK IV

Pg 201-2

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 167-8

 

3

Tree nursery.

State factors considered when selecting the nursery site.

Describe treatment of nursery seeds.

 

 

Q/A & discussions. Tree nurseries. KLB BK IV

Pg 203-5

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 169-173

 

4

Nursery management practices

    &

Care and management of trees.

Identify practices carried out on the nursery in order to produce healthy tree seedlings.

Describe the care and management of trees.

Brain storming;

Discussion;

Practical activities – transplanting seedlings.

Tree nurseries. KLB BK IV

Pg 205-8

 

Longhorn Bk 4

Pg 173-177

 

 

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT TEST

 

       

 

Carmel Girls High School KCSE 2020-2021 results analysis, grade count and results for all candidates

Carmel Girls High SCHOOL KCSE 2020/2021 RESULTS ANALYSIS (SCHOOL MEAN, INDIVIDUAL CANDIDATES’ RESULTS AND MEAN GRADE SUMMARY)-  Carmel Girls HighSchool is a top performing high school located in Machakos County of Kenya. Here is the KCSE 2020 results analysis for the school.

Carmel Girls High school has always maintained a good run in the KCSE examinations over the years. For instance, in the 2019 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examination results the school emerged among the top 100 schools in the whole country.

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Carmel Girls High school managed a mean score of 8.5 in the 2019 KCSE examinations.. Read more details here; KCSE 2019 list of top 200 schools nationally; Full list.

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Carmel Girls High SCHOOL’S KCSE 2020 RESULTS ANALYSIS AND MEAN GRADE SUMMARY

We have analysed results for Carmel Girls High school in the KCSE 2020 examinations. Get the school’s KCSE 2020/2021 results and all schools in the country plus candidates in the official Knec results portal, here; KCSE 2020-2021 OFFICIAL RESULTS PORTAL.

KCSE 2020 RESULTS PORTALS

The 2021 KCSE results portal.

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KCSE 2020 TOP 100 BOYS

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KCSE 2020 RESULTS VIA SMS

KCSE 2020 RESULTS FOR THE WHOLE SCHOOL

We have more KCSE 2020-2021 articles for you here;

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