Kibwezi Teacher Training College- Complete details

Kibwezi Teacher Training College is a private and accredited College that is found in Makueni County, at the Eastern region of Kenya. The College is one of the best managed Teacher Training institutions in the country.

Courses offered at Kibwezi Teacher Training College

The following courses are on offer at Kibwezi Teacher Training College:

2.certificate/diploma in ECDE.
5.SNE diploma

How to apply to join Kibwezi Teacher Training College

Joining Kibwezi Teacher Training College is simple. Simply visit their offices with a copy of your KCSE and KCPE certificates. You will be given an admission letter on spot. See the application form below; that you will be expected to fill out.
kibwezi teachers training college Doc Template | pdfFiller

Kibwezi Teacher Training College Contacts.

You can reach the College by using any of the following contacts:

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KCSE top ranking secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County

KCSE Best and Top Ranking Secondary Schools in Kenya- Are you looking for the list of the best and top performing secondary schools in Tharaka Nithi County? Below is a list of all the best Secondary Schools in Tharaka Nithi County. The list features the best schools plus their Knec codes.

Extra County High schools form the second level of secondary schools in Kenya; after National Schools.

For complete information on all schools in the country, visit the Schools’ Portal. Here you will find contact details, location, KCSE performance analysis and fees details for all schools in Kenya.


See also; List of all County secondary schools in Kenya

School  Code School Name Category Type Cluster
19308301 CHUKA BOYS HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C1
19308304 CHUKA GIRLS’ SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C1
19308306 KARAMUGI SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C3
19308308 IKAWA SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Mixed C2
19308502 MUKUUNI HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C2
19308503 IKUU GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C1
19308504 NJURI HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Mixed C1
19313101 THARAKA SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Boys C1
19313203 MATERI BOYS’ HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C3
19326101 MUTHAMBI GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Girls C1
19326103 KIINI SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Mixed C2
19326105 KAJIUNDUTHI HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C1
19326201 CHOGORIA BOYS HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C1
19326203 KIRIANI BOYS HIGH SCHOOL Extra County Boys C2
19326206 IGWANJAU SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Mixed C2
19326207 IRUMA GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C2
19326208 KIURANI SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Boys C3
19326211 MAKURI GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C2
19326212 NGAITA GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL Extra County Girls C3

KESSHA constitution, elections and roles

The Kenya Secondary School Heads Association (KESSHA) is a professional organization comprising of about 7,000 members drawn from public and private Secondary Schools in the republic of Kenya. The members are school principals only.



KESSHA’s vision is to “be a globally competitive and dynamic professional body in the education sector”.

We keep abreast with contemporary national and global educational issues and participate in formulation and implementation of policies.


KESSHA’s mission is to “provide exemplary leadership, training and foster partnerships for quality education”.

Our goal is to collaborate with all stakeholders and partners in building leadership capacity of all the Association’s organs, strengthen curriculum delivery programmes, forge global networks to facilitate learning and address emerging issues in education.


“Professionalism, Our Commitment”

We pledge our commitment to professionalism at all times in all our endeavours.

Core Values


KESSHA is a professional body committed to engaging all stakeholders in the education sector in the provision of quality education and establishment of participatory governance systems in secondary schools. We endeavour to empower our members with the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes to deliver the desired outcomes of the education system.


KESSHA works with partners and all stakeholders whose objectives are geared towards promoting innovative ways of improving the quality of education. We proactively engage the corporate bodies, government institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations and International Aid Agencies in pursuit of our vision and mission.


We uphold integrity as the guiding principle in all our operations and ensure excellent stewardship of the resources entrusted to us by instituting management systems that enhance transparency and accountability in all programmes.


We are a strong team drawn from across the country and determined to make a difference in the management of education in Kenya.


We are a National Body that serves and treats all its members equally irrespective of their geographical, gender, cultural, ethnic, political, religious backgrounds or affiliations and abhor discrimination of whatever nature.

  1. NAME:

The Association constituted by this Constitution shall be known as “The Kenya Secondary Schools Heads Association” hereinafter referred to as “KESSHA” or simply the “Association”.


The Registered Office, which shall be the seat of the Association, shall be situated at Transnational Plaza, Mama Ngina Street 4th Floor, Room No. 415 in Nairobi or at such an address in Nairobi as the Association may from time to time determine at its Annual General Meeting.


The Association shall be non – political and may form Branches and Sub-branches. The objectives shall be as follows:

  1. Promote the rights and responsibilities of Principals, their professional organizations and the material and ethical interests of the teaching profession.
  2. Promote the interaction of people and exchange of professional publications among the constituent groups, and encourage participation in meetings and conferences across national boundaries.
  • Foster school curricula, which encourage international understanding, goodwill, respect for human rights and dignity across all races and cultures.
  1. Promote and encourage equal opportunities for all young persons to develop to their fullest potential in achieving a respectable and productive quality of life.
  2. To assist members to give effective and well directed service to their own schools and communities.
  3. To establish sound, co-operative liaison with the Ministry of Education, Teachers Service Commission (TSC), Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT), Kenya Union of Post Primary Education Teachers (KUPPET), including other professional bodies within and without the country, as well as with employers interested in recruiting the services of the students leaving schools.
  • To formulate and publicize agreed policies concerning administrative and educational problems with which heads of schools may from time to time be concerned.
  • To organize regular exchange of opinion and experience on all matters concerning the teaching profession, nationally and internationally.
  1. To enable members to assist one another in their dealings with the stakeholders.
  2. To participate in making education policies in liaison with the Ministry of Education and Teachers Service Commission.
  3. To be involved in running co-curricular activities up to the international level and to promote and enhance the professional image of principals.
  • To promote quality education and standards in the country.

The Association shall comprise the following organs which may be subject to change by the Annual Delegates General Meeting/Conference.

  1. The Annual/Special General Meeting/Conference.
  2. The National Governing Council.
  3. The National Executive Committee.
  4. The National Secretariat.
  5. The Electoral College
  • Annual Delegates General Meeting/Conference:

The Annual General Meeting/Conference otherwise known as (A.G.M.) is the supreme organ vide which the Association shall conduct its ordinary business.

The Annual General Meeting/Conference shall be convened by a twenty one (21) clear days’ Notice in writing, duly signed by The Secretary, accompanied with the Agenda and a Statement of Annual Audited Accounts. The A.G.M. shall be held not later than the month of August of each year.

  • The Agenda for the Annual General Meeting/Conference shall be as follows:
  1. Notice convening the Meeting/Conference.
  2. Confirmation of the minutes of the previous Annual General Meeting/Conference.
  3. Consideration of Audited Accounts
  4. Election of office bearers as spelt out in article 5 (a)
  5. Approval of Audited Accounts.
  6. Appointment of auditor.
  7. Such other matters as the National Governing Council may decide or for which a member shall have given notice in writing to the National Secretary at least twenty eight (28) clear days before the date of the meeting/conference.
  8. Any other business with the approval of the Chairperson.
  • Special General Meeting/Conference:

It is hereby provided that other than the Annual General Meeting/Conference there may be convened a Special General Meeting/Conference whose only agenda shall be the special or specific purpose for which it is convened. The Notice for the Special General Meeting/Conference shall be issued in a like fashion as that of the Annual General Meeting/Conference save that its period shall be fourteen (14) clear days. A Special General Meeting/Conference may be requisitioned by a notice by 25% of the membership of the Association from at least 24 counties or by an order of the National Governing Council and must be held within twenty one (21) clear days of receipt of such requisition or order by the National Chairperson.

  • The National Governing Council:

There shall be a National Governing Council, hereinafter referred to as “the Council”, which shall act as the Supreme Organ of the Association immediately below the Annual General Meeting/Conference and whose membership and duties shall be as follows:

  1. Membership:
  • (i). The National Executive Committee.
  • (ii). The County Chairperson or his/her alternate.
  • (iii). 8 gender representatives for the gender that does not constitute one third of the NGC and as nominated by the 8 regions identified in Article 11(e) who shall be nominated from the serving elected county officials.
  1. Duties:
  • (i). Peruse study and approve the Association’s Financial Statement.
  • (ii). Review the activities of the annual events of the Association.
  • (iii). Discuss and prepare agenda for the Annual General Meeting/Conference.
  • (iv). Approve National and Branch staffing matters.
  1. Meetings:

There shall be two meetings of this organ in any one year and it shall act by simple majority. The National Executive Chairman shall chair the organ.

  • The National Executive Committee:

There is constituted a National Executive Committee, otherwise referred to simply as the Committee, whose membership shall comprise all the elected National officials of the Association. It shall have power to coopt other members, as and when appropriate, with duties as follows:-

  1. The National Committee shall be responsible for the management of the Association and, for this purpose, may give directions to the office bearers as to the manner in which, within the law, they shall perform their duties. The committee shall have power to appoint such subcommittee, as it may deem desirable.
  2. All monies disbursed on behalf of the Association shall be authorized by the Committee.
  3. The quorum for the meetings of the Committee shall be no less than half of the members.
  4. Identify, develop and manage the exit of personnel to man the KESSHA Secretariat with approval of the NGC.
  • The National Secretariat:
  1. There is constituted the National Secretariat, situate in Nairobi and headed by the National Executive Chairman.
  2. The National Secretariat shall run the day to day operations of the Association as well as facilitate its programs nationally including the management of:
  • (i). KESSHA Headquarters
  • (ii). Venue for KESSHA National Executive Committee
  • (iii). Resource/Research facilitating centre.
  1. The National Secretariat shall consist of the following officials who shall be appointed by the National Executive Committee:
  • (i). The Chief Executive Officer
  • (ii). The Administrative Officer
  • (iii). The Accountant
  • (iv). The Marketing Executive
  • (v). The Student Council Coordinator
  • (vi). The Secretary
  1. The duties of the National Secretariat Officials shall be as outlined in a Human Resource Manual as prepared and issued by the National Executive Council.
    • Funding of The Secretariat:

The sources of funds for the activities of the Association shall be, but not limited to, as follows:-

  • (i). Individual Principals’ monthly subscriptions
  • (ii). Sponsors, donors, exhibitions
  • (iii). Branch Annual Subscriptions
  • (iv). Return on investments
    • Bank Account:

The funds of the Association shall be managed in a diligent and transparent manner; for which reason the Association shall open, and operate, bank accounts, in its own name, with reputable banks to be managed, on its behalf, by the National Executive Chairman, Treasurer and Secretary as signatories. All monies meant for the benefit of the Association shall be banked in the said accounts; and all the withdrawals there from shall require two signatures, one of them being that of the Treasurer at any one time, provided the Secretariat may maintain a petty cash account the value of which must be approved by the National Executive Committee.

  • Funds of the Association:
  1. The funds of the Association may only be used for the following purposes:
  2. For running the office and implementing and furthering the objects of the Association.
  3. For paying travel and subsistence allowances to members attending National Committee, which shall mean and include sub-committee, meetings.
  • Annual support of County programmes and activities.
  1. For such other purposes as may be decided at the general or committee meetings.
  2. All monies and funds shall be received by, and paid to the Treasurer and shall be deposited by him in the name of the Association in any bank or banks approved by the Committee.
  3. The Committee here in referred to as N.E.C shall have the power to approach reputable institutions and banks to source and borrow funds to assist in the running of the Association. This shall only be approved by the National Executive Committee or the National Governing Council.
  4. Payments out of the bank or accounts of the Association will be made by the authorized officers of the Association and all cheques shall be signed by any two of the following:
  5. The Chairperson
  6. The Treasurer (Mandatory)
  • The Secretary
  1. The Committee shall have power to suspend any office bearer who it has reasonable cause to believe is not properly accounting for any funds or property of the Association and shall have power to appoint another person in his or her place. Such suspension and appointment shall be reported to the next Governing Council. In case of any changes of the office the Committee shall have powers to appoint another person.


The office bearers of the Association shall be:-

  1. The Chairperson
  2. The Vice Chairperson
  • The Secretary
  1. The Assistant Secretary
  2. The Treasurer
  3. The Assistant Treasurer
  • Organizing secretary
  • Assistant organizing secretary
  1. 2 Gender Representatives of an underrepresented gender
  2. 3 Trustees
  3. The National Programme Co-ordinator
  • Not more than 3 co-opted members to represent special interest
  1. All of whom shall be ordinary members of the Association and shall be elected by delegates who form the Electoral College at National level and in the case of County and sub-County levels, by universal suffrage of members before the Annual General Meeting after every five years. Provided that for one to be eligible for election to a national office one must have been a Principal for no less than five (5) years and three (3) years for a county office.
  2. All office bearers shall hold office from the date of election until the succeeding 5th year meeting, subject to the conditions contained in sub paragraphs (c) and (d) of this rule, but they shall be eligible for election for a maximum of two terms in the same position. The said term limit shall not take into account the period served in offices held in an acting capacity.
  3. Any office bearer who ceases to be a member of the Association shall automatically cease to be an office bearer thereof.
  4. Office bearers may be removed from office in the same way as is laid down for the suspension and expulsion of members as stated in Article x on Disciplinary Procedures and vacancies thus created shall be filled by persons as outlined in the provisions of this Constitution.
  5. Any office falling vacant through unforeseen circumstances shall be filled forthwith by the officer’s vice or deputy. The ascending Vice or Deputy’s position shall be filled by appointment by the NGC as shall be the case for an office without a vice or a deputy. The region from which the subsequently vacant office, whether it is a vice/deputy or an office without a vice/deputy, shall nominate a person to the NGC for confirmation and appointment to a position in the NEC. Such a person will hold office until the next election. The NGC is the appointing body and shall reserve the authority to fill vacant offices from within the NEC, subject to the conditions set out in this clause.
  6. The holders of the above offices shall reflect the face of the nation and gender balance as provided in the Republican Constitution.
  7. An elected official shall not hold more than one position at a time in the association.

PROVIDED, and it is agreed, that the same order/list shall be replicated, as appropriate, at the Branch and Sub-branch level.


  1. The Chairperson.

The chairperson shall, unless prevented by illness or any other sufficient cause, preside over all meetings of the Association’s committees of which he is a member and at all general meetings. In his/her absence, the Vice chairperson will chair the meeting or any other member appointed by the committee/A.G.M. to serve as temporary chairman. He/she or his/her appointee is expected to attend all county Annual Branch Meetings. The Chairperson may take leave of absence from the employer, if need be. He/She shall be the Executive/full time head of the Secretariat and the Association spokesman.

  1. The Vice-chairperson

The Vice chairperson shall perform such duties as may be assigned to him/her by the Chairperson or by the Committee. In the absence of the Chairperson he/she shall perform the duties of the Chairperson.

  1. The Secretary

The Secretary shall deal with all correspondences of the Association. In cases of urgent matters where the Committee cannot be consulted, he or she shall consult the Chairperson. The decision reached shall be subject to ratification or otherwise at the next Committee meeting. He/she shall issue notices convening all meetings of the Committee, all general meetings of the Association and shall be responsible for keeping minutes of all such meetings and preservation of all records of the Association and the Committee.

  1. The Assistant Secretary

The Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties as may be assigned to him/her by the Secretary or by the Committee, and in the absence of the secretary, shall perform the duties of the Secretary.

  1. The Treasurer

The Treasurer shall receive and disburse, under the directions of the Committee, all monies belonging to the Association and shall issue receipts for all monies received by him/her and preserve vouchers for all monies paid by him/her. The treasurer is responsible to the Committee and to the members that proper books of account of all monies received and paid by the Association are well kept, preserved and available for inspection.

  1. The Assistant Treasurer

The Assistant Treasurer shall perform such duties as may be specifically assigned to him/her by the Treasurer or by the Committee and in the absence of the Treasurer, shall perform the duties of the Treasurer.

  1. Organizing Secretary

The Organizing Secretary shall deal with logistics of calendar of activities of the Association, marketing, protocols and be the programme officer for the Association. He or she shall consult the Chairman on Committee meetings and make arrangements for both local and international meetings. She/he shall book venues and avail all the necessary materials needed for the smooth running of the meeting.

  1. Assistant Organizing Secretary

The Assistant Organizing Secretary shall perform such duties as may be specifically assigned to him/her by the Organizing Secretary or by the Committee and in absence of the Organizing Secretary, shall perform the duties of the Organizing Secretary.

  1. National Programme Co-ordinators

The National Programme Co-ordinator shall co-ordinate all activities of POYA, TOYA and Student Council or any other activity as directed by the National Chairman.

  1. Gender Representatives

The Gender Representatives duties shall be as assigned by the Chairperson and the NEC and shall include a sitting committee as assigned by the Chairperson to ensure equality of access to opportunity.

  1. Trustees

The Roles of the Trustees shall be as outlined in Article 9 and shall include any other duties as assigned by the Chairperson and the NEC.


The Association shall have three (3) categories of members, to wit:

  1. Ordinary member—who shall be fully paid up members who are serving Principals in Public schools.
  1. Honorary member–           This category of membership is by invitation and is reserved for retired Principals who may offer special services to the Association.
  1. Associate member—this shall be by invitation reserved for  principals of Private schools and those who bring unique/special expertise to the   association.
  1. Any head that is the Principal (whether substantive or acting) of a Secondary School conducting courses leading to KCSE, or an equivalent standard of educational attainment and such institutions approved by the Ministry of Education shall become members by subscription and may continue being members on successful retirement. Membership is voluntary.
  2. Individual membership is by virtue of holding a position. Each member will pay a monthly fee as approved by the A.G.M. to be deducted by Teachers Service Commission (TSC).
  3. Every Branch shall pay an annual subscription, in addition to the monthly subscription in clause b) above, as decided by the National Governing Committee with the approval of the Annual General Meeting/Conference.
  1. Any person who resigns or is removed from membership shall not be entitled to a refund of his/her valid subscription, or any part thereof, or any money validly contributed by him/her at that time.
  2. Any member who falls into arrears with his annual subscription for more than one year shall automatically cease to be a member of the Association and his name shall be struck off the register of members. The Council may, however, at its discretion, reinstate such a member on payment of the total amount of subscription outstanding.
  3. The Committee, subject to ratification by the Council, shall have the power to enlist honorary members and patrons. Honorary members should be retired Principals.
  4. The Committee shall have the power to enlist associate members who will pay the same annual subscription as ordinary members.
  5. All fully paid up members shall be issued with Association membership cards that must be presented for participation in Association meetings and activities.


  • (i). All offices of the Association shall be elective, except as may be otherwise provided herein, and holders thereof shall remain in office for five (5) consecutive years and shall be eligible for election for a maximum of two terms; where a “term” is hereby declared and understood to be five years.
  • Elections for national office bearers shall be ratified by members at the Annual General Meeting/Conference and at an equivalent gathering of members at the Branch and Sub-branch level after elections as conducted under Article 5 (a).
  • Only ordinary members shall constitute the Electoral College or enjoy the right to vote by universal suffrage at County and Sub-County level.
  • No member shall be eligible for election to national office unless he/she has been a Principal for five (5) years or for three (3) years, in the case of branch and sub-branch offices.
  • Further, for one to be elected to office, one must be up to date with all his/her obligations, including payments, to the Association.
  • Once elected, one is entitled to remain in office for five (5) years, at the end of which one is entitled to be elected for a further five (5) years, provided that one shall not serve for more than two (2) terms in the same office; where a term means five (5) consecutive years.
  • All elected officers, including at the branch and sub-branch level, may be suspended from office by the National Governing Council, in which event, the National Governing Council shall forthwith temporarily fill the temporary vacancy, pending the resolution of the cause for the suspension by the National Governing Council or the Annual General Meeting/Conference, in the case of the national officials or the branch or sub-branch in case of the lower cadre. The suspended official has a right to mount his/her defence before a decision is made.
  • Any casual vacancy arising at the national level shall be temporarily filled by the National Governing Council as per Article 5(e) provided that should the vacancies consist of more than 50% of the national office the National Governing Council shall be obligated to convene a Special Electoral College forthwith to fill the vacancies.
  • S.C. county directors shall preside over county elections and an NEC member shall monitor County Elections and a County Official shall monitor sub-county elections to ensure compliance with the provisions of this Constitution.


  • Handing/Taking over process:

There shall be a formal handing over exercise within one month of the elections.

  1. The formal handing/taking over exercise shall be presided over by a KESSHA official as designated by the NEC who shall file a report to the national office; the National Office shall select a 3 member Committee from the NGC and preside over the handing/taking over exercise.
  2. The exercise shall include but not be limited to handing/taking over of the following items:
  3. Up-to-date accounts of the Association
  4. Inventory of Assets and Liabilities
  5. All relevant records, documents and inventories
  6. Office personnel (where applicable)


At all meetings of the Association, the Chairperson, or in his/her absence, Vice Chairperson or temporary Chairperson selected by the meeting shall take the chair.

The Chairperson may, at his/her discretion, limit the number of persons permitted to speak in favor or against any motion.

Resolutions shall be decided by simple voting by a show of hands or by ballot according to the Chairpersons decision. In the case of equality of votes, the chairperson shall have a second or casting vote.

Quorum at all meetings of the Association shall be 50% of those entitled to attend.


  • Any office-bearer at national, county and sub-county level may be suspended, and upon a hearing, be expelled from office on the following grounds:
  1. Fundamental breach of the provisions of this Constitution
  2. Financial impropriety
  3. Conviction of a felony offence under the laws of the Republic
  4. Bringing the Association into disrepute
  5. Gross misconduct
  • Upon a receiving a report and after preliminary investigation, the NEC and the County Governing Councils at National level and County and Sub-County level respectively, may suspend an office- bearer from office on the stated grounds.
  • The suspended official shall put in a written defense to the NEC and County Governing Council respectively within 14 days of the letter of suspension.
  • The NEC or Governing Council shall convene a hearing within 30 days and upon determination, may acquit or expel the suspended official.
  • Provided that if the suspended official is an NEC member, the NGC shall constitute a disciplinary committee to hear and determine the suspended official’s case.
  • Vacant positions shall be filled in accordance with Article 5(e) herein



All land, buildings and other immobile property and all investments and securities shall be vested in the names of all the three trustees who shall be members of the Association and shall be appointed as in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution as per Articles 5 and 7.

The trustees shall pay all income received from property vested in the trustees to the Treasurer. Any expenditure in respect of such property which in the opinion of the trustees, is necessary or desirable, shall be reported by the trustee to the Committee which shall authorize the expenditure of such monies as it deems fit.


At least one auditor shall be appointed for the following year by the Annual General Meeting. All the Associations Accounts, records and documents shall be open to the inspection of the auditor at any time. The Treasurer shall produce an account of his receipts and payments of assets and liabilities made up to date which shall not be less than three weeks and not more than three months before the date of the Annual General Meeting. The auditor or auditors, shall examine the Annual Accounts and statements and either certify that they are correct, duly vouched and in accordance with the law, or report to the Association in what respect they are found to be incorrect, un-vouched or not in accordance with the law.

A copy of the auditors report on the accounts and statements together with such Accounts and statements shall be furnished to all members at the same time as the notice convening the Annual Delegate General Meeting is sent out. An auditor may be paid such honorarium for his duties as may be resolved by the Annual General Meeting appointing him/her.

No auditor shall be an office bearer or a member of the Committee of the Association.


Branches, sub-branches of the Association may be formed with the approval of the Committee and the Registrar of Societies and they will adopt the same constitution as that of the Association with the following exceptions:-

  1. Amendments to the constitution can only be made in accordance with Article 8 (b) of this Constitution.
  2. The same as in (a) hereof shall apply to branches but on condition, branches will not be dissolved without consultation with the headquarters.
  3. There will be one branch in each county.
  4. There will be one sub-branch in each sub-county.
  5. This Constitution recognizes the following regions for administrative purposes and from which shall be derived the 8 gender Representatives to the NGC:
  6. Metropolitan Region
  7. Coastal Region
  8. Lake Region
  9. Aberdares Region
  10. Nzoia Region
  11. Mau Region
  12. Nothern Region
  13. Highlands Region


Amendments of the constitution of the Association must be approved by at least a two third (2/3) majority of members of the National Executive Committee and shall be ratified by at least (2/3) majority of National Governing Council and ratified by the AGM. Any such amendments shall be filed at the Registrar of Societies.


  1. The Association shall not be dissolved except by a resolution passed at a general meeting of members by a vote of two thirds (2/3) of registered members. The quorum at the meeting shall be as shown in Article (8 d). If no quorum at the meeting is obtained, the proposal to dissolve the Association shall be submitted to a further general meeting which shall be held within one month later. Notice of this meeting shall be given to all members of the Association at least 14 days before the date of the meeting. The quorum for this second meeting shall be the number of members present.
  2. Provided however, that no dissolution shall be affected without prior permission in writing, of the Registrar, obtained upon application to him made in writing and signed by three of the office bearers. PROVIDED that the Registrar may, as may by law be provided, on his own motion dissolve the Association.
  3. When the Registrar has approved the dissolution of the Association, no further action shall be taken by the Committee or any office bearer of the Association in connection with the objectives of the Association other than to get in and liquidate for cash, all the assets of the Association. The balance thereof shall be used for such education purposes as may be resolved by the meeting at which the resolution was passed.

Health news- KMTC to build new campus in Kilifi County

Kilifi County is set to get a new KMTC Campus in Malindi next to the Malindi Sub-County Referral Hospital.

KMTC Board Chairman Prof. Kaloki confirmed this during a meeting held in the Malindi Sub-County Referral Hospital on August 29th, 2019, between the KMTC Board, officials from the Hospital and the County’s Health Department.

In the recent past, the College headed by the Board of Directors embarked on a plan to expand infrastructure in its campuses across the country while setting up new ones, so at to provide access to health training opportunities. This is in line with the College’s strategic plan and theme on transformative training and research towards achievement of the Universal Health Coverage goals.

Speaking during the meeting, Prof. Kaloki reiterated the commitment of the Board to bring to fruition the idea to establishing the new Campus that was conceived three years ago. “This will be the second Campus in the County and is part of continued efforts by the College to support strengthening of health care systems in the county and country at large,” he said.

The current KMTC Kilifi Campus is located in Kilifi Town next to Kilifi County Referral and Teaching Hospital. It was established in 1987 and was offering training in Medical Engineering, with an aim of solving the problem of maintenance and repair of hospital and medical equipment used for clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic care in hospitals and health centres in Kenya. The Campus has over 700 students pursuing Higher Diploma, Diploma and Certificate level courses in Nursing, Medical Engineering and Clinical Medicine & Surgery.
The Chairman said that construction of the new Campus would soon begin with an aim to having the first admissions in March 2020.

In line with this, he added that programs mounted in the Campus would be tailored to address health challenges within the County and the neighboring areas.

Prof. Kaloki thanked the County Government, led by Governor Amason Kingi for the cooperation and support towards establishment of the new Campus. To ensure the County benefits from the new Campus, Prof. Kaloki said that 30 percent of admissions slots to the Campus would be reserved for qualified applicants from the County.

A percentage of admission slots are reserved for local residents as it is expected that they will train in the County and undertake their clinical placement within. During training at practical clinical sites, trainees offer vital support in the hospitals and health centres they are attached to by offering medical support to patients. After their qualification from the College, it is expected that the medical professionals will be retained in the County and offer services to the residents.

Speaking on behalf of the Hospital management, Ag. Sub-county Medical officer of Health in Malindi Ms. Emily Karisa, said the area residents were eagerly awaiting the establishment of the Campus as it will not only provide training opportunities for their children, but will also open up the area to more development.

The Chairman was accompanied by Board Director Mithamo Muchiri and CEO Prof. Michael Kiptoo. Others present were Malindi Sub-County Public Health Officer Mr. Ahmad Abdalla, Malindi Sub-County Referral Hospital Administrative Officer Mr. Baraka Baya and Deputy Nursing Officer in charge of the Hospital Ms. Maimuna Riungu.

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Kenya National Examinations Council, KNEC, Field Officers’ Briefing Notes-2018






By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:

  • Name and draw the structures of simple alkanols and alkanoic acids.
  • Describe the preparation and explain the physical and chemical properties of alkanols and alkanoic acids.
  • State the main features of a homologous series.
  • State and explain the uses of some alkanols and alkanoic acids.
  • Describe the preparation, properties and uses of detergents and explain their effect on hard water.
  • List some natural and synthetic polymers and fibres and state their uses.
  • Describe the preparation, properties and uses of some synthetic polymers.
  • Identify the structure of a polymer given the monomer.
  • State the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic materials compared to those of natural polymers.


Alkanols (Alcohols)

Alkanols belong to a class of organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Alkanols have a hydroxyl group (OH) which is the functional group of the series.

Alkanols have a general formula CnH2n+1 OHwhere n = 1, 2, 3, 4…

Alkanols may be considered as derivatives of water in which one of the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule is substituted by an alkyl group. For example, methanol (CH3OH) is obtained by replacing one hydrogen atom by a methyl (-CH3) group. Ethanol is obtained by replacing one hydrogen atom in the water molecule by an ethyl (-CH2CH3) group.



Name of Alkane Name of corresponding alkanol
Methane Methanol
Ethane Ethanol
Propane Propanol
Butane Butanol
Pentane Pentanol

Alkanols are named by replacing the ‘e’ of the corresponding alkane with the suffix -ol, for example:

When naming alkanols, the following rules are used:

  • Identify the longest carbon chain containing the hydroxyl group (-OH) which gives the parent name:
  • Number the longest carbon chain such that the carbon to which the hydroxyl group is attached has the lowest number possible.
  • Indicate the position of the hydroxyl group in the name, e.g.,
  • Locate the position of the other substituent groups using numbers that correspond to their position along the carbon chain.
The first 5 alkanols
Alkanol Molecular formula Structure Condensed structural formula
Methanol CH3OH CH3OH
Ethanol C2H5OH CH3CH2OH
Propanol C3H7OH CH3CH2CH2OH
Pentanol C5H11OH CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2OH



Alkanols exhibit two types of isomerism, positional and branching isomerism.

In positional isomerismthe position of the functional group (-OH) varies within the carbon chain. For example: When the -OH group is attached to the first carbon atoms, the molecular structure can be represented as:

When the OH group is attached to the second carbon atom the molecular structure will be:

In branching isomerism, the molecular formula of the compound remains the same. However, there is rearrangement of carbon atoms such that one or more carbon atoms from the molecule form alkyl groups attached to the longest carbon chain. For example:

In condensed structural formula of isomers, constituents may be shown in brackets after the carbon atom to which they are attached.

The condensed formula of 2-methylbutan-1-ol may be written asCH3CH(CH3) CH2CH2OH

Preparation of Alkanols

Ethanol can be prepared by the decomposition of glucose molecules in the presence of enzymes.

The sugar (C6H12O6) molecules are broken down into ethanol and carbon(IV) oxide by the enzymes in the yeast. Calcium hydroxide is used to test the presence of carbon(II) oxide.

This process is referred to as fermentation. Fermentation is the decomposition of an organic substance by micro-organisms to produce alcohol, carbon(IV) oxide and heat.

However, a very small amount of alcohol is usually produced by fermentation (about 10% ethanol by volume). The alcohol content can be increased by fractional distillation of the crude solution.

The ethanol obtained contains 5% water. The water can be removed by using a suitable drying agent such as calcium oxide, to obtain absolute ethanol.


Alternatively, ethene may be hydrolysed using concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid.

CH2H4(g) + H2SO4(aq)  C2H5OSO3H(l)

When water is added to the mixture, the ethylhydrogen sulphate is hydrolysed to ethanol.

CH3CH2OSO3H(g) + H2O(l)  CH3CH2OH(l) + H2SO4(aq)

The mixture of ethanol and the acid is separated by distillation because of the difference in boiling points.

On a large scale, ethanol is manufactured by reacting steam and ethene at a temperature of 300°C and a pressure of about 60–70 atmospheres over phosphoric(V) acid. The acid is used as a catalyst.

The ethene for this reaction is obtained from cracking of large alkanes.


Properties of Alkanols

Physical Properties of Alkanols.

  • Ethanol is a colourless liquid with a characteristic odour. It has a melting point of –114°C and boiling point of 78°C.

These values are high when compared with those of alkanes having corresponding molecular masses. This is due to the presence of hydrogen bonds in addition to van der Waals forces.

  • Ethanol is highly soluble in water. The high solubility of ethanol in water is because the ethanol molecules are polar like those of water. The ethanol molecules are therefore able to form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules.
Name Molecular mass Molecular formula Boiling point (°C) Melting point (°C) Solubility g/100 g water
Methanol 32 CH4O 65 -97.5 Highly soluble
Ethanol 46 C2H6O 78 -114 Highly soluble
Propan-1-ol 60 C3H8O 97 -126 Highly soluble
Butan-1-ol 74 C4H10O 117 -90 8
Pentan-1-ol 88 C5H12O 138 -79 2.7
Hexan-1-ol 102 C6H14O 157 -52 0.6


  • Alkanols are soluble in water but their solubility decreases gradually as the molecular mass increases. For example, methanol is more soluble than hexan-1-ol.
  • The melting points and boiling points of alkanols increase down the series due to the increases in the strength of intermolecular forces of attraction. Alkanols have higher melting and boiling points than their corresponding alkanes with the same molecular mass.

This is because of the hydrogen bonds between alkanol molecules, caused by the functional group (-OH). Hydrogen bonds are stronger than van der Waals’ forces.

  • The melting and boiling points increase with increase in molar mass. This is attributed to the increase in the strength of inter-molecular forces.


Chemical Properties of Alkanols

In solution, ethanol has a pH slightly below 7. This is because in solution it behaves as a weak acid.



Ethanol burns readily in air with a pale blue flame to produce carbon(IV) oxide and water. This is because ethanol is saturated and undergoes complete combustion.

C2H5OH(l) + 2O2(g)  2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)

Reactions with Sodium metal

Ethanol reacts with sodium liberating hydrogen gas and a salt, sodium ethoxide. The sodium ethoxide hydrolyses in water to generate -OH which makes the solution alkaline.

2CH3CH2OH (l)+ 2Na (s)   2CH2CH2ONa (aq)+ H2 (g)

Sodium metal reacts with any other alkanol to liberate a salt and hydrogen gas, e.g.,

2ROH(l) + 2Na(s)  2RONa(s) + H2(g)


Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid to form a substance with a pleasant smell. The product formed is known as ethylethanoate which belongs to a group of compounds known as esters. The process of ester formation is known as esterification.

Below is the equation showing the structural formulae of the reactants and products.

The alkyl part of the ester is derived from the alkanol, while the alkanoate part is derived from the acid. The alkyl group from the alkanol attaches itself to the carboxylic acid thereby displacing a hydrogen atom.

Ethanol also reacts with propanoic acid to form an ester known as ethylpropanaote.

Below is the equation showing the structural formulae of the reactants and products.

Under ordinary conditions the reaction takes place slowly. Therefore, concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid is added to catalyse the reaction.

Oxidation by oxidisingagents (KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7)

Ethanol is oxidised by oxidising agents such as potassium manganate(VII) and potassium dichromate(VI) to form ethanoic acid. When reacted with ethanol, acidified purple potassium manganate(VII) turns colourless. This is due to the reduction of manganate ions (MnO4-) which are purple to manganese ions (Mn2+) which are colourless.

Acidified orange potassium dichromate(VI) turns green due to the reduction of chromate ions (Cr2O72–) to chromium ions (Cr3+).

The structure of the reactant and product in the equation can be represented as:

The oxidising property of the chromate(VI) is used in some breathalysers to indicate the level of alcohol (alkanol) content in the breath of motorists.

Generally, alkanols are oxidised by oxidising agents to alkanoic (carboxylic) acids.

R- represents an alkyl group

Dehydration by concentrated sulphuric (VI) acid.

Concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid reacts with ethanol at 180°C to form ethene and water. The concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid acts as a dehydrating agent.

At a temperature of 140°C, incomplete dehydration occurs in which an ether is formed.


Uses of Alkanols

  1. As solvents, i.e., in the preparation of drugs.
  2. As fuels when blended with gasoline to form gasohol.
  3. In the manufacture of synthetic fibres, e.g., polyvinylchloride and polythene.
  4. As an antiseptic when used under specified concentrations.
  5. Ethanol is used as an alcoholic drink only in low concentrations.

Alcohol and Health

Over-consumption of ethanol causes damage to some body organs such as the liver, the brain and the heart. It also leads to addiction.

When small amounts of methanol are added to ethanol, it causes blindness and may even lead to death. In many parts of the world it is illegal to sell ethanol to persons under the age of eighteen.

Methylated spirit is an alcohol containing about 95% absolute alcohol and 5% methanol. Methanol and a purple dye called methylviolet are added to ethanol to make the methylated spirit unsuitable for human consumption.


Alkanoic Acids (Carboxylic Acids)

Alkanoic acids belong to a homologous series of organic compounds that contains a carboxylgroup (-COOH) as a functional group.

A carboxyl group has the structural formula

Alkanoic acids have a general formula CnH2n+1COOH where n = 1, 2, 3…

The first five alkanoic acids
Alkanoic acid Molecular formula Structural formula
Methanoic HCOOH
Ethanoic CH3COOH
Propanoic C2H5COOH
Butanoic C3H7COOH
Pentanoic C4H9COOH


Alkanoic acids are naturally found in fruits such as oranges, lemon and pepper. Methanoic acid is present in nettle leaves and insect stings such as bees and wasps. Ethanoic acid is commonly known as vinegar. Butanoic acid is found in beef fat (Butter). Hexandioic acid is found in palm oil and olive oil.



Alkanoic acids are named by replacing the “e” ending of the corresponding alkane by the suffix – oic. The carbon atom to which the functional group is attached is given position one.

The simplest member of the alkanoic acid series when n = 0 is HCOOH (Methanoic acid) and when n = 1 is CH2COOH (ethanoic acid).

Names and formulae of the first ten alkanoic acids
Name of acid Molecular formula Condensed structural formula
Methanoic CH2O2 HCOOH
Ethanoic C2H4O2 CH3COOH
Propanoic C3H6O2 CH3CH2COOH
Butanoic C4H8O2 CH3CH2CH2COOH
Pentanoic C5H10O2 CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH
Hexanoic C6H12O2 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH
Heptanoic C7H14O2 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2COOH

Laboratory Preparation of Ethanoic Acids

In the laboratory, ethanoic acid can be prepared by oxidising ethanol using suitableoxidising agents such acidified potassium manganate (VII) or potassium dichromate (VII).

On heating, acidified potassium manganate(VII) oxidises ethanol to ethanoic acid.

During the reaction the purple solution turns colourless. The colour of the solution is colourless because the purple manganate(VII) (MnO-4) ions are reduced to colourless manganese(II) (Mn2+) ions.


When acidified potassium chromate(VI) is used, the solution in the flask is orange before heating but after heating it turns green. The orange colour is due to chromate(VI) ions which are reduced to green chromium(II) ions.

To ensure complete oxidation, excess oxidising agent is used. The condenser ensures any vapour escaping is condensed back into the flask for further reaction.

The solution in the flask contains the oxidising agent, water and ethanoic acid. In order to obtain pureethanoic acid the mixture is distilled. The distillate collected at about 118 °C is ethanoic acid which is a colourles liquid with a sharp smell.


Properties of Alkanoic acids


Physical properties of alkanoic acids

Name of acid Molecular mass State at room temperature Solubility Melting point (°C)) Boiling point (°C
Methanoic 46 Liquid Very high 8.4 101
Ethanoic 70 Liquid Very high 16.6 118
Propanoic 84 Liquid Highly soluble -20.8 141
Butanoic 98 Liquid Highly soluble -6.5 164
Pentanoic 112 Liquid Moderate -34.5 186
Hexanoic 116 Liquid Low -1.5 205
  • Alkanoic acids are soluble in water because their molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. Theirsolubility decreases with increase in molecular mass because of the decreases in polarity of the acid molecules.
  • Melting and boiling points increase with increase in molecular mass. This is due the increase in the strength of van der Waals’ forces.
  • The alkanoic acids have higher melting and boiling points than their corresponding alkanols with the same molecular mass because the alkanoic acids form more hydrogen bonds per molecule than the corresponding alkanol.


Chemical Properties of alkanoic acids


Acidic properties in solution.

Ethanoic acid has a pH of about 5 and is a weak acid because it partially dissociates in solution

to form ethanoate ions and hydrogen ions. The dissociation can be represented as:


Reaction with metals.

Ethanoic acid reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas and a salt (organic salt).

Alkanoic acids react with metals to form alkanoate and hydrogen gas.

Alkanoic acid + Metal MetalAlkanoate + Hydrogen gas



Reaction with bases and alkalis (neutralization)

Ethanoic acid neutralises sodium hydroxide forming a salt and water.

Generally, alkanoic acids react with alkalis to form a salt and water.

Alkanoic acid + Alkali Alkanoate + water

Ethanoic acid also reacts with sodium carbonate to produce a salt, carbon(IV) oxide and water.

2CH3COOH(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)  2CH3COONa(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)

Reaction with alkanols (esterification)

When ethanoic acid reacts with ethanol, in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid, a pleasant smelling compound called an ester is formed.


Uses of Alkanoic Acids

  1. Used as solvents.
  2. In the manufacture of drugs and chemicals.
  3. In flavouring of foods, e.g., ethanoic acid (vinegar).
  4. In the manufacture of synthetic fibres such as terylene, dacron and nylon.
  5. In preservation of food, e.g., benzoic acid.


Detergents are substances which improve the cleaning properties of water. There are two types; soapy and soaplessdetergents.

Soapy Detergents

Soapy detergents are referred to as soap. They are prepared from either fats or oils.

Soap is a sodium or potassium salt with a general formulaCnH2n+1COONa+or CnH2n+1COOK+

Fats and oils are esters. Fats occur naturally in animals while oils occur both in plants and animals. Some examples of oils include whale oil, groundnut oil, corn oil and coconut oil. Naturally occurring fats are butter from milk, lard from pigs and tallow from animals.

Fats are saturated organic compounds while oils are unsaturated.


Preparation of soap.

In the laboratory, soap can be prepared by mixing 5 cm3 of castor oil and 20 cm3 of 4 M sodium hydroxide in an evaporating dish. The mixture is then heated in a water bath for about 20 minutes, stirring continuously while adding small amounts of distilled water. Finally, three spatulafuls of sodium chloride are added, the mixture is stirred and allowed tocool. The mixture is then filteredand the residue washed with cold distilled water.


When an alkali is boiled with fat or oil, a hydrolysis reaction takes place.

Fat + NaOH  Soap + glycerol

When a fatty acid is hydrolysed in the presence of an alkali the process is referred to as saponification.

In the hydrolysis of a fatty acid, sodium hydroxide neutralises the acid to form the sodium salt of the acid.

For example;

The soap formed (sodium octadecanoate) is commonly known as sodium stearate.

  • Sodium chloride crystals are added to the mixture to reduce the solubility of the soap in glycerol. This is known as salting out.
  • The soap obtained is rinsed in distilled water to remove impurities such as glycerol, other salts and unused alkali solution.


The Mode of Action of Soap in Cleaning

The cleaning property of soap depends on its structure. For example, sodium stearate consists of an oil soluble long hydrocarbon end and a polar end which is water soluble (C11H35COO–Na+)

A soap molecule has:

  • A hydrocarbon chain end which is non-polar and has no attraction for water (water – hating) and is called
  • A carboxylate end which is polar and is attracted to water or is ‘water-loving’ and is called hydrophilic. This end is in fact negatively charged in water.

The above can also be represented by a skeletal structure as shown.

The hydrocarbon chain may also be represented by ‘R’. Thus R – COONa+

In water, soap dissociates into carboxylate and sodium ions, CH3(CH2)16COO– and Na+. The non-polar end of the carboxylate ion is oil soluble while the polar end is water soluble.

Water alone is not sufficient to clean grease stained linen or surfaces because water cannot dissolve grease as the two are immiscible.

When soap is added to water during washing, the non-polar hydrophobic end of the carboxylate ions lodge themselves onto the grease while the hydrophilic ends stick out in the water, since they are attracted by water molecules.

Agitation of the material being washed causes enough of the carboxylate ions to stick into grease particles and dislodge them, this forms small droplets with the water loving ends poking out (micelles). The micelles cannot coalesce together as they repel one another due to the charge on their surface. This way they are washed away by water when the garment is rinsed.

The detergents ‘heads’ are attracted by water molecules.







Effect of Hard Water on Soap

When soap is added to water containing calcium andmagnesium ions, a precipitation reaction takes place. For example:

2C17H35COO–Na+(aq) + Ca2+(aq)  (C17H35COO–)2Ca2+(s) + 2Na+(aq)

Lather does not form until all the calcium or magnesium ions responsible for the hardness have been precipitated. The precipitate floats on the water as scum.


Soapless Detergents

These are detergents in which a carboxylic group of the soap is replaced by an alkyl sulphonate group. For example:

Where R represents the long hydrocarbon chain.

Soaplessdetergents act like soap in the cleaning process but they are not affected by hard water unlike ordinary soap.Therefore, unlike soap, soapless detergents lather readily with water since the corresponding calcium and magnesium salts are soluble.

Soapless detergents are manufactured from petroleum products. They can also be made from vegetable oil or fats which do not contain the benzene ring.

The initial step in the preparation involves the heating of the long chain hydrocarbons with benzene molecules at very high temperature to produce alkylbenzene as the organic part of the detergent.

The alkylbenzene is further reacted with concentrated sulphuric(VI) acid to form alkylbenzene sulphonate.

The alkylbenzene sulphonateis reacted with sodium hydroxide solution to form sodium alkylbenzene sulphonatewhich is the detergent.

The long hydrocarbon chain can be presented by R.Thus, the sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate may be written as:


The flow diagram below is a summary of the process involved during preparation of soapless detergents.

Soapless detergents are manufactured in liquid or solid form.

In order to improve the cleaning properties of soapy and soapless detergents, tetraoxophosphate materials are added. The compounds prevent formation of compounds with Ca2+, Mg2+ions hence no scum is formed.

Examples of soapless detergents sold locally are: Omo, Dynamo, Perfix, Persil, Sunlight and Toss.


Comparison between soapless detergents and soap

Soapless detergents Soapy detergents
Very soluble in water and therefore can be used well in hard water. Form scum in hard water
Cause water pollution because some are non-biodegradable. Do not cause pollution because they are biodegradable.
Are expensive. Are cheap.


Pollution Effect of Detergents

Detergents contain long chains of alkylbenzene groups which are difficult to break down through bacterial action. When large quantities of detergents are released into lakes, rivers and dams, froth forms. Eventually, the forth forms a protective blanket layer on top of the water preventing air from dissolving in the water. Lack of oxygen in water causes death of animals due to high biological and chemical oxygen demand.

The tetraoxophosphate and other compounds added to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ during cleaning provides nutrients for aquatic plants, e.g., algae and water hyacinth. The population of the aquatic plants grows quickly depleting the dissolved oxygen in water. This is referred to as eutrophication.

In order to control pollution by detergents, efforts are being made by manufacturers to use biodegradable materials in detergents, i.e., more unbranched long chain hydrocarbons.



A polymeris a long chain organic molecule formedwhen a small chain molecule undergoes self addition reaction.

The unit molecule is referred to as a monomer. Monomers may be of the same molecule or different compounds.

The process through which the monomers combine to form a long chain molecule is known as Polymerisation.

The polymers may be man-made (synthetic) or naturally occurring. Naturally occurring polymers include rubber, cellulose, wool, silk and starch while synthetic polymers include nylon, terylene and polyethene.

Synthetic polymers are made using two methods; addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation.

Addition Polymerisation

Addition polymerisation occurs when unsaturated molecules (monomers) join to form long chain molecules (polymers) without the formation of any other product.Monomers open and bond with each other.

Polymers formed through addition polymerisation are: polythene, polypropene, polyvinylchloride (PVC), polystyrene, polytetrafluoroethene and perspex.

The following equations show the formation of these polymers:

Polymerization process General structure
(a)  Polypropene
(b)  Polychloroethene (Polyvinylchoride)
(c)  Polyphenylethene (polystyrene)
(d)  Polytetrafluoroethene
(e) Polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA)

2-methyl propanoate                 polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA)

(methyl metacrylate)



A polymer formed by addition of identical molecules will have a relative molecular mass that is an integral multiple of the relative molecular mass of that monomer. If the relative molecular mass of a polymer and part of its structure is given, the number of monomers forming the polymer can be determined.

For example:

A polymer has the following structure  andhas a molecular mass of 4200.

(i)   Identify the monomer and draw its structure.

(ii)  Determine the relative molecular mass of the monomer.

(iii) Determine the number of monomers in the polymer.


(a)  The monomer is determined by determining the repeating units in the polymer given:

Thus in the polymer:, the repeating unit is:


Since the monomer must be an unsaturated hydrocarbon, then the monomer forms the repeating unit.

Thus: is

(ii)  The relative molecular mass of the monomer is:⇒ (12 × 3) + (1 × 6) =42


(iii) Number of monomers =  =100


Condensation Polymerisation

In condensation polymerisation, identical or different monomers combine to form long chain molecules with the loss of small molecules like water. The monomer should have two functional groups at each end so that molecules can join at both ends to form long chain molecules. The functional groups may be identical or different. For example:


Name Polymerization process
(a) Starch


(b) Protein


(c) Nylon 6.6


The polymer is formed from the reaction between hexane -1, 6. diamine and hexane -1, 6 -dioic acid.

Naturally occurring rubber is obtained from the rubber tree.


Rubber trees produce a liquid called latex which is collected from cuts made on the trunks of the rubber trees. The latex is then allowed to coagulate resulting in a hydrocarbon polymer which is made up of isoprene (2- methyl but -1, 3-diene).


The monomer polymerises as shown below.

Synthetic rubber can also be obtained by polymerisation of isoprene.

The product is usually soft hence must be hardened by a process called vulcanisation. This involves heating the rubber with sulphur. The sulphur atoms form links between chains of rubber molecules reducing the number of double bonds in the polymers. This makes the material tougher, less flexible and less soft. This improves the quality of rubber.

Advantages of Synthetic Polymers and Fibres

Synthetic polymers have many advantages over natural materials:

  1. They are less affected by acids, alkalis, water and air.
  2. They are lighter.
  3. They are stronger.
  4. They can be moulded into desired shapes easily.
  5. They are less expensive.

Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibres

  1. Some synthetic fibres burn more readily than natural ores.
  2. They do not decompose easily, i.e., are non-biodegradable. This results in environmental pollution.
  3. Some synthetic polymers give off poisonous gases when they burn, e.g., polythene gives off hydrogen cyanide and carbon(IV) oxide.


Some polymers and their uses

Polymer Uses
Polyethene Film wrappers, flexible bottles, electrical wire insulators, water pipes.
Polypropene Crates, carpets, plastic bottles, chairs, ropes.
Polychloroethene Floor tiles, car dash boards, cool water pipes, hose pipes, gutters.
Polyphenyethene Ceiling lines, insulation materials.
Polytetrafluoroethane Non-stick coating on pressing boxes and cooking utensils.
Perspex Substitute for glass.
Nylon Substitute for cotton in the textile industry, ropes carpets, brushes, fishing nets, parachutes.
Rubber Vehicle tyres.

Review Exercises


  1. 2006 Q7 P1

A group of compounds called chlorofluorocarbons have a wide range of uses but they also have harmful effects on the environment. State one:

(a)         Use of chlorofluorocarbons.                                                                          (1 mark)

(b)         Harmful effect of chlorofluorocarbons on the environments.                (1 mark)


  1. 2006 Q5 (P2)
    • What name is given to a compound that contains carbon and hydrogen only?                                                                                                                           (½ mark)
    • Hexane is a compound containing carbon and hydrogen.
  • What method is used to obtain hexane from crude oil?       (1mark)
  • State one use of hexane        (1mark)


  • Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow.



  • Identify reagent L.      (1mark)
  • Name the catalyst used in step (1mark)
  • Draw the structural formula of gas J.      (1mark)
  • What name is given to the process that takes place in step 5?      (½ mark)
  • What name is given to the process that takes place in step 5?      (½ mark)


  • (i)write the equation for the reaction between aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ethanoic acid.                                                                                                                  (1 mark)

(ii)             Explain why the reaction between 1g of sodium carbonate and 2M hydrochloric acid is faster than the reaction between 1g of sodium carbonate and 2M ethanoic acid.                                                                                                            (2 marks)



  1. 2007 Q20 P1

An alkanol has the following composition by mass: hydrogen 13.5%, oxygen

21.6% and carbon 64.9%

  • Determine the empirical formula of the alcohol. (C=12.0; H=1.0, O=16.0). (2marks)


  • Given that the empirical formula and molecular formula of the alkanol are the same, draw the structure of the alkanol.                      (1 mark)





  1. 2007 Q2 P2
  • Give the systematic names of the following compounds

(i)         CH2 = C – CH3


CH3                                                                                         (1 mark)


(ii)        CH3CH2CH2C ≡ CH                                                                           (1 mark)


  • State the observations made when Propan-1-ol reacts with:

(i)         Acidified potassium dichromate (VI) Solution,                             (1 mark)

(ii)        Sodium metal.                                                                                               (1 mark)


  • Ethanol obtained from glucose can be converted to ethane as shown below

C6H12O6 C2H5OH CH2 = CH2

Name and describe the process that takes place in steps I and II.                               (3 marks)

  • Compounds A and B have the same molecular formula C3H6O2. Compound A liberates carbon (IV) oxide on addition of aqueous sodium carbonate while compound B does not. Compound B has a sweet smell. Draw the possible structures of:

(i)         Compound A                                                                                                (1 mark)

(ii)        Compound B                                                                                                 (1 mark)


  • Give two reasons why the disposal of polymers such as polychloroethane by burning pollutes the environment.                                  (2 marks)



  1. 2008 Q4 P1

The structure of a detergent is:


  • Write the molecular formula of the detergent. (1 mark)
  • What type of detergent is represented by the formula?          (1 mark)
  • When this type of detergent is used to wash linen in hard water, spots (marks) are left on the linen. Write the formula of the substance responsible for the spots (1 mark)



  1. 2008 Q1 P2
  • Biogas is a mixture of mainly carbon (IV) oxide and methane.
  • Give a reason why biogas can be used as a fuel.          (1mark)
  • Other than fractional distillation, describe a method that can be used to determine the percentage of methane in biogas.                                  (3marks)


  • A sample of biogas contains 35.2% by mass of methane. A biogas cylinder contains 5.0 kg of the gas.

Calculate the;

  • Number of moles of methane in the cylinder. (Molar mass of methane=16)                                              (2marks)
  • Total volume of carbon (IV) oxide produced by the combustion of methane in the cylinder (Molar gas Volume=24.0 dm3 at room temperature and pressure).(2marks)


  • Carbon (IV) oxide, methane, nitrogen (I) oxide and trichlorofluoromethane are green-house gases.
  • State one effect of an increased level of these gases to the environment.                                              (1 mark)
  • Give one source from which each of the following gases is released to the environment;
  1. Nitrogen (I) oxide (1 mark)
  2. Trichlorofluoromethane. (1 mark)



  1. 2009 Q25
    • Draw the structure of compound N formed in the following reaction (1 mark)


  • Give one use of the following compound N (1 mark).



  1. 2009 Q2 P2
  • Draw the structure of the following compounds          (2 marks)

(i)         2 -methlybut-2-ene

(ii)        heptanoic acid

  • Describe a physical test that can be used to distinguish between hexane and hexanol                                              (2 marks)


  • Use the flow chart to answer the questions that follow.
  • Name
  1. The type of reaction that occurs in the step II   (1mark)
  2. Substance B (1mark)
  • Give the formula of substance C (1 mark)
  • Give the reagent and the condition necessary for the reaction in step (IV)                   (3marks)


  1. 2010 Q13 P1

Some animal and vegetable oils are used to make margarine and soap. Give the reagents and conditions necessary for converting the oils into:

(a)         Margarine                                                                                                      (2 marks)

(b)         Soap                                                                                                               (1 mark)



  1. 2010 Q21 P1

The use of CFCs has been linked to depletion of the ozone layer.

  • What does CFC stand for? (1 mark)
  • Explain the problem associated with the depletion of the ozone layer

(1 mark)

  • State another environment problem caused by CFCs. (1 mark)



  1. 2010 Q2 (P2)
    • Give the name of the following compounds:
  • CH3


CH3 − C − CH3                                                                                                                                                           (1 mark)




  • CH3 C C CH2CH3 (1 mark)


  • Describe a chemical test that can be carried out in order to distinguish between



CH3 − C − CH3 and CH3 C C CH2CH3


CH3                                                                                         (2 marks)


  • Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follows


  • Name the compounds:                                                                                (2 marks)
  1. L
  2. N


  • Draw the structural formula of compound M showing two repeating units                                                                                                                                         (1 mark)
  • Give the reagent and the conditions used in step I   (1 mark)
  • State the type of reaction that take place in: (2 marks)
  1. Step 2
  2. Step 3


  • The molecular formula of compound P is C2H2Cl4. Draw the two structural formulae of compound P                                                                     (2 marks)



  1. 2011 Q14 P1

Two organic compounds P and Q decolourise acidified potassium manganate (VII) solution; but only P reacts with sodium metal to give a colourless gas. Which homologous series does compound P belong? Give a reason.                                                                (3 marks)



  1. 2011 Q15 P1

Soap dissolves in water according to the equation below;

NaSt (aq)  Na+ (aq) + St  where St is the stearate ion

  • Write the formula of the scum formed when soap is used in hard water                           (1 mark)
  • Write the ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when sodium carbonate is used to remove in hardness in water.                                       (1 mark)



  1. 2011 Q6 P2
  • Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow.
  • What observation will be made in Step I?                                             (1 mark)
  1. Describe a chemical test that can be carried out to show the identity of Compound C (2 marks)
  • Give the names of the following:                                                               (2 marks)
    1. E ………………
    2. Substance D ………………


  • Give the formula of substance B (1 mark)
  • Name the type of reaction that occurs in:          (1 mark)
  1. Step (II) ……………………….
  2. Step (IV) ………………………
  • Give the reagent and conditions necessary for Step (IV).               (2 marks)

Reagent ………………………….

Conditions ……………………….


  • (i)    Name the following structure

(1 mark)


(ii)  Draw the structure of an isomer of pentene.                                               (1 mark)



  1. 2012 Q21 P1

Give two uses of the polymer polystyrene.                                                             (1 mark)



  1. 2012 Q1 P2, 2016 Q6 P1
  • Draw the structural formula for all the isomers of C2H3Cl3 (2 marks)


  • Describe two chemical tests that can be used to distinguish between ethene and ethane.                                           (4 marks)
  • The following scheme represents various reactions starting with propanol-1-ol.

Use it to answer the questions that follow.

  • Name one substance that can be used in step 1            (1 mark)
  • Give the general formula of X (1 mark)
  • Write the equation for the reaction in step IV                         (1 mark)
  • Calculate the mass of propanol-1-ol which when burnt completely in air at room temperature and pressure would produce 18 dm3 of gas.

(C = 12.0; O = 16.0; H = 1.0; Molar gas volume = 24 dm3)                                  (2 marks)



  1. 2013 Q7 P2
  • Give the systematic names for the following compounds

(i)         CH3CH2COOH;                                                                                  (1 mark)

(ii)        CH3CH2CH2CHCH2;                                                                          (1 mark)

(iii)       CHC CH2CH3;                                                                                                (1 mark)

  • Study the flow chart below and use it to answer the questions that follow


  • Identify the organic compound K. (1 mark)
  • Write the formula of M   (1 mark)


  • Give one reagent that can be used in

(a)         Step I;                                                                                                 (1 mark)

(b)         Step II  .                                                                                               (1 mark)


  • Write the equation of the reaction in step III (1 mark)


  • The structure below represents a type of a cleaning agent.

Describe how the cleansing agent removes grease from a piece of cloth.      (3marks)



  1. 2014 Q9 P1

The table below shows the relative molecular masses and boiling points of pentane and ethanoic acid.

Explain the large difference in boiling point between ethanoic acid and pentane.                                                                                                                                                                        (2 marks)




  1. 2014 Q23 P1

Study the flow chart below and answer the question the follow.

(a)       Name the process in step I.                                                                                     (1 mark)

(b)       Identify the reagent in step II.                                                                     (1 mark)

(c)       Give one use of ethane.                                                                             (1 mark)



  1. 2014 Q26 P1

Cotton is a natural polymer. State one advantage and one disadvantage of this polymer.                                                                                                                                                      (2 marks)



  1. 2014 Q3 P2
  • Draw the structures of the following.

(i)         Butan -1- ol                                                                                         (1 mark)

(ii)        Hexanoic acid.                                                                                 (1 mark)


  • Study the flow chart below and answer the questions that follow


  • State the conditions necessary for fermentation of glucose to take place.                                  (1 mark)
  • State one reagent that can be used to carry out process S. (1 mark)
  • Identify gases:             (2 marks)
  1. P: ………………………
  2. T: …………………….
  • How is sodium hydroxide kept dry during the reaction (v) Give one commercial use of process R.                                  (1 mark)


  • When one mole of ethanol is completely burnt in air, 1370kJ of heat energy is released. Given that 1 lire of ethanol is 780 g , calculate the amount of heat energy released when 1 litre of ethanol is completely burnt (C = 12.0; H=1.0; 0=16.0) (3 marks)


  • State two uses of ethanol other than as an alcoholic drink. (2 marks)


  1. 2015 Q1b P1

Describe a chemical test that can be used to distinguish butanol from butanoic acid.                                                                                                                                                       (2 marks)


  1. 2015 Q22 P1

Study the flow chart below and use it to answer the questions that follows.

(a)       Name process T                                                                                            (1 mark)

(b)       Give the formula of W.                                                                                (1 mark)

(c)       State two uses of X                                                                                       (1 mark)



  1. 2015 Q2 P2
  • Draw the structure of the folio wing compounds. (2 marks)

(i) Butanoic acid;

(ii) Pent-2-ene.


  • Explain why propan-1-ol is soluble in water while prop-1-ene is not. (Relative molecular mass of propan-1-ol is 60 while that of prop-1-ene is 42). (2 marks)


  • What would be observed if a few drops of acidified potassium manganate (VII) were added to oil obtained from nut seeds? Explain. (2 marks)


  • State one method that can be used to convert liquid oil from nut seeds into solid.                                       (1mark)


  • Describe how soap is manufactured from liquid oil from nut seeds.   (3 marks)



  • 44 g of an ester A reacts with 62.5 cm3 of 0.08 M potassium hydroxide giving an alcohol B and substance C. Given that one mole of the ester reacts with one mole of the alkali, calculate the relative molecular mass of the ester. (2 marks)





  1. 2016 Q2 P1R

An alkanol has the following composition by mass; hydrogen 13.5%, oxygen 21.6% and carbonate 64.9%


  • Determine the empirical formula of the alkanol. (C=12.0, H=1.0, O=16) (2 marks)


  • Given that the empirical formula and the molecular formula of the alkanol are the same, draw the structure of the alkanol                                     (1 mark)


  1. 2017 P1 Q20.

Study the flow chart in Figure 5 and answer the questions that follow.

  • Identify substances K and L.

K:                                                                                                   (1 mark)

L:                                                                                                   (1 mark)

  • Name one reagent that can be used to carry out process J. (1 mark)



  1. 2017 P1 Q28.

When an aqueous solution of compound X was mixed with a few drops of bromine water, the colour of the mixture remained yellow.

When another portion of solution X was reacted with acidified potassium dichromate (VI), the colour of the mixture changed from orange to green.

(a)         What conclusion can be made from the use of:

(i)         bromine water?                                                                                (1 mark)

(ii)        acidified potassium dichromate (VI)?                                           (1 mark)


(b)         Solution X was reacted with a piece of a metal and a colourless gas was produced.                      Describe a simple experiment to identify the gas.                                               (1 mark)


  1. 2017 P2 Q1.

(a)         Name the homologous series represented by each of the following general                                   formulae.

(i)         CnH2n-2                                                                                                                                                                    (1 mark)

(ii)        CnH2n                                                                                                  (1 mark)


(b)         Compound G is a tri-ester.

(i)         Give the physical state of compound G at room temperature. (1 mark)

(ii)        G is completely hydrolysed by heating with aqueous sodium hydroxide.

(I)         Give the structural formula of the alcohol formed.                      (1 mark)

(II)        Write a formula for the sodium salt formed.                            (1 mark)

(III)       State the use of the sodium salt.                                         (1 mark)


(c)       Ethyne is the first member of the alkyne family.

(i)         Name two reagents that can be used in the laboratory to prepare the gas.                                                                                                                     (1 mark)

(ii)        Write an equation for the reaction.                                               (1 mark)


(d)       Perspex is an addition synthetic polymer formed from the monomer,

(i)         What is meant by addition polymerisation?                                 (1 mark)

(ii)        Draw three repeat units of Perspex.                                               (1 mark)

(iii)       Give one use of Perspex                                                                 (1 mark)

(iv)      State two environmental hazards associated with synthetic polymers.                                                                                                                                  (1 mark)


  1. 2018 P1 Q3.

The following are formulae of organic compounds. Use the formulae to answer the questions that follow:






(a)         Select:

(i)         two compounds which when reacted together produce a sweet-smelling                                   compound.                                                                                       (1 mark)

(ii)        an unsaturated hydrocarbon.                                                           (1 mark)


(b)         Name the compound selected in (a) (ii).                                                 (1 mark)


  1. 2018 P2 Q1.

The diagram in figure 1 shows some natural and industrial processes. Study it and answer the questions that follows

(a)       Identify the processes labelled:                                                                  (2 marks)





(b)       State the reagents and conditions required for processes B and D.

(i)         Process B:

Reagent…………….                                                                             (1 mark)

Conditions …………                                                                            (1 mark)

(ii)        Process D:

Reagent…………….                                                                             (1 mark)

Conditions …………                                                                            (1 mark)

(b)          Describe how process D is carried out.                                                      (2 marks)


(c)          State two additives used to improve the quality of soap.                                  (1 mark)


(d)          State the reagents required in steps F and G.

(i)         F…………………………………                                                           (1 mark)

(ii)        G…………………………………                                                          (1 mark)

(e)          Draw the structure of terylene.                                                                   (1 mark)


(d)          (i)         Name the polymer formed in step C.                                            (1 mark)

(ii)        State one disadvantage of the polymer formed in (d) (i).                      (1 mark)



  1. 2019 P1 Q4.

A monomer has the following structure.



(a)       Draw the structure of its polymer that contains three monomers.                     (1 mark)

(b)       A sample of the polymer formed from the monomer has a molecular mass of                                   4992.Determine the number of monomers that formed the polymer.

(C= 12; H= 1.0).                                                                                              (2 marks)



  1. 2019 P2 Q1.

(a)         Alkanes are said to be saturated hydrocarbons.

(i)         What is meant by saturated hydrocarbons?                                             (1 mark)

(ii)        Draw the structure of the third member of the alkane homologous series                            and name it.                                                                                      (2 marks)


(b)       When the alkane, hexane, is heated to high temperature, one of the products is                             ethene.

(i)         Write the equation for the reaction.                                                (1 mark)

(ii)        Name the process described in (b).                                                (1 mark)

(c)       Study the flow chart in Figure 1 below and answer the questions that follow.

(i)         Identify A.                                                                                          (1 mark)

(ii)        State one physical property of B.                                                   (1 mark)

(iii)       Draw the structure of D.                                                                   (1 mark)

(iv)      Give a reason why D pollutes the environment.                          (1 mark)

(v)       Write an equation for the formation of F.                                      (1 mark)


(d)       Describe an experiment which can be used to distinguish butene from butanol.                                                                                                                                                          (2 marks)

Form one admission letters 2021- Education Ministry issues clarification

The Ministry of education has issued a clarification on 2021 form one admission letters downloads. This after claims emerged that parents should not download the 2021 form one admission letters if they are not be satisfied with the schools where their kids have been placed.

The Ministry has termed the message as being ‘fake news’ and misleading.

Here is the message that has now been quashed by the Education Ministry;

“Kindly if you are looking for an alternative school for your child, DO NOT PRINT THE LETTER FOR THE SCHOOL YOUR CHILD HAS BEEN ADMITTED TO. Once you download the admission letter, it is assumed in the system that you are taking the offer.

Someone from Ministry of Education has shared that information.”

Meanwhile, the Ministry has urged the parents to download their letters in readiness for the 2021 form one reporting dates.

Also see; School Term dates/ calendar for 2020 to 2023.


How to download the 2021 Form one admission letter to National Schools

To download your 2021 form one admission letter to National Schools, follow these easy steps;

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admssion letter.
  2. Then, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre is located and key in your index number and Submit.
  3. Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  4. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  5. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  6. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate.


Extra County Secondary schools (formerly Provincial schools) are the second tier of schools in Kenya. They are the most preferred category of schools after National Schools.

The selection of candidates to Extra-County schools is based on a ratio of 20:40:40. This means that 20% of available vacancies in an extra county school goes students from the Subcounty where the school is found.

While the host county and other counties get 40% each. After the selection exercise for the 2020 placement of form ones, they will be expected to download their letters through the Ministry of education’s online portal.

The admission letter is important to both students and Parents/ Guardians. This is because it enables the two parties to prepare adequately for reporting to selected secondary school.

How to download the 2021 Form one admission letter to Extra County Schools

Admission letters for KCPE 2020 candidates will be available online, once the selection exercise has been completed. To download your 2021 form one admission letter follow the simple steps below;

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admssion letter.
  2. Now, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre is found and key in your index number and Submit.
  3. Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  4. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  5. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  6. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate

Please note that the admission letters will be posted online once the selection exercise is complete.


Selection for 2021 form one students also follows a set criteria. Students joining County schools in based on the 20:80 ratio. This means that 20% of the available slots in a County school go the hosting Sub-County while the remaining 80% are shared among other Subcounties; in that County.

How to download the 2021 Form one admission letter to County Schools

To download the admission letter to County Schools:

To download your admission letter, follow the simplified steps below;

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admssion letter. Now,
  2. Next, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre is located and key in your index number and Submit.
  3. Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  4. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  5. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  6. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate.

See also;

2021 Form One Selection Results through SMS

 How to download 2021 form one admission letters online.

Form one selection results and admission letters 2021 (Check admission results and letter)

How to receive 2021 Form One Selection Results via SMS Code 22263 (See selection criteria and how to download admission letters)

2021 Form One Selection Portal; Get selection results and download your admission letter

How to download Form one 2021 admission letters for National schools, Extra County Schools, County schools in kenya, Form one selection results

You may also like;

How to admit 2021 Form Ones through the NEMIS system: Ministry of Education

How to complete the new students and 2021/2022 form ones’ admission process by updating their Bio data on NEMIS

2021 Form one selection criteria, results and admission letters; County schools

How to download Form one 2021 admission letters for National schools, Extra County Schools, County schools in kenya, Form one selection results

2021 Form one selection criteria, results and admission letters; Extra County schools

2021 Form one selection results and admission letters; National schools