• Tue. Jul 9th, 2024

    Physical Education, PE, Notes

    Physical Education Revision Guide

    PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    This is a phase of general education system that aims through physical activities/experiences such as games, dances, athletics and gymnastics e.t.c to the growth and development of an individual.

    Qualities of a good P.E. TEACHER

    Should posses the following components of physical fitness:

    • Endurance
    • Speed – Co-ordination
    • Flexibility – Power
    • Strength – Reaction time
    • Agility – Balance
    • Should be knowledgeable with the subject
    • Should be cheerful
    • Should be confident
    • Should be sympathetic
    • Should be understanding
    • Should have good communication skills
    • Should be approachable
    • Should be organized

    Duties/responsibilities of a P.E teacher

    • Instructor – Team Manager/Chaperon
    • Counselor – Demonstrator
    • Dietician – Administrator
    • Coach – First aider
    • Trainer – Referee/umpire
    • Evaluator – Disciplinarian

    Problems encountered when teaching P.E

    1. Lack of role models
    2. Lack of resource materials e.g. books
    3. Lack of proper facilities e.g. fields, gymnasiums
    4. Lack of equipment e.g. balls
    5. Lack of proper game uniforms
    6. Competition from examinable subjects
    7. Negative attitude by pupils, fellow teachers and parents
    8. Conflict with religion
    9. Conflict with tradition and cultural beliefs

    Sources of information to a P.E teacher

    •  Reading from newspapers, books and other sports journals
    •  Listening to radio programs
    • Viewing T.V and video cassettes
    • Officiating in sports
    • Active participation in sports
    • Coaching and training
    • Active and intellectual spectating
    • Participating in sports debates or lectures.

    Purpose of P.E to early man

    For physical fitness to enable them during hunting
    and gathering
    For recreation/entertainment
    For surviving through gathering and hunting
    expeditions
    For defence mechanism against wild animals and
    enemies
    Settling disputes among clans
    Choosing for marriage partners
    For communication purposes.
    Specific objectives of P.E
    Physical fitness
    Social development
    Emotional development
    Movement skills development
    Aesthetic/beauty development
    Mental/intellectual development.
    How P.E tries to meet national goals of
    education
    1. National unity
    a) Through national sporting competition
    b) P.E curriculum in schools, colleges and
    universities is the same.
    c) Use of national anthem during sports
    2. National development
    a) P.E provides job opportunities
    b) Income through cash rewards, trophies
    acquired by players
    c) Development of sporting industries to
    provide sporting equipment for the
    growing demand.
    d) Fitness, Strength and health from
    regular exercise leads to increased out
    put.
    e) Acquisition of skills, expertise and
    personal qualities so vital for growing
    economy.
    3. Social equality
    a) Rules encourage social relationship
    which equal opportunity for all.
    4. Respect for and development of cultural
    heritage.
    a) Through cultural dance and games
    competition
    b) Interaction with international culture
    1
    5. International consciousness
    a) Through international sports e.g. all
    African games
    b) Hosting games in all countries
    c) Drawing officials from all countries
    6. Individual fulfilment
    a) Opportunities for development of
    physical talents.
    b) Personal income
    c) Personal esteem from successful
    performance
    Purpose of P.E. to the nation
     Enables people to perform skilful and
    efficient movement through use of physical
    and mental power.
     People use movement as a means of
    communication, expression etc
     People use leisure time well in creating,
    performing and appreciating physical
    activities e.g. games, dance e.t.c
     Promotion, preservation and appreciation
    of national and international culture.
     Self discipline through rules and regulation
     Learning and participating in P.E creates
    awareness of natural resources and
    environment.
     People learn to improvise and use
    equipment in various activities.
     Maintenance of high standard of body
    health, strength, fitness and general body
    development.
    OBJECTIVES OF P.E
    P.E activities are conducive to growth and
    development.
    P.E contributes to constructive use of leisure time
    P.E provides for leadership
    P.E provides opportunity for expression and
    creativity.
    P.E provides for personality and character
    development
    P.E provides for neuromuscular skills
    P.E develops habit of health and safety
    P.E develops mental capabilities and knowledge
    P.E has biological, psychological and sociological
    function.
    P.E provides for cultural development
    Playing is an instinctive drive that has educational
    potentials.
    SPORTS ORGANIZATION
    This deal with the way various sporting
    activities/competitions is organized. It also
    discusses how points are awarded and recorded ,
    filling score sheet and arranging how teams are
    going to play.
    1. A LEAGUE (ROUND ROBIN)
    This is a competition where each team will have a
    chance to meet every team in the other group
    either once or twice. The possible outcome during
    league competition is a win, loss or a tie/draw.
    Merits
    Give satisfaction to the players
    A weak team will have a chance to meet a strong
    team.
    Weak team improves as the league progresses
    The winner is clearly determined
    Players get a lot of exposure
    Provide fair judgement.
    Demerits
    Take too long to be completed
    Very expensive to organize in terms of transport
    and accommodation
    Require very many officials
    Require very many facilities
    Require very many equipment
    Expose players to very many injuries
    Tiresome on the side of players
    Very difficult to organize especially the league
    table.
    Determining number of matches per team to play
    T (T-1)
    T
    T = Number of teams
    Minus (-) 1 because a team cannot play against
    itself.
    Determining the total number of matches in a
    league.
    T(T-1)
    2
    T = Number of teams
    Minus (-) 1 because a team cannot play against
    itself and divide by two (2) because it takes two
    teams to play a match.
    2. KNOCK OUT
    A competition where once a team is defeated, it is
    eliminated. The possible outcomes are (i) win
    (ii) loss
    2
    Types of knock out
    I. Single elimination
    II. Double elimination
    III. Consolation elimination
    Merits of knock out
    Takes short time to complete
    Require few officials
    Requires less equipment
    Requires few facilities
    Easy to organize
    Has clear climax
    Demerits of knock out
    Does not give suggestion for the players
    Players are not given time to improve on their
    skills
    Teams are not given chance to realize their
    mistakes and correct.
    A weak team can eliminate a strong team
    The winner is not outly determined
    Not the best way of judging a strong team.
    A BYE
    This is when a team is allowed to proceed to the
    next stage without touching or playing the ball
    Rules for a bye
    a) Given during preliminary stages of competition
    b) Give the bye when the teams cannot be paired
    “through” to avoid odd numbers at the last stage.
    Entering league score sheet
    Egoji Vs.
    Kigari 2:3
    Egoji Vs
    Meru 3:3
    Egoji Vs
    Rubate 3:2
    Egoji Vs
    Augustine 4:2
    Kigari Vs
    Meru 3:3
    Kigari Vs
    Rubate 1:1
    Kigari Vs
    Augustine 3:2
    Meru Vs
    Rubate 2:2
    Rubate Vs
    Augustine 0:1
    Meru Vs Augustine 1:
    How to give a bye
    a) By considering the previous performance
    b) By random draw
    When giving byes pick on a magic number, which
    is slightly higher than the number of teams. Magic
    numbers include: 2,4,8,16,32,64,128 e.t.c
    3. LEAGUE CUM KNOCK OUT
    Takes the advantage of both league and knock out.
    Neither too short nor too long
    Provide a well – matched competition
    Doesn’t exclude a team from a competition after a
    game.
    Organization of league cum Knock out
    Teams are divided in to pools where each team is
    expected to play all others in the same pool.
    (Preliminary round league).
    Winners meet runners up in the next pool.
    After the preliminary round the competition
    changes to knockout.
    Only the winners and runners up from each group
    proceed to quarterfinals.
    Merits
    Correct the mistakes of league and knock out
    Has very clear climax of competition
    Saves time
    Allows the defending champion to participate
    Problem of an even do not occur
    Neither too long nor too short
    No team plays greater or minimal game than the
    other
    P – Matches played
    W- Matches won
    D – Matches drawn
    L – Matches lost
    F – Goals scored by the team
    A – Goals the team was scored
    Pts – Points
    Ps – Position
    3
    Enter the above information in a score sheet
    Teams Egoji Kigari Meru Augustine Rubate P W D L F A
    Pts
    Ps
    Egoji 2:3 3:3 4:2 3:2 4 2 1 1 12 10 7 2
    Kigari 3:2 3:3 3:2 1:1 4 2 2 0 10 8 8 1
    Meru 3:3 3:3 1:0 2:2 4 1 3 0 9 8 6 3
    Augst 2:4 2:3 1:0 1:0 4 1 0 3 5 8 3 4
    Rubate 1:3 1:1 2:2 0:1 4 0 2 2 4 7 2 5
    ROUNDERS
    B 2nd Post
    13m 13m

    DF
    2.5m DF
    2.5m
    3
    rd Post Bowlers
    Umpire 1ST Post
    B
    7m
    13m
    7.5m
    2m
    B 13m
    4
    th Post
    XXXXXXX
    Waiting batsmen
    B Substitute runner
    Backstop

    4
    Batting
    Square X
    Bowling
    Square B
    This is a game played by 2 teams each having 9
    player and 2 substitutes
    The two teams are:
    I. Bowling/fielding/out team:
    Consists of:
    a) Backstop; position at the back of the bating
    square to collect backward hit
    b) Bowler in bowling square
    c) Bowlers at each post (4)
    d) Deep fielders (3)
    II. Batting/Inning team
    Members are known as batsmen. One batman is
    inside the bating square and the rest line up next to
    the bating square.
    Duration of game:
    This is known as inning and normally given to
    batting team. Should not take more than 15
    minutes.
    Basic skills
    – Passing – Catching
    – Bowling – Running
    – Stumping – Batting
    Basic equipment
    Rounders ball
    Rounders bat
    4post (not > 1.5m high).
    Officials
    Batsman umpire
    Bowlers umpire
    Duties
    Inspecting facilities and equipment before the start
    of the game
    Awarding the scores
     Signing score sheet after the game
     Declaring the ball as no ball
     Declares when a batsman is taken out
     Ensuring rules and regulations are
    followed.
    When a batsman can be taken out:
    If a batsman misses a good ball unless he is the
    last batsman who is entitled to 3 good balls.
    If a batsman overtakes a teammate
    If a batsman is found in a post by a teammate
    If the ball is grounded in the bowling square when
    the batsman is in between the posts.
    When the batsman runs inside the track
    Failure to touch 4th post on completion
    Batsman foot protruding outside batting square.
    When the ball is caught in air unless it is no ball
    When a batsman obstructs a fielder
    When the post a head is stumped with a ball.
    NO BALL
    This is a ball that cannot be batted due to the
    mistake of the bowler.
    Ball either too high or too low i.e above the head
    and below the knees.
    When the ball is outside the batting square
    When the feet of the bowler are protruding outside
    the bowling square.
    When the ball is not thrown in a smooth
    continuous motion.
    SCORING
    1. Full rounder:
    Awarded when the batsman hits the ball
    successfully in a forward direction and manages to
    hit round the track from outside touching the 4th
    post before the ball is grounded in the bowling
    square.
    2. Half rounder:
    Awarded in case of a backward hits and the
    batsman run in the normal way.
    3. Penalty half rounder
    a) Awarded incase of 3 consecutive no balls
    b) A bowler or fielder obstructs a batsman.
    Ha Full rounder –
    Why rounder is famous in primary schools:
     Equipment’s cheap to attain
     Skills easy to master
     Rules easy to understand
     Take short time
     Use limited space
     Can be played by all ages
     Can be played by both sexes
     Not tiresome
     Limited chances of injuries
    Improving accuracy when batting
     Should have good stance
     Should have good eye contact
     Should have good co-ordination between
    the hands and the ball.
     Good reaction time
     Enough power/strength
     Good bowling ball.
    5
    OLYMPIC EDUCATION
    Ancient games
    The first ancient games were held in 776BC in
    Olympia Athens in Greece. The games were
    meant to commemorate burial of a prominent
    personality and as a way of worship.
    The major events were gymnastics and athletics,
    which were specifically by the Greeks. It was
    done by men only and during night.
    The game was held after every four years
    (Olympiad) and truce period was maintained.
    Amateurism dominated the game. The price give
    to the winner was the olive wreath.
    Philosophy of olympism
     Was based on;
     Games free from corruption
     Games free from discrimination
     Promote the spirit of brotherhood
    Modern Olympic games
    The first modern Olympic was held in Athens
    Greece in 1896A.D. The games are held after
    every four years (Olympiad).
    Was revived by a French scholar by the name
    Baron Pierre with an intention to unify the whole
    world by opening the game to the rest of the
    world.
    The modern games are hosted by the city and the
    city is selected six years before the game.
    i) International Olympic Committee (IOC)
    This is a world governing body with the
    headquarter Geneva in Switzerland.
    Former President was Juan Antonic Samaranch
    Current President is Jacques Rogge.
    Tripartite commission is made up of:
    (ii) International sports federation (I.S.F)
    I.S.F deals with the laws of the game and
    officiating e.g IAAF (Atheletics), FIFA (Football)
    FIVB (Volleyball)
    (iii) National Olympic Committee (NOC)
    Made up of all the countries that are members of
    the Olympic committee e.g. National Olympic of
    Kenya (NOCK)
    (iv) International Olympic Academy (IOA)
    Deals with principles and philosophies of Olympic
    (Olympism)
    (v) Olympic Solidarity (O.S)
    Trustee, which handles IOC funds for, sports
    development.
    Olympic logo
    This has five interlaced rings, which represent the
    solidarity of five continents e.g.
    Red ———————– America
    Green ——————– Australia
    Yellow —————— Asia
    White ——————- Europe
    Black ——————- Africans
    Opening ceremony
    Singing of the Olympic anthem and hosting of
    Olympic flag
    Putting up Olympic torch flame.
    Three gunshots associated with the Olympic motto
    – which reads higher, faster and stronger.
    Releasing of doves and pigeons.
    Order of Olympic games
    Year City Country
    1968 Mexico America
    1972 Munich Germany
    1976 Mautical Canada
    1980 Moscow Russia
    1984 Los Angeles U.S.A
    1988 Seoul S. Korea
    1992 Barcelona Spain
    1996 Atlanta U.S.A
    2000 Sydney Australia
    2004 Athens Greece
    a
    Conditions for awarding medals
    A competitor must be nationality of a given
    country and must have a national flag.
    Athletes must pass the drug test.
    The result must be verified to find out whether it
    was accurate.
    Why some countries don’t participate in
    Olympic games
    If they are not members of International Olympic
    Committee (I.O.C)
    Lack of finance/funds
    Failure to meet the required qualifying standards
    Political ideologies e.g. capitalization, socialism,
    apartheid e.t.c
    Political instability e.g. civil wars
    Lack of qualified coaches and trainers
    Lack of equipment
    Lack of standard facilities
    6
    Similarities between ancient and modern
    Olympic games
     Both are held after every 4 years i.e.
    Olympic
     In both the games are hosted by cities
     Both propagate the spirit of brotherhood
     In both Olympic flames is put up during
    the opening ceremony
     Both emphasize on peace/truce
    Difference between ancient and modern
    Olympic games
     In ancient the games were held at night
    while modern the games are held during
    daytime.
     In ancient only men participated while in
    modern both sexes participate.
     In ancient winners were awarded olive
    wreath while in modern winners are
    awarded medals
     In ancient the games were specifically for
    the Greeks while in modern the games are
    open for all races
     The ancient Olympic games were
    dominated by amateurism while in modern
    both professionalism and amateurism
    dominates the games.
     In ancient only two events were
    participated in i.e. athletics and gymnastics
    while in modern many games are
    participated in.
    NETBALL
    HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
    This game was invented in America in 1891.
    Originally, the method of playing was similar to
    that of basketball. Two baskets were placed at the
    end of the gymnasium and two opposing teams
    passed the ball to score in the baskets. In 1895
    Dr. Tole an American introduced it in England and
    the game spread by word of mouth because there
    were no printed rules.
    Some of the changes that have taken place in the
    development of netball include:
    a) In 1897 rings were introduced instead of baskets
    b) Rules were published for the first time in 1901.
    c) In 1924 the netball federation was formed
    d) In 1926 all England netball association was
    formed in England
    e) The game was introduced in Kenya in 1920s by
    the missionaries and was mainly played by the
    Europeans.
    f) In 1968 Kenya netball association was formed
    under the chairmanship of British lady who was a
    physical education lecture at the Kenyatta College.
    g) In 1960 the International Federation of Women
    Netball Association was formed and new rules
    were published.
    Members of the I.F.W.N.A meets after every 8
    years to review and change the rules if need arise.
    Kenya is a member through the affiliation of
    Kenya netball association.
    Team size
    A team is made up of 12 players i.e. 7 in the court
    and 5 substitutes. A game cannot be played if a
    team has less that 5 players. If a team is
    incomplete they loose the game by default and if
    the team refuses to play then they loose the game
    by forfeit.
    PLAYERS
    The seven players include:
    1. Goal keeper (G.K)
    2. Goal defence (G.D)
    3. Wing defence (W.D)
    4. Centre (C)
    5. Goal shooter (G.S)
    6. Goal attack (G.A)
    7. Wing attack (W.A)
    7
    Side line (30 ½ m)
    Goal third
    WA
    WD

    Goal area
    GK 1
    GS 4.9
    2
    GD
    GA
    Center third
    0.9m

    3
    Center circle
    Goal third
    GA
    GD
    Goal area
    5
    4 GS
    GK

    PLAYING AREAS
    GK – 1,2 GD – 1,2,3 WD – 2,3 C- 2,3,4
    WA – 3,4 GA – 3,4,5 GS – 4,5
    Substitution
    There is no limit to the number of substitutes a
    team can use provided they were all registered at
    the beginning of the play. A player comes in and
    out as many times as possible and this is referred
    to as revolving substitution.
    Game duration
    In a match:
    There are 4 quarters of 15 minutes each with
    resting interval of 3 minutes between first and
    second quarters and between third and fourth
    quarters. There is a resting interval of 15 minutes
    during half time.
    In tournament:
    There are 2 halves of 20 minutes each with a
    resting interval of 5 minutes during half time. The
    teams change sides at the end of every quarter or
    half.
    Breaking a tie:
    If a tie occurs it is broken by adding an extra
    period of 5 minutes. If still occurs similar periods
    are added till it is broken.
    BASIC EQUIPMENT
    1. Ball
    Size number 5
    Spherical
    Circumference 27-28
    Weight 400gms – 450gms
    Color – white
    2. Goal post
    3.05m tall (10ft)
    Ring diameter 380mm
    3. Players equipment
    Sports shoe and stockings
    Skirts/shorts/bloomers/wrappers
    Jersey/T-shirts
    Playing bibs.
    STARTING THE GAME
    Procedure
    Umpire tosses a coin for the 2 captains and the
    winning captain has two options i.e.
    i) Choice of the side
    ii) The 1st centre pass
    The team starting with centre pass is known as
    even team while the other is known as odd team.
    8
    CC
    Conditions during centre pass
     The centre with the ball should be within
    the centre circle.
     All other players except opponent of the
    centre should be in their respective goal
    thirds.
     After the umpires whistle, the ball must be
    released within 3 seconds.
     The centre pass must be received within
    the same third (centre third)
     The centre with the ball must obey the
    footwork rule.
     A goal cannot be scored directly from the
    centre pass.
    Occasions when centre pass are administered
     Start of the game
     After the score
     After the score
     After every quarter or half
     Start of 2nd half
     Start extra time.
    NB/ Incase of any infringement during centre
    pass, the centre pas is referred to as faulty centre
    pass.
    CONTROL OF CENTRE PASS
    i) When the whistle is blown the centre in
    possession of the ball shall play within three
    seconds and obey the footwork rule.
    ii) The centre pass should be caught or touched by
    a member of the attacking team who is
    standing/lands within the centre third.
    iii) A player who lands with one foot or both feet
    simultaneously within the centre third is judged to
    have received the ball in that third.
    iv) A player who lands with both feet
    simultaneously with one foot within the centre
    third and the other on goal third is judged to have
    received the ball in that goal third.
    v) If a member of a team taking the centre pass,
    catches the ball in the centre third without crossing
    the line, a free pass is a warded the opposing team
    to be taken at the goal third close to the point
    where the ball crosses the line.
    vi) If a member of opposing team touches or
    catches the ball on the centre third or goal third,
    with a stride along a transverse line, then the
    advantage rule is applied.
    vii) If a ball from centre pass goes untouched over
    the sideline boundary or the centre third, a throw
    in is awarded to the opposing team where the ball
    crosses the line.
    PLAYING THE BALL
    A player may:
    i) Catch in one or both hands
    ii) Gain or regain possession of the ball if it
    re-bounces on the goal post.
    iii) Bounce the ball to another player
    iv) Tip the ball in uncontrollable manner once or
    more than once, hit the ball to another player or
    catch the ball.
    v) Bat the ball once, catch or direct to another
    player
    vi) Fall while holding the ball but must regain
    footing and throw the ball within three seconds.
    A player may not.
    i) Kick the ball deliberately
    ii) Strike the ball with the wrist
    iii) Deliberately fall on the ball to get it
    iv) Attempt to regain possession of the ball while
    lying, sitting or kneeling on the ground
    v) Use goal post as a support in recovering the ball
    going out the court
    vi) Use the goal post as a means of regaining
    balance/ any other way or purpose.
    LATE ARRIVALS
    A late comer can only replace a player who filled
    her position only after notifying the umpire.
    She takes to the court:
    a) After a goal has been scored
    b) After stoppage for injuries or illness
    c) Immediately following an interval
    The penalty for breaking the rule is a free pass to
    the opposing team where the infringer is standing
    and she leaves the court until the next goal is
    scored or next interval.
    Stoppages, injuries or illness
    When a player is injured or ill a stoppage of up to
    3 minutes is allowed from when team manager is
    called to decide whether the player is fit to
    continue with the play.
    Umpire may stop play for emergency related to:
    i) Equipment, court interference by
    outsiders, weather conditions
    ii) Players clothing.
    9
    OFFICIALS
    Team officials – Game officials
    Coach – Umpire
    Team manager – Timekeeper
    Captain – Scorer
    1. UMPIRE
     They put on costumes distinct from that of
    players
     Should have control over the game and
    make decisions
     Should officiate according to the rules
     Each umpire should control and give
    decisions only in one half of the court
    unless appealed to by other umpires for
    decision on her behalf.
     The umpire whistle starts and stops the
    game after an interval.
     After the players have taken their positions
    in the court, the umpire tosses a coin for
    the start.
     Each umpire restarts the game after all the
    goals scored in the half he or she is
    controlling.
     Keeps outside the court except when it is
    necessary to enter in to secure a clear view
    of a player or to indicate the point of which
    the penalty must be taken or to take a toss
    up.
     Move along the sideline and behind the
    goal line to see play and make decision.
     An umpire may call on an advantage to
    indicate an infringement has been observed
    and not penalized.
     Not criticize or coach any team when the
    game is in progress.
     Check that during the stoppage, injuries,
    other players remain in the court and there
    is no coaching going on.
     On seeing an infringement blow whistle,
    state the infringement and the penalty and
    indicate the place on which the penalty is
    to be taken.
    2. SCORERS
    There are two scorers and their duty include:
    a) Keep a written record of the scores
    together with the record of the centre pass
    and the record of all the successful scores
    shot.
    b) Record each goal as it’s scored unless
    notified contrary by the umpire.
    c) Call centre pass if applicable to.
    d) Notify the umpire immediately if the
    incorrect centre pass is given.
    3. TIME KEEPERS
    Their duties include:
    a) Toss off for the choice of goal side or first
    centre pass and notify the umpire of the
    result.
    b) Take note of time during an interval,
    stoppage or illness.
    c) During the above occasions notify the
    umpire and the other captain that they have
    changed the positions whether or not
    substitute is involved or not.
    Over third
    a) The ball cannot be thrown over a complete
    third without being touched or caught by a
    player who is at the time touching or
    catching the ball is fully within the third or
    lands within that third.
    b) The player, who lands first with one foot in
    the correct third, is judged to have received
    the ball I that third.
    c) The player who lands on both feet
    simultaneously with one foot within the
    correct third and the other one in incorrect
    third is penalized.
    FOOTWORK RULE
    A player may receive a ball with one foot or both
    feet grounded or jump to catch and land on one or
    both feet and then:
    a) Step with one or both feet in one direction, any
    number of times pivoting on the landing foot. The
    pivoting foot may be lifted but the player must
    throw or shoot before grounding.
    b) Jump from the landing foot or both feet on the
    other foot or either foot but must throw or shoot
    the ball before re-grounding foot.
    A player in possession of the ball may not:
    Drag or slide the landing foot
    Hop on either foot
    Jump from either both feet unless the ball has been
    released before landing.
    DEFENCE
    This is mounting around of the player who is in
    the guard position. Its duty is to capture from the
    opponent and bring it up court to start her team’s
    attack. She is also supposed to draw the defence
    onto herself and then pass the ball to her team
    mate in her position.
    10
    Player’s responsibilities in defence against an
    opponent include:
    Anticipating an opponents moves so as to
    discourage him from moving past for a shot near a
    goal area.
    Discouraging the opponent from reaching the high
    percentage scoring area.
    Making it difficult for the opponent to pass
    accurately.
    Making it difficult for the opponent to run fast and
    receive a pass or collect a reground.
    Types of defence
    1. Man to man defence – A player marks her
    opponent wherever she goes in the court.
    2. Zone defence- court player guards one section
    at all times no matter which attacker comes into
    the area.
    PENALTIES IN NETBALL
    These are awarded when infringement occurs i.e.
    offences or breaking of rules.
    1. THROW IN
    This is an act of putting the ball back into play
    when the whole ball is out the court.
    Occasions when the ball is considered out:
    When it touches the ground outside the court.
    When the player steps outside the court while
    holding the ball.
    When the ball comes in contact with a person or
    an object outside the court.
    Conditions to observe:
    Should be thrown at the exact point where it went
    out.
    Throw at the nearest third.
    Release the ball in three seconds.
    At least one foot should be close to the line but not
    stepping on it.
    Footwork rules should be obeyed i.e. the foot
    should be in contact with the ground.
    Opponents should be 0.9m away from the ball.
    A goal cannot be scored directly from the throw
    in.
    The player cannot pass the ball to herself.
    A player should not enter the court before
    releasing the ball.
    2. TOSS-UP/THROW-UP
    This is awarded incase of:
    1. Simultaneous infringements – 2 opposing
    players committing same offence.
    2. Simultaneous offside – when one player
    interferes with the ball.
    3. When two opposing players claim possession
    of the ball – holding the ball at the same time and
    struggling for it.
    4. Incase of serious injuries or illness (stoppages)
    5. When the umpire cannot tell who has
    committed the offence.
    6. Incase of external interference.
    7. Technical problems e.g. ball bursting
    Conditions to be observed
    1. Two opposing players stand at a distance of 1m
    facing each other and their own goal line.
    2. Their hands should be straight and alongside
    their body.
    3. The ball should be tossed at a height not more
    than two feet.
    4. The shoulder of the shorter player should be
    considered when tossing the ball.
    5. The players can bat or catch the ball only when
    it is coming down.
    3. FREE PASS
    Awarded incase of infringement occurring within
    the court – except with simultaneous offside
    Examples of infringement include:
    Over third
    Offside
    Internationally kicking the ball
    Repossessing the ball i.e. double catch
    Faulty centre passes.
    Scoring from outside goal area
    Rolling the ball to a team mate.
    Conditions to observe
    i. The umpire blows the whistle and indicates kind
    of infringement.
    ii. Opponent should be 0.9m away from
    iii. Play the ball after the umpire’s signal within
    three seconds.
    iv. Obey the footwork rule
    v. Any other player allowed playing in that area
    can take a free pass.
    11
    4. PENALTY PASS/PENALTY SHOT
    This is awarded incase of:
    1. Obstruction – A player defending the ball at a
    distance of less that 0.9m.
    2. Contacts – Body contacts: charging, stripping,
    pushing, holding and blocking e.t.c
    – Ball contacts – a player contacting the opponent
    with the ball
    3. Intimidation – This is when the player uses
    threatening gestures against the opponent.
    4. Interfering with the goal post – G.K shaking the
    goal post when G.S is set to shoot.
    SKILLS
    A. THROWING
    1. Chest Pass
    Teaching points
     Both hand at a chest height level
    supporting the ball. Thumbs pointing each
    other and the rest of the fingers spread
    behind the ball, elbows points outwards.
     Pass the ball as you push by the use of both
    hands.
     Follow though by a step forward and by
    lifting the body weight in the direction of
    the throw.
    2. Overhead pass
    Teaching points
    Ball is held in two hands either
    i. Directly above the head
    ii. Slightly forward of the head
    iii. At rear of the head
    Ball propelled with a forceful flexing and weight
    placed over the front foot.
    Teaching points
    Used in a congested space to at full defence.
    May be passed with one or two hands, grip same
    as chest pass.
    Ball directed towards the floor either:
    i. Just behind the feet of the tight defence
    ii. Approximately two thirds of the way between
    the sender and receiver.
    TYPES OF PASSES
    1. One handed straight shoulder pass
    Teaching points
     Hands spread evenly behind the ball
     Body turned sideways
     Weigh the body on the back foot.
     Palm cupped and the thumb spread to
    support the ball.
     Throwing arm is thrust from the shoulder
    with follow through of body weight.
     Both hip and shoulder should rotate to the
    side and forward during the throwing.
     A flick of the wrist will give speed to flight
    of the ball.
    2. One handed high shoulder pass
    Teaching points
     Same as straight shoulder pass but:
     Weight should be behind, fingers spread
    out behind the ball.
     Throwing arm thrust forward from the
    elbow and shoulder.
     Direct the ball in upward direction over the
    head of an opponent
     Follow through.
    3. Chest pass
    Teaching points
     Ball held in hands closer to chest
     Weight behind the foot. (See chest and
    bounce pass)
    4. Overhead bounce pass
     Same as overhead and bounce pass except
    the bounce come from a different angle.
    5. Underarm (sling) pass
     Like shovelling
     Flight the ball in wrist height high or lower
    and direct.
     Used for short passes
     Ball travels fast
     Follow through.
    12
    B. CATCHING
    1. Two handed catch
    Teaching points
    Hands firm and stretched towards the ball.
    Fingers opened and relaxed
    Arms recoiled to pull the hands
    The whole arm and body side give the direction of
    the flight of the ball so that catch is ‘soft’ and
    almost noiseless. If hands and arms are rigid,
    fingers can be damaged.
    GYMNASTICS
    This is a systematized forms of exercise designed
    to produce particular effect to the body.
    Skilful performance of the basic human movement
    e.g walking, rolling, vaulting, springing e.t.c
    Qualities of a good gymnast
    Should be physically fit
    Disciplined
    Committed/dedicated
    Interested
    Knowledgeable/conversant
    Willing to learn
    Sympathetic
    Possessing sportsmanship attributes
    Aims of gymnastics
     To exploit human potential talents
     To develop physical fitness for individual
     To make proper use of leisure time
     To make proper use of locally available
    materials
     Help to correct body defects e.g. lard Isis,
    scoliosis e.t.c.
     To promote emotional development
     To promote sportsmanship spirits e.g.
    co-operation, discipline, sharing.
     Improves body system e.g. circulatory,
    respiratory, digestive e.t.c
     Helps form career opportunity
     It lays foundation for other sporting
    activities.
    Problems encountered while teaching gymnastics
    Lack of equipment/facilities
    Negative attitudes by pupils, parents, fellow
    teachers, society e.t.c
     Lack of sufficient time for practice
     Lack of role models in the society.
    BRANCHES OF GYMNASTICS
    There are three branches of gymnastics. These
    include:
    1. Traditional/informal
    2. Modern/formal
    3. Olympic/Acrobatic
    1. TRADITIONAL / INFORMAL
    This branch deals with the skills as performed by
    the gymnast. It is categorized into two:
    a) Balance
    b) Agilities
    a) Balance
    This is the ability to hold the body still or
    stationery without any movement. It is the state of
    body equilibrium.
    i) Static/non – locomotor
    No movement once the body is balanced
    Examples include:
     Head stand
     Hand stand
     Crouch balance
     V balance
     Crab stand
     Elbow plant
     Swan/plane balance
    ii) Dynamic/locomotor
    In this case once you the balance you can make
    some movement.
    Examples include:
    Crab walk
    Tiger/fore arm balance
    Hand walking
    Counter balance
    This is a kind of a balance where an individual
    require a partner or group of partners to support.
    Examples include:
     Should balance
     Knee balance
     Pyramid
    13
    Pyramid
    This is a grouped balance having a triangular or
    colonial shape.
    Conditions for a good pyramid
     Should have a strong, broad base and a
    sharp apex.
     Should be composed of 16 participants
    with varied body sizes, heaviest at the
    bottom and lightest at the apex.
     The service of the spotter is highly
    required when building and breaking the
    pyramid
     Hips and shoulders give the strongest
    support when building the pyramid.
     The taller the pyramid the higher the marks
    scored.
    Pyramids form the climax of the gymnastic
    competition.
    Gymnastic movements that can be used to
    disembark the pyramid are:
     Backward or forward roll
     Headspring or neck spring
     Cat wheel
     Summersaults
    b) Agilities
    These are fast moving gymnastic activities or
    skills that are done with a lot of ease.
    Categories of agilities
    1. Rolls
     Forward roll
     Dive forward roll
     Tank roll
     Backward roll
     Judo roll
     Side roll
    2. Vaults
     This is a movement of going over or
    jumping over an obstacle or an object.
     Through vault
     Fence vault
     Astride vault/leap frog
     Side vault
     Overswing vault
     Gate vault
     Thief vault/ window
    Progressive stages of performing vaults
     Approach ——- short run
     Take off —– breaking contact with the
    ground
     Flight —– being in air
     Landing —- making contact with the
    ground
    3. Springs
    These are movements of turning the body part
    from one point to another either in the air or over
    an obstacle.
     Headspring
     Neck spring
     Cat spring
     Hand spring
     Arab spring
    4. Tumblings
     Cartwheel
     Forward somersault/ flick flack
     Backward somersault/ flack flick
     Arab spring
     Round off
     Up start
    2. MODERN / FORMAL GYMNASTICS
    This branch deals with the themes of educational
    gymnastics and factors of movements
    A. Themes of educational gymnastics
    i) Weight transfer
    This is shifting or transferring of the body weight
    from one body part to another.
    Examples
    Walking – from one leg to the other
    Cat wheels – Leg to hand and to other leg
    Hoping – from leg to the same.
    ii) Resilience
    This is the amount of spring, bounce or elasticity
    of the body when landing or taking off.
    Importance
    To avoid body shock thus preventing body
    injuries.
    To create beauty in the movements
    Good landing
    Landing with balls of the foot
    Land with feet apart
    Land on a stable and even ground
    Hands stretched out for balance
    Knees slightly bend
    14
    iii) Space awareness
    Personal space – space occupied by the body
    cylinder.
    General space – Unoccupied space where the body
    can move.
    iv) Balance and counter balance. (Refer to types
    of balance – page 13)
    v) Twisting and turning:
    Turning
    This is when the whole body including the feet
    moves round as one.
    Twisting
    This is when at least one part of the body is fixed
    on the ground while the remaining parts rotate/
    move around.
    B. FACTORS OF MOVEMENTS
    1. Weight
    The body weight determines the quality of the
    movement. Can be described as heavy, medium
    and light. The heavier the body the clumsy the
    movement.
    2. Space
    (Ref. to themes of education – page 13)
    3. Time/flow
    Time is used to measure the speed of movement.
    Movement can be described as either very fast,
    moderate and very slow. Flow of movement can
    be described as:
    Free flow: Movements that cannot be stopped or
    held at one point once they start.
    Bound flow: Movements that can be held at one
    point once they are start.
    Other terms of movements
    1) Level:
    Can be described as high, medium or low
    2) Direction
    Can be described as forward, upward, sideways,
    Backwards and downwards.
    3) Progression
    This is how work is build up
    4) Movement sequence
    This is comparatively complete movement
    Made up by combining small short movements
    In a sequence manner, e.g.
     Head springs
     Through vaults
     Astride vaults
    5) Curling
    Body parts being taken or brought to the centre of
    the body.
    6) Stretching
    When the body parts are taken away from the
    body centre i.e. legs and hands
    7) Symmetrical movement
    This is when the corresponding parts of the body
    i.e. hand and legs are used to do the same thing at
    the same time.
    8) Asymmetrical movement
    Corresponding parts of the body are not used to do
    the same thing at the same time.
    SAFETY PRECAUTION WHEN TEACHING
    GYMNASTICS
     Ensure adequate and appropriate warm up
    before starting the activity.
     Demonstration should be very clear.
     Instructions/explanations should be very
    clear.
     Maintain discipline of the highest order.
     Provide adequate space.
     Ensure pupils have appropriate uniform
     Avoid using faulty apparatus
     Proper timing of the activities i.e. avoid
    activities when it is extremely too hot or
    slippery
     Avoid using faulty facilities e.g. grounds
    with stones
     Avoid involving sing pupils
     Activities should be related to pupils’ age
    APPARATUS USED IN GYMNASTICS
     The horse
     Bars
     Ropes
     Tables
     Vaulting boxes
     Spring board/take off board
     Chairs and stools
     Old tyres
     The hoops
    Adjusting gymnastics competitions
    Points to look at:
    Entry in the arena. The entry should be in
    gymnastic movement or skills.
    Teacher and the leaders’ appearance. They should
    have uniforms, which looks a bit confident,
    knowledgeable e.t.c
    Table interpretation.
    Continuity and progression i.e. does one part
    follow another (sequence) in mount
    15
    Teacher’s creativity
    Improvisation and use of apparatus.
    Skill mastery
    Timing – for the timing you are given 10 min to
    complete.
    Exit from arena.
    ATHLETICS
    16
    STRUCTURE OF ATHLETICS

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    TRACK EVENTS FIELF EVENTS ROAD RACES COMBINE EVENTS OFFICIALS
    SPRINTS
    MIDDLE
    DISTANCE
    LONG
    DISTANCE
    Walk
    races
    JUMPS
    High
    Jump
    Pole
    vault
    Throws
    Discuss
    Shot put
    Tripple
    jump
    Javelin
    Harmmer
    Marathaon
    Cross
    Country
    Pentathlon
    Heptathlon
    Decathlon
    Marksman
    Announcers
    Lap scorers
    Walk judges
    Chairman
    Org. Secretary
    Referee
    Guest steward
    Technical manager
    Chief timekeeper
    Chief track judge
    Chief field judge
    Chief recorder
    Umpires
    Marshals
    Statler
    Blackboard officials
    ATHLETICS TRACK
    Home straight Lane 1.22m( width)
    Common finishing line
    HISTORY OF ATHLETICS
    Started in Greece as a funeral site or religious
    ceremony and later became part of life the Greeks.
    During these festivals the sacrifices to heroes and
    lesser gods were followed by feasting, dancing
    songs and exhibitions of agilities of strength and
    skills in the form of competition.
    The important festival was held in Olympia in 776
    B.C. which was known as Olympic games.
    ATHELETICS TRACK
    The length of the track is 84.39m and the width is
    73m. Have two parallel lines and two curved
    bends. The shape of the track is elliptical.
    PARTS OF THE TRACK
    1. Kerb line
    The innermost line if the athletics track.
    2. Kerb distance
    This is the distance measured following the Kerb
    line.
    3. Track distance
    This is the distance across the lane. The first lane
    is measured 30cm from the kerb line and the rest
    are measured 20cm from every line.
    4. Home straight
    This is the final stretch towards the finishing line.
    5. Lane
    This space in between consecutive lines and the
    distance is 1.22m.
    6. Change over box
    This is a 20m zone along the lane with which the
    batons should be changed.
    7. Acceleration zone
    A 10m zone just before the nearer boundary of the
    change over box where the competitor receiving
    the baton can move to gather momentum before
    receiving the baton.
    Formula for kerb distance
    Kerb distance = 2L + ПD
    17
    Kerbline
    84.39 m
    73m

    Factors to consider when selecting site for
    athletics track.
    Level/flatness of the ground
    Adequate space where the track can fit all the
    lanes.
    Free from obstacles e.g. stumps
    Avoid waterlogged areas (swampy areas)
    Direction of both sun and wind.
    The area should be accessible.
    Standard track has 8 lanes measured from inside.
    TRACK EVENTS
    These are running events done on the athletic
    track. They include:
    1. Sprints races
    2. Middle distance races
    3. Long distance races
    4. Walk races.
    SPRINTS
    These are short races normally referred to as
    explosive events. They take short time to
    complete. Also referred to as anaerobic in nature
    because they require little oxygen for producing
    energy.
    The events include:
    100m
     110m hurdles
     200m
     400m
     4 x 100m
     4 x 400m
    Characteristics of sprint events
     They take very short time to perform.
     They involve strength, power and speed.
     They are anaerobic in nature. Less
    oxygen and energy
     They result to oxygen debt. Twice as more
    oxygen than supply.
    TYPES OF STRAT IN TRACK EVENTS
    1. Crouch start
    The body assumes crouch position or shape. Used
    in starting all the sprint events.
    There are three types of crouch start.
    (a) Elongated
    The knee of the rear foot is opposite the ankle of
    the leading foot.
    (b) Medium/bullet start
    The knee of the rear foot is opposite the toe of the
    leading foot.
    (c) Bunch start
    The toe of the leading foot and the toe of the rear
    are 12 inches apart. The competitor looks as if he
    is seated down.
    2) Straight start
    This is whereby the competitors are on a straight
    line e.g. 100m, 110m hurdles, for men and
    women.
    3) Curve start
    This is whereby the competitor assumes a curve
    formation when starting the competition e.g. all
    long distance races.
    4) Staggered start
    This is where each competitor starts from a stagger
    on his/her lane. It is used in all events where the
    competitor is required to keep his/her lane
    throughout the race. Also where the competitors
    are going round the curve.
    5) Standing start
    Competitors start the race on standing position.
    This is used in long distance events and road races.
    PROCEDURE FOR THE CROUCH START
    1) The starters command
    The starter gives the command “on your marks”.
    The competitors take their positions on their lanes.
    The rear foot kneels down depending on the
    crouch start. The hands are stretched alongside
    the body. Eyes focused forward so that they are
    not caught unaware.
    2) Second command “set”
    The rear foot is straightened and the weight is
    transferred to the leading foot. Eyes focused
    forward.
    3) Third command “go”
    The starter starts the race when the competitors are
    motionless.
    Rules governing the start of the track events
    Assuming full or final set position on the
    command “on your marks/set.”
    Not disturbing a fellow competitor by sound or
    any other means after the command “on your
    marks”
    A competitor should not leave his mark with hands
    or foot after the command “on your marks”.
    For all short races up to and including 400m,
    starting blocks should be used.
    NB/ If a competitor commits two consecutive
    faults, he is warned for the first one and
    disqualified for the second one.
    18
    RELAY RACES
    1) Shuttle relay
    This is where a competitor runs from one straight
    to another and back before he passes the baton to
    another.
    A
    2) Medley relay
    This involves different competitors in a team
    covering different distances. It’s mainly for
    enjoyment and for both genders e.g. 100m >>>>
    200m>>>>400m e.t.c
    3) Circuit relay
    This is where the competitors run round track and
    each member of the team covers the same
    distance. We have two types of circuit relay:
    (1) 4 x 100m
    (2) 4 x 400m
    Rules governing relay races
    1. The baton shall be carried by the hand
    throughout the race.
    2. The baton shall be passed literally to next.
    Should not be hurled or thrown.
    3. The passing of the baton shall take place
    within the change over box.
    4. A competitor after passing the baton shall
    not escort the fellow competitor but waits
    for the area to clear and then leave the
    track.
    5. In 4 x 100m and 4 x 400m, first round the
    competitor shall maintain his/her lane
    throughout.
    6. Each team shall have 4 competitors and
    shall wear identical uniforms.
    7. For a team to win, the last competitor must
    have a baton with him/her.
    8. The competitor receiving the baton is
    allowed to move within the change over
    box but beyond the acceleration zone. i.e
    10m.
    Anchor leg
    This is the member in the relay team who covers
    the last stretch or the final round in the relay.
     Characteristics of anchor leg
     Must be very fast runner
     Good at receiving the baton.
     Good at finishing.
    MIDDLE AND LONG DISTANCE EVENTS
    They include:
     800m
     1500m
     3000m steeple chase
     5000m
     10000m
     Walk races
    Characteristics of middle and long distance
    events.
    They take longer time to perform.
    They involve both cardio-vascular and muscular
    endurance.
    They are aerobic in nature.
    Sometimes may result to fatigue ( accumulation of
    lactic acid along the muscles).
    General rules governing the track events
    A competitor shall maintain his/her lane when the
    track evens demands so e.g. 200m, 400m e.t.c
    A competitor shall not obstruct his or her opponent
    e.g. pushing, blocking the way e.t.c.
    A competitor shall not run inside the track or
    move out of the track and come back again to
    resume the race.
    A competitor shall overtake to the right of the
    opponent unless there is enough space to the left.
    Each competitor shall wear a number and color
    allocated to his/her team. At the end, points shall
    be awarded as follows:
    Position Points
    1 7
    2 5
    3 4
    4 3
    5 2
    6 1
    7 0
    All competitors shall be registered by the recorder.
    Running shall be done anticlockwise. This is
    because it is easier to negotiate curves on the left
    as opposed to right.
    Timing of the events.
    This is taken from the smoke on the flash of the
    pistol or any approved starting apparatus to the
    moment any point of the torso comes over the
    flashing line.
    19
    Every competitor shall be timed by three time
    takers and in the event of the times disagreeing the
    middle time taken.
    HURDLING EVENTS
    These are events where the competitor runs over
    an obstacle placed along the course e.g.
    100m/110m hurdles.
    Rules governing hurdling events
    A competitor shall only clear those hurdles that are
    on his lane.
    A competitor shall not trail his leg around the
    hurdles.
    A competitor shall not deliberately knock down
    the hurdles.
    When sub standard hurdles are being used, a
    competitor shall only be allowed to knock down a
    maximum of three hurdles. When standard
    hurdles are being used then there is no limit to be
    knocked down.
    Do not avoid any hurdle.
    Specification for a hurdle
    Overall width 120 cm
    Length of the base 70 cm
    Depth of the top bar 70 mm
    Thickness of the top bar 10-25mm
    Minimum total weight 10 kg
    Distance specifications SEX
    RACE Height
    Of
    Hurdles
    From
    Start
    to
    1
    st
    hurdle
    Distance
    Between
    Hurdles
    From
    Last
    hurdle
    To
    finish
    MEN
    110m 1.67m 13.72 9.14 14.02m
    400m 0.914m 45m 35m 40m
    WOMEN
    100m 0.84m 13m 8.5m 10.5m
    400m 0.762m 45m 35m 40m
    Steeplechase
    Ways of clearing steeplechase hurdles include:
    Step over – Jump over
    Vault over – Climb over
    Run over
    Types of hurdles to be cleared are:
    i. Dry hurdle
    ii. Wet hurdle
    Getting number of hurdles cleared
    Dry hurdles = No. of lapse x 4
    Wet hurdles = No. of lapse
    FIELD EVENTS
    JUMPS
    1. Horizontal jumps
    In a situation where there are more than 8
    competitors, each competitor shall be given three
    chances after which the best 8 shall proceed to the
    next round. This first round is call preliminaries.
    The competitor with the best jump shall be
    declared the winner. In championship meetings a
    qualifying competition of three trials is held
    preceding competition.
    Rules governing horizontal jumps
    A competitor shall take off from a single foot.
    A competitor shall not apply any form of
    summersault.
    After landing a competitor shall not leave the
    landing pit from the runaway.
    The jump shall not count if the competitor takes
    from beyond the take off point.
    After commencing the jump, a competitor shall
    have no contact between his body and the ground
    outside the runway.
    A competitor shall not place any checkmarks on
    the runway.
    Do not touch the ground outside the area nearest
    the take off.
    A competitor shall not use hand weights or grips
    of any sort.
    How to take measurement
    The tape measure shall be perpendicular to the
    take off point.
    The zero (0) mark of the tape measure shall be at
    the nearest point of contact with the landing area.
    The reading shall be taken from the inner edge of
    the take off board.
    20
    Breaking a tie
    Incase of two competitors tying, the competitor
    with the second best jump shall be declared the
    winner. If the tie remains then the competitor with
    the third best jump shall be declared the winner. If
    the tie remains then each of them is given three
    more chances.
    5.5m
    40.45M
    13m RUNWAY
    1.22m
    Take off board
    (1.22m x 20cm)
    Specification for triple jump
    5.5m
    40.45M
    1m RUNWAY
    1.22m
    10m
    Take off board
    (1.22m x 20cm)
    Specifications for long jump
    Progressive stages
    i. Approach
    This is a short run before take off to gain
    momentum
    Errors during approach
    Contact with the ground outside the runway
    Taking off before gathering full momentum
    Inconsistent pace of strides.
    Take off
    This should be single foot take off.
    Errors during take off
    Stepping beyond the take off board
    Taking off far much behind the take board.
    Stepping on the take off board using the wrong
    foot
    Not balancing the vertical or horizontal motion
    during take off.
    Take off foot is the foot that remains longer in
    contact with the ground. The other foot is known
    as the power foot.
    ii. Flight
    This is when the body is in air.
    Errors during flight
    Somersaulting
    Assuming an upright shape while in air
    iii. Landing
    This is making contact with the ground from air.
    Errors during landing
    Contact with the ground outside the pit.
    Touching behind the area of contact during
    landing.
    Styles of jumping
    1. Hitch kick
    During the flight he makes a scissor like
    movement.
    2. Float/sail
    During the jump the legs and the hands are
    stretched a head of the body.
    3. Hung
    The legs are folded backwards as arms cycle in air.
    The triple jump has three distinct phases i.e. the
    hop, step and jump.
    A competitor is allowed to land between the take
    off board and the landing area without penalty
    provided that he:
    i. Lands first on his take off foot.
    ii. Lands secondly on the opposite foot.
    iii. Does not permit the sleeping leg to touch the
    ground during any phase the jump before the final
    landing.
    All other aspects same as long jump.
    Equipment
    1. Tape measure
    2. Pegs
    3. Scorecards
    4. Flags – Red for no jump
    – White for jump accepted
    5. Rake/Jembe
    2. VERTICAL JUMPS
    Rules governing vertical jumps
    1) Failure is recorded if the athlete
    Dislodges the bar, directly or indirectly
    Touches the ground including the landing area
    Beyond the plane of the uprights without first
    Clearing the bar.
    21

    Landing
    Pit
    2) A competitor shall not be permitted to use the
    runway or take off area for practice purposes once
    competition begins.
    3) The bar shall never be raised by less than 2cm
    unless there is a tie or one competitor only
    remaining.
    4) A competitor may commence jumping at any
    given height above the minimum height.
    5) 3 consecutive failures disqualify a competitor
    regardless of the height at which they occur.
    6) A competitor is permitted to place checkmarks
    on the runway, takeoff and use handkerchief at the
    poles for sighting.
    7) A competitor shall take off from both of his foot
    and shall not apply any form of somersaulting.
    8) The competitor shall complete the event in one
    and half minutes.
    Breaking a tie in vertical jumps
    Consider the competitor with the least jump at the
    height where they tie.
    Consider the competitor with the least total
    failures.
    If the tie remains consider the competitor with the
    least total jumps.
    If the tie still remains then a jump off is awarded
    i.e. the bar is lowered or raised by less than 2cm
    and the tying competitors given chance to jump.
    Taking measurement
    The distance between the ground and the upper
    most part of the cross bar at its lowest point is
    measured with a steel tape.
    a) High Jump
    The competitor lower there centre of gravity their
    bodies over the cross bar in order to reach
    optimum height.
    Styles of high jump
    i) Orthodox/scissors
    Weight above the bar
    ii) Western roll
    Take off foot is the landing foot
    iii) Straddle
    Landing is on the back or the shoulder and
    upper back.
    iv) Fosbury/flop
    Landing is on the back or the shoulder and
    upper back.
    v) Eastern cut off
    vi) Straight jump/direct jump
    Equipment
    Tow upright post
    Crossbar
    Pegs
    Steel tape measure
    Progressive stages/techniques
    Approach from 350
    – 400
    or from a curve.
    Take off – trunk upright at the bar level
    Good flight
    Proper landing.
    Physical components of a good high jumper.
     Good height
     Good speed
     Strength
     Flexibility/agility
    Specifications for high jump
    i. Landing area
     Measure 5m x 4m
     Filled with sand.
    ii. Take off area
     Should be levelled, well watered and
    free from Pitting.
    iii. Runway
     Should permit an approach run of 18m
    at any angle on the take off side of
    the pit.
    iv. Uprights
     Must be rigid and placed at least 4m
    apart.
     Supporting pegs 4cm wide and 6cm
    extension in the direction of the
    opposite upright.
    v. Crossbar
    May be triangular or circular in section.
    Diameter 30mm and should be slightly longer
    than 4m.
    b) Pole vault
    The competitor can forego a trial at certain
    Right.
    They are allowed to move uprights, forward
    Or backward in preparation for the jump.
    The competitor is not allowed to place the
    Lower hand above the upper hand after the
    Take off.
    A pole may be touched by someone else other
    Than the competitor when:
    i) It is released and happens to fall away
    from the bar.
    ii) It lands outside the landing zone.
    It is not a failure for a pole to fall underneath.
    22
    Why aluminium poles are preferred to fibreglass
    poles.
     Aluminium poles do not bend
     Aluminium poles are made of metals
     Aluminium poles are safer in terms of
    accidents
    Physical components of a good pole-vaulter.
     Co-ordination
     Courage
     Speed
     Flexibility
    Specification for pole vault
    i. Landing area
    Should be 5m2
    filled with sand
    ii. Take off
    This is from specially constructed box
    measuring 100cm x 60 cm (take of box). It is
    sunken in the runway so that the upper edge is in
    level with the surface of the runway.
    iii. Runway
    Should be between 40m and 45m long.
    iv. Uprights
    Be placed at least 4m apart.
    v. Cross bar
    Should be between 4.5m and 5.0m.
    Differences between vertical and horizontal
    jump.
    Horizontal jumps Vertical jumps
    Athletes compete for
    distance
    Athletes compete for
    height
    No obstacle to be
    jumped over
    There is an obstacle to
    be jumped over
    Preliminaries are held
    then the best 8 proceed
    to the next round
    Once a competitor
    commences the jump he
    will continue up to the
    point where he fails
    THROWS
    1. DISCUSS (Refer to figure 1 page 23)
    Weight
    For men —— 2kg
    For women —– 1kg
    Throwing styles
    i. Standing style
    ii. 1 ½ turns
    Teaching points
    Place discuss on the palm with the finger well
    spread.
    Grip the rim of the discuss with the fingertips
    Support the discuss with the thumb.
    Do the preliminary swings.
    Release.
    Rules for discuss
    A competitor must complete the throw in 1 ½
    minutes time.
    The competitor should not leave the circle before
    the implement lands.
    Exit should be from the rear part of the circle
    The discuss must land within the sector
    The discuss must be thrown while within the
    circle.
    Competitor should not touch or step to the ground
    outside the circle (should not step on the arc).
    Materials for discuss
    Tape measure – Pegs
    Discuss – Stop watch
    Score sheet – Flags (red and white)
    Measurement:
    The zero (0) mark is placed on the point of landing
    then stretched up to the center of the circle. The
    reading is taken at the outer edge of the scratch
    line.
    Breaking a tie.
    Consider the second best throw.
    If still remains consider the third best throw.
    If the tie remains, competitors are given another
    trial.
    Factors contributing to good throw.
     The speed of the release
     The angle of the release
     The strength of the release
     Method of grip. Poor grip results into
    wobbling.
    2. SHOT PUT(Figure 2 page 23)
    Weight
    Men ———–4 kg
    Women——– 2kg
    Throwing styles
    i. Standing styles
    ii. Obrien style (gliding/sliding).
    23
    Rules
    Same as discuss
    Similarities between shot put and discuss
    Both have sector of 400
    In both exists is from the rear circle
    Measurement taken the same way.
    Breaking the tie same procedure
    Duration for performance is the same i.e. 1 ½ mins
    Differences
    Shot heavier than discuss
    Diameter longer than in shot put
    In discuss we have 1 ½ turn method of throwing
    while in shot put we have obrien method of
    throwing.
    In short put we have stop board while in discuss
    we have metal rim.
    In discuss we throw the discuss while in shot put
    we put the shot.
    3. JAVELIN (Figure 3 page 24)
    Weight
    Men —————- 800 gms
    Women ————- 600gms
    Rules for javelin
    A competitor is not permitted to step on the curved
    scratch line during, or after the throw.
    A competitor must approach within the runway.
    He must remain within the confines of the run way
    and behind the scratch line until the implement has
    landed.
    Javelin should not land on the tail first.
    Javelin must land within the sector (landing
    sector)
    The competitor must complete the throwing within
    1 ½ minutes.
    The competitor must retire from behind the scratch
    line. Front Circle
    Scratch arc
    Metal rim
    Rear
    Circle Landing
    sector
    Extension
    0.75m
    Figure 1: Specification for discuss

    Javelin must not be hurled or slung
    Javelin must be held at the grip with one hand
    Progressive stages
    1. Grip
    Cord of the javelin is placed on the open palm
    Fingers wrapped around the cord.
    Thumb parallel to the javelin shaft.
    2. Carriage
    Javelin placed parallel to the ear and above the
    shoulder with the head slightly higher than the tail.
    Hand and arm should be relaxed
    3. Approach
    Approach at a run to gain momentum
    4. Release/recovery
    Safety precautions
    Should be thrown in one direction
    Throwing should be done in order
    Javelin to be thrown towards the wind
    Spectators away from the throwing area
    Should be carried from the landing area to the
    throwing circle i.e. should not be thrown.
    Should be carried in upward direction with head
    pointing upwards.
    4. HAMMER (Figure 4 page 24)
    Weight —————- 7.26 kg
    Overall length ———- 116 – 117cm
    In a competition of more than 8 competitors,
    preliminaries are organized where they select the
    best 8 to proceed to next final round.
    Incase of a tie, both preliminaries and final rounds
    are considered.
    The throwing should be done in a cage for the
    purpose of safe.
    . Front Circle
    Stop board
    Rear
    Circle Landing
    sector
    Extension
    0.75m
    Figure 2. Specification for shot put
    24

    2.5m
    400
    2.25m
    400

    8m
    Landing area
    4m Runway – 40m
    Arc – 34.950

    Extension 0.75m
    Figure 3: Specifications for javelin
    Handle
    Chain
    Head
    Figure 4: Specifications for hammer
    ROAD RACES
    Cross country
    This is a team event where the team runs on the
    countryside on different land terrain.
    Distance in cross-country is determined by age
    and sex.
    It is determined as follows:
    Senior men———- 12km
    Junior men———– 6km
    Senior women——- 8 km
    Junior women —— 4 km
     For women you register between 6 & 8 out
    of which only 4 scores for the team.
     For men you register between 7&9 out of
    which only 6 scores for the team.
     The team with the lowest or the lest points
    emerges the winner.
     To break tie consider the position of the
    last competitor of each team and one who
    is placed in a better position helps to break
    the tie.
     Trophies awarded are individual trophies
    and team’s trophy.
     The cross-country event usually ends in a
    funnel placed in the athletics track. At the
    funnel we have funnel judge.
     We have points men at various points to
    show direction flags. Red indicates right
    direction while white indicates left
    direction.
    2. Marathon
     Individual events done on the city streets.
    We have two types of marathon i.e.
    i. Full marathon ——- 42 km
    ii. Half marathon——- 21 km
     After 15km you get refreshment points.
    Water points are also placed after every
    5km.
     Sponging is allowed in marathon
     Sponging and water points helps in
    preventing dehydration.
     Differences between cross country and
    marathon
    Cross country Marathon
    A team event Individual event
    Individual and teams
    trophy awarded
    Individual and trophy
    awarded
    Distance vary with sex
    and age
    Is either full half distance
    Is done in country side Is done in city streets
    Finishing is done in a
    funnel
    Finishing is done on open
    Refreshment and water
    points not allowed
    Refreshments, sponging
    and water points are
    allowed
    A bit shorter distance i.e.
    12,8,6,4
    A bit longer distance i.e.
    42,21
    COMBINED EVENTS
    1) Pentathlon
    These are 5 events done by junior men and women
    in one day.
    Order of events
    i. Long jump
    ii. Javelin
    iii. 200m
    iv. Discuss
    v. 1500m
    2. Heptathlon
    These are 7 events done by women in two
    consecutive days
    25
    Order of events
    Day 1.
     100m hurdles
     High jump
     Shot put
     200m
    Day 2
     Long jump
     Javelin
     800m
    Decathlon
    These are 10 events done by men in two
    consecutive days
    Day 1
     100m
     Long jump
     Shot put
     High jump
     400m
    Day 2
     110m hurdles
     Discuss
     Pole vault
     Javelin
     1500m
    ORGANIZING MEETINGS AND THE
    OFFICIALS IN ATHLETICS
     How to organize a meeting
     Set the date considering the season, time of
    the year.
     Consider and arrange the venue.
     Consider the participation level i.e. junior
    or senior.
     Types of events to be considered according
    to the participants.
     Draw a list of officials needed during the
    meeting.
    Programme
     A programme must be drafted including
    the number of events, competitor’s names,
    times e.t.c
     Heats, quarters, semis and finals are to be
    included in the programme.
     Indicate times when the events shall take
    place.
    Day of meeting.
     Officials should be there before the start of
    the events.
     It should be known the times the events are
    to take place.
     The clerk of the course to address the
    officials before the start of the meeting.
     Evaluation of the meeting is done at the
    end of the meeting.
     Send letters of acknowledgement to
    officials and other helpers.
     Ensure safety of the apparatus and the
    score sheet.
     Close and balance the accounts of the
    meeting.
    DUTIES OF THE OFFICIALS
    1. Chairman (normally head of the institution)
     In charge of the meeting
     Sees the smooth running of the programme
     Checks on the officials and substitution
     Settles disputes.
    2. Guest steward (normally deputy principal)
     Welcoming guests of honor and other
    guest.
     Minds about there sitting and feeding
    arrangements.
    3. Organizing secretary
     Correspondence to other team officials
     Responsible for programmes
     Certification
     Invitation cards.
    4. Technical manager
     Clerk of the course
     Ensure that lines, landing areas, runways
    etc are marked.
     Ensure that stationery and equipment are
    available.
     Check if the weights of the implements are
    appropriate.
    5. Referee
     Settle any dispute
     Decides when judges fail to agree
     Makes final decision
     Ensures that rules are followed
     Can disqualify competitors.
    6. Chief timekeeper
     Assigns duties to other timekeepers
     Give signal to the starter when other
    timekeepers are ready.
     Control other timekeepers and checks final
    time.
    26
    Instruct other timekeepers to clear the watches
    Fills in the scores card.
    Checks the scores card before it goes to the
    records.
    Chief track judge
    Assigns other track judges into different duties.
    Control his officials
    Signals the starter when judges are ready.
    Check scores card before it goes to the records.
    Makes final decisions on placing particular
    competitors when watches have same reading or
    disagree.
    Helps to run the programme. He can change the
    position of the event/track programme.
    Consults the clerk of the course.
    Ensure that the track is properly marked.
    Ensure that there are record papers and other
    stationery.
    Ensure that all the equipment are available and are
    in good order.
    Chief field judge
    Controls other field officials
    Checks final judgement
    Checks score card before it goes to the records
    Ensures that all field areas are properly marked.
    Ensure that all equipment are ready in good
    condition.
    Issues all forms for events.
    He counter sign the forms and send them to the
    chief recorder.
    Overall authority in all field events.
    Chief recorder
    Record the results
    Awards points
    Position finalist.
    Guides his assistants
    Sports the broken records
    Consults with the black board officials.
    Umpires
    Stay at all 4 truck corners
    Check on the change over boxes of the baton
    exchange in relay races.
    Ensure athletes follow their lanes.
    Check on the hurdles according to the rules
    Communicate by use of flags once they notice any
    infringements.
    11. Starter
    Start the track events
    Signals to the chief track judge
    Completely controls the track
    Keeps programme running to the schedule
    Records false by call alone but not by name.
    Give the starting command.
    12. Marksman/starter assistant
    Assembles the athlete in their correct lanes
    Assist the starter
    Signal the starter when all are “on your marks”
    Indicate false start and who is offender.
    13. Marshals
    Assembling the athletes to the starting point
    Assist lane manager
    Give competitors notice to prepare
    14. Announcers
    Calls athletes to start the events
    Announce results
    Announce new records set
    Helps keep programme running
    Silence spectators at the start of the race
    Keep public informed of what is going on in the
    field.
    15. Lap Scorer
    Minimum of two in the race
    One shows the competitors how many laps to go.
    The other shows the competitors laps gone.
    16. Walk judges
    Ensures that the athletes follow the walk rules
    Chief walk judge disqualify the participants.
    17. Prize and certificate steward
    Ensure that certificates are awarded to the winners
    after each event.
    Makes proper arrangements for the trophies to be
    awarded at the end of the day by the guest of
    honor.
    27
    Refreshment steward assistant.
    Provides drink during the meeting
    Feed guests and officials after the meeting
    First aider
    Gives the competitors the necessary first aid.
    Blackboard official
    Continuous record of results on the blackboard for
    guests and competitors to be kept informed.
    Typist
    Types the certificates as events are done.
    JURY OF APPEAL COMPOSITION
    Referee or chairman of the meeting
    Chief track judge
    Chief field judge
    Clerk of the course or secretary
    Overall man e.g. churchman.
    The above group is formed when disputes that are
    beyond the referee arises.
    How a protest is lodged
    It has to be in writing to the secretary or
    organizing committee.
    Should be made not more than 30 minutes after
    the official announcing of the result.

    THE COURT

    Sideline (18m)

    3m
    There is non-refundable fee paid to the organizer.
    The chairman calls the members of the jury for
    final decision.
    VOLLEYBALL
    Historical background
    The game was started by William Morgan, a
    physical education specialist and director at Young
    Men Christian Association (YMCA) in 1895 in
    U.S.A. He first called this game Mintonette.
    Latter the Y.M.C.A directors suggested that the
    game should be called “Volley ball” because the
    ball was volleyed back and forth across the net.
    In the early stages of development 9 players on
    each side were playing volley ball. The YMCA
    drew the first formal rules in 1897.
    During the First World War the American troops
    introduced the game in Europe. U.S.A formed
    amateur volleyball association in 1928 while the
    Great Britain did the same in 1955. In 1946
    volleyball was introduced in Olympic games both
    for men and women.
    In 1947 the international volleyball federation was
    formed with its headquarters in Paris. In Kenya
    we have Kenya Volleyball Association (K.V.A)

    End line
    28
    5 4 2 1
    6 Attack line 3 Centerline 3 Attack line 6
    1 2 4 5
    Sideline
    Length of the court (18m)
    Substitution takes place along this line
    Team bench is located along this line.
    End line
    Width of the court (9m)
    Service takes place along this line.
    Center line
    Subdivide the court into two equal parts
    Net is fixed along this line
    The two referees stand along and opposite this
    line.
    Prevents the player from entering the opponents
    half.
    Attack line
    Subdivide one of the half of the court into two
    parts i.e. front and back row. Front is marked 3m
    from the centreline.
    Playing positions
    1. Right back player
    2. Right front player
    3. Center front player
    4. Left front player
    5. Left back player
    6. Centre back player
    Rules governing back players
    They cannot participate in the block
    They can spike provided they take off from the
    back row plane.
    Principle of rotation
    Once the team gains the service the players move
    one position in clockwise direction.
    TEAM SIZE
    A team is made up of 12 –layers, 6 main players
    and 6 substitutes.
    A team may register among the top players a
    specialized defensive player known as libero
    A team must have a captain.
    The maximum number a team can substitute is 6.
    Rules governing libero player.
    (i) He shall wear a different color from the rest.
    (ii) Shall be registered with the scorer.
    (iii) Shall only replace the back court player.
    (iv) Shall enter the court on the area between the
    attack line and the base line.
    (v) Shall not serve the ball at any given time
    (vi) Shall not block the ball or play any ball above
    the net
    (vii) Can substitute the back court player as many
    times as possible.
    (viii) Shall only be substituted by a player who he
    substituted.
    (ix) Can not complete rotation
    Qualities of a good libero player
    (i) Very good in receiving the ball
    especially the spiked balls.
    (ii) Enduring/withstanding for long
    (iii) Very fast in reaction.
    BASIC EQUIPMENT
    The ball
    Spherical in shape
    Circumference 65-67cm
    Weather/synthetic casing with bladder inside
    Weight 260-280 grams
    The Net
    Length 9.5m
    Depth 1m
    Should have a band with a cable inside to help in
    tightening the net.
    Heights – Men – 2.43m
    Women – 2.24m
    The Antennae
    Measure 1.8m
    Used to show aerial dimension of the volleyball
    court.
    The Post
    Measure 2.55m
    Fixed at 0.5m from the sideline.
    When the ball is considered dead
    (a) After the referees whistle
    (b) Faulty service
    (c) Ball lands out of the court
    (d) Ball touching an object outside the court
    (e) If a team makes more than three contacts
    with ball before it crosses the net except
    the block.
    (f) When the ball is hand faulty
    (g) If the ball touches the ground inside the
    court during the play.
    29
    START OF THE GAME
    The first time referee tosses a coin between two
    captains and the winning captain has two options
    to choose:
    I. Choice of side
    II. The first service
    The other captain takes the remaining option.
    SERVICE
    The act of putting the ball into play by the right back
    player anywhere along and outside the sideline.
    TYPES OF SERVICE
    1. Underarm (sling) service
    Teaching points
    Stand facing the net
    Legs a stride with leg opposite the serving arm in
    front.
    Trunk and the knees slightly bent with more weight
    on the rear leg.
    Ball held at about knees level and slightly above.
    The opposite arm with closed fingers swing
    backwards and forward to hit the ball as you toss.
    The opposite arm should be straight and make
    contact with the inner part of the wrist.
    Follow through as you transfer the weight from the
    rear foot to the front foot.
    Maintain the eye level coordination and aim at the
    large position or position you want to serve the ball
    to.
    Overhead/tennis service
    Teaching points
    Stand same as underarm service
    Ball held with straight-arm just above the knee of
    the front foot.
    Bring the ball up above and in front of the head. At
    the same time swing the opposite arm upwards and
    backward with the elbow facing forward.
    With the trunk arched and more weight on the rear
    foot, release the ball at maximum height of your
    arm.
    The opposite arm with fixed wrist and fingers
    spread; hit the ball with heel of the palm for the ball
    to make topspin.
    Contact should be made at the back of the ball with
    the arm making a follow through.
    The whole trunk makes a follow through.
    Windmill/Hook/Round house service.
    Teaching points
    The same as over arm except that the body makes an
    anti-clockwise rotation of 180 degrees and face
    backward making the right foot in front instead of
    the left foot.
    More weight in the front foot(right) with knees
    slightly bent, release the ball at arm height and hit it
    from the back.
    Good service
    This is when the ball is within the court.
    Faulty service.
    When the service is not acceptable or when the
    player has committed a service fault.
    Examples of faulty services
     Ball hitting the post
     B passing under the net
     Ball failing to reach opponents court.
     Ball touching a teammate before crossing the
    net
     Failure to toss the ball
     Ball hitting the antennae
     Serving the ball when standing on the end
    line or inside the court.
     Ball landing outside the court
     Exceeding three seconds with the ball after
    the referee’s whistle.
    Ace service
    This is a very hard or difficult service that the
    opponents cannot receive easily.
    How to make ace service
    1. Spinning the ball
    Hitting the ball by side so that it comes rotating
    2. Spike service
    Jumping up high and hitting the ball with a lot of
    force.
    SUBSTITUTION
    This is replacement of players. It is requested when
    the ball is dead either by coach or the captain.
    Rules governing substitution
    a) The player must have registered in the line up
    b) Done when the bail is dead
    c) Done on the line of the first referee
    d) The player to be replaced gets out first before the
    substitute goes
    e) Requested for either by the coach or captain.
    30
    i) Maximum of 6 substitutes is allowed per set.
    ii) Must be conducted within the substitution zone.
    b) Should not exceed 30 sec.
    TYPES OF SUBSTITUTION
    1. Legal substitution
    This is when the team is utilizing the 6 registered
    substitutes.
    2. Illegal substitution
    When the team has exhausted the 6 substitutes but
    continue substituting.
    It is when the team utilizes the unregistered player.
    3. Compulsory/exceptional substitution
    This is when substitutes have been exhausted yet
    another player gets injuries. The referee may
    authorize the coach to substitute another player.
    TIME OUT
    This is a brief interruption of the game or pause
    requested by coach or captain for a technical talk.
    Duration for time out is 30sec. Each team is
    entitled to 2 time outs per set. It is requested when
    the ball is dead.
    During time out the coach is not allowed to enter
    the court neither the players allowed to leave the
    court.
    TYPES OF TIME OUT
    a) Teams time out
    Requested by the coach or the captain
    b) Official time out
    When referee stops the game incase of:
    1. Technical problems e.g.
    Ball bursting
    Loosening of the net
    Breaking of the post.
    2. External interference e.g.
    Spectator invading the court
    Bad weather – heavy rainfall
    When lowering national flag
    Disagreement between officials
    c) Technical time out
    This is given when playing the deciding set and
    the first team reaches 8 points. The duration of
    this time out is 1 minute.
    THE PLAYING FORMAT
    To win a point
    A team wins a point when the opponents make a
    playing fault.
    Examples of playing fault
    Double hit by individual player unless there is a
    block.
    Four hit by a team unless there is a block.
    Positional fault (When the players are not in their
    playing position when the ball is being served)
    Rotational fault.
    A player touching the net with or without another
    opponent player
    Front court player crossing the centreline
    Ball landing inside or outside the court
    Faulty service
    Wrong substitution
    Breaking time out rules
    Back court player participating in block or spiking
    while in the frontcourt.
    Ball passing under the net.
    Consequences of playing fault.
    The serving team looses the point and chance to
    serve.
    Receiving team gains a point and chance to serve.
    The receiving team looses a point when they make
    a play fault thereby serving team continues to
    serve.
    How to win a set.
    In a volleyball 5 sets are played. To win a set the
    1
    st team to reach 25 points with a leading margin
    of a minimum of two points takes the set. Eg 25-
    23, 25-21.
    At the end of every set, teams changes sides.
    Incase of deciding (5th) set, the first team to reach
    15 points with a leading margin of a minimum of
    two points takes the set. Team changes sides
    when the first team reaches 8 points.
    How to win a march
    The team which wins more sets emerges the
    winner.
    OFFICIALS OF THE GAME
    1. First named referee
    He has the absolute authority over the game and
    other officials.
    His decision is final
    He uses whistle to signify the beginning and end
    of the game, a point, change of service e.t.c.
    Awarding points and services gained
    In charge of disqualification.
    31
    2. 2
    nd named referee
    Supervises control of substitution on the side of
    lines
    He takes note of the following:
    Net faults
    Crossing the centreline
    Illegally crossing the attack line by backcourt
    players.
    Reaching over the net (over reaching)
    Draws the attention of the first named referee of any
    unsporting behaviour.
    Notes players position at the start if the game.
    Keeps check on all time outs.
    Authorizes all substitutions.
    3. The scorer
    Positions himself opposite the first named referee.
    Take note of all scores.
    He notes all time outs, substitutions and any other
    interruptions.
    Before the sets, he takes names of all the players,
    substitutes, captain, coaches.
    Take care of the positions of players in the court and
    ensure that the rotation order of the court is kept.
    He supplies the referee with relevant information at
    all times.
    Referee assistants
    They are four and they sit at each corner of the
    court.
    They note the serving faults.
    Note the ball, which passes outside the net vertical
    markers during the service.
    Note the ball falling out of the court.
    BASIC SKILLS IN VOLLEYBALL
    1. Volley
    This is the act of setting or passing the ball over
    the net using two – handed overhead pass.
    Teaching points
    Wide base with legs comfortably apart to maintain
    the balance.
    Knees slightly bent with the body position under the
    and eyes on the ball.
    Arms almost stretched, fingers spread, palm facing
    upwards with thumbs and first fingers almost
    meeting.
    The elbow bends as you receive the ball.
    Flex your wrist and bend your knees as you receive
    the ball in order to be able to accommodate the ball
    comfortably.
    Use your fingers mainly those of the thumb and the
    two fingers.
    The body almost immediately straightens after
    receiving the ball on legs, fingers, arms and toes
    thus putting the ball into play.
    The body makes a pumping action by moving down
    and up with the wrist flicking to make the ball move
    fast.
    2. Serving
    The act of putting the ball into play from the serving
    area of the court.
    Teaching points
    (Refer to types of services)
    3. Spiking/smashing
    This is the act of jumping in the air besides the net
    and forcibly hitting the ball down into the
    opponents’ side. The hands must not touch or pass
    over the net.
    Teaching points
     Take two running steps
     Jump of from both feet
     Take ensuring both hands backwards and
    upwards to propel your body off the ground.
    Factors contributing to good spiking
    The take off should be with knee bent and trunk bent
    The contact with the ball should be made at the
    highest point of the jump with the trunk arched
    backwards.
    With fingers spread, wrist flexed, contact the ball
    with the heel of the palm first and close with fingers
    as in the case of the tennis service.
    The ball should be hit with a maximum force to
    make it move to the opponent court at a sharp angle.
    4. Block
    This is the wall of hands put by the opponents’ side
    during the smashing of the ball.
    Styles of blocks
    i) Umbrella block
    ii) Pun block
    Types of blocks
    a) One man block
    b) Two men block
    c) Three men block
    Teaching points
    Double feet take off at about two feet from the net.
    32
     Arms fully stretched upwards and toss with
    fingers.
     Knees slightly bend with fingers spread at
    ear level.
     As the ball hits your hands, flick the wrist
    downwards.
    HANDBALL
    THE COURT

     

     

    This is a game played by two teams where a team
    consists of 12 players with 7 players in the court
    any one time and 5 players remaining substitutes.
    One of the 7 players in the court is designed to be
    the goalkeeper.
    For a player or team to be allowed to participate.
    i. He must have his/her name entered in the score
    sheet.
    ii. Should be present at the start of the game incase
    of lateness of a player or official, he should notify
    the table officials and his name is entered into the
    score sheet.
    The minimum number of players to start the game
    is 5 and it can go down as the game progress.
    Substitution
    A substitute becomes a court player when the
    player he is substituting leaves and he in turn
    enters the court. A substitute can enter the court
    as many times as possible (revolving substitution)
    Rules governing substitution.
    5. Dig
    The method of retaining the ball when it comes
    below the level of the waist of the player.
    6. Set-up
    This is the situation where the ball is volleyed for
    smashing or spiking.

    1. Can be done without the notification of
    the referee provided a player is
    registered.
    2. Substitute should enter the court when
    the player he is substituting has left the
    court.
    3. A player entering/leaving the court
    should do so from within his team
    substitution area. But this does apply
    incase of injury.
    4. The game cannot be stopped for
    substitution to be done.
    Duration of the game
    For players 16 years and above, the game consists
    of 2 halves of 30 minutes each and break of 10
    minutes in between.
    30 30

    10
    Timing starts at the referee signal for the initial
    throw off and ends when the timekeeper’s signal is
    released.
    33
    Side line

     

    Goal
    Line
    (20m)

    Goal lin e
    Goal Free throw

    4m line
    goal keepers 9m
    line/free throw line
    centre line
    7 line/penalty
    mark
    6m line/goal arc line

     

    I
    I
    I
    If the referee is not satisfied he retains the players
    in the court and if there was an error the game
    continues.
    Breaking a tie
    Incase of a tie an extra time is added 2 halves of 5
    minutes each with break of 1 minute in between.
    If it still stands duration of the same is added. If it
    continues the tie is broken in accordance to the
    rules of that particular game.
    Time out
    This is a temporary stoppage of the game
    requested either by the captain or the coach
    Obligatories
    i. When a player is injured
    ii. When coach has requested teams time
    out.
    iii. A stoppage for penalty throws
    iv. When player is given suspension
    Rates governing time out
    A team is entitled to one time out each half.
    Shall be requested by either by coach or captain.
    Shall be requested by placing a green card on the
    official table.
    Pieces of equipment used in the game of handball
     Ball
     Upright posts
     Cross bar
     Net
    Score sheet
    The following information are entered in the score
    Sheet
    a) Name of players and team officials
    b) Chronological order of the scores made by
    each team.
    c) Punishment given to each player e.g.
    suspension, disqualification or exclusion.
    d) Time at the start of the game
    e) Name of the teams
    Uniforms
     A pair of sports shoes
     Socks
     Shorts
    Tshirts
    Goalkeeper always should wear uniforms different
    from other playmates and opponents.
    Tshirts shall have conspicuous numbers both back
    and front ranging from 1-20.
    Numbers 1,12,16 are reserved for the goalkeeper.
    Captain ear an armlet on the arm.
    1. Goal line
     Measures 20m
     Forms width of the court
     Where the goal posts are fixed
     Confirms the score
    2. 4m line.
     Also known as goalkeeper’s line.
    Goalkeeper shall not go beyond this line
    during penalty throw until the thrower shall
    have released the ball.
    3. 6m line
     Goal area line
     Marks the extent of the goal area
     Goalkeeper shall not move or cross the line
    with the ball under his control.
     Goalkeeper shall not collect the ball
    outside this line and comes back with it
    inside the are.
     Goalkeeper shall not collect the ball lying
    outside 6m line while he himself he is
    within the area.
     Penalty is awarded to the attacking team if
    a defender enters his goal area and by so
    doing gains an advantage over the
    opponent.
     Free throw is given to the defending team
    if an attacker enters opponent’s goal area
    with or without the ball.
     Goal shall not count if an attacker makes a
    score while in contact with the ground
    inside the 6m line.
     During free throw by the attacking team,
    the defenders position themselves along
    the 6m line.
    5. 7m line
     Penalty mark
     During the penalty throw the thrower shall
    not step on or over this line before
    releasing the ball. Incase of infringement
    by the thrower, a free throw is awarded to
    the opponents at the 7m line.
    6. 9m line
    Free throw lineA long where all the free throws
    shall be taken for infringements on the defenders
    along the free throw zone.
    34
    During the penalty throw all the players apart from
    the thrower and the goalkeeper shall be outside the
    9m line.
    7. Center line
    Divides the court into 2 equal halves
    Along where throw off is taken
    All the players of the team taking the throw off
    shall be along this line.
    Along where substitution takes place.
    8. Side line
    40m long
    Forms length of the court
    Confirms a ball out of A ball is out of bound
    when:
    Comes into contact with the ground outside the
    sideline.
    Comes into contact with an object in contact with
    the ground outside the sideline.
    Along where substitution takes place next to the
    centreline.
    Along where substitution takes place next to the
    centreline.
    Along where the officials table and the
    substitution bench are placed.
    THROWS IN HANDBALL
    1. Throw in
    Awarded when the whole ball completely passes
    over the sideline.
    Conditions to be observed
    Throw at the exact point where it went out.
    Atleast one foot should step on the sideline.
    Opponents 3m away from the ball.
    Must be released within three seconds.
    A player cannot pass the ball to himself.
    No blowing of the whistle.
    2. Penalty throw
    Awarded when:
    Goalkeeper enters his goal area with the ball or
    takes it from the court to the goal area.
    A court player internationally gives a back pass to
    his G.K in the goal area.
    A court player enters his goal area to gain
    advantage of the ball.
    When a clear chance of scoring has been spoiled.
    Dangerous play.
    Unwarranted whistle signal at the time when a
    team had a clear chance of scoring.
    Conditions to be observed.
    Must be done 3 sec. after the referee’s whistle
    Shot must be directed to the goal
    The penalty thrower must not touch on or cross the
    penalty throw line before the ball leaves his hand.
    Other players to be beyond 9m line.
    The G.K. should not move the 4m line till the ball
    is released.
    3. Free throw
    Awarded incase of minor infringements of the
    rules within the court e.g. illegal substitution,
    double dribbling e.t.c
    Conditions to be observed
    Taken at the exact point where the infringement
    occurred.
    Ball must be released with 3 sec.
    Opponents be 3m away from the ball
    4. Goalkeepers throw
    Awarded when the goalkeeper gains control of the
    ball within the goal area.
    A player throws the ball over the opponent’s own
    goal line.
    The ball is considered to be in play when it passes
    over the goal area line.
    No whistle for the throw.
    5. Throw off
    At the start of the game
    Begin of the 2nd half
    If a whole ball passes in between the upright posts
    under the cross bar joining them (score).
    6. Referee throw
    Awarded when:
    i. There is a simultaneous infraction
    ii. When the referee is not sure of the
    player who has committed the offence
    iii. Technical problem e.g. basting of the
    ball external interference e.t.c
    iv. When lowering national flag
    Conditions to be observed
    Two opposing players stand facing each other,
    hands alongside their body
    Referee tosses the ball between the two opposing
    players.
    7. Corner throws
    35
    Awarded when the whole ball completely crosses
    over the goal line having lastly been touched by
    the defender (But not in between the two upright
    posts) It is taken at the edge of the court where the
    sideline meets the goal line. Conditions similar to
    throw in.
    Passive play
    This is when a team keeps the ball in their
    possession without making any recognizable
    attempt to attack or to shoot on the goal.
    Penalty for this is free throw.
    PUNISHMENTS IN HANDBALL
    1) Warning/Caution
    Can be given verbally or through us of yellow
    card. It is given when.
    i) Time wasting
    ii) Wrong approach to an opponent
    iii) A persistent infringement.
    2. Suspension
    This is 2 minutes compulsory break given to
    player due to:
    a) repeat/persistent infringement concerning an
    approach to an opponent
    b) when a player is disqualified, he shall be
    accompanied by 2 minutes suspension.
    c) Infringement of the substitution rule.
    d) Failure to release the ball or throw the ball
    way after being penalized.
    e) Rough play – directed to an opponent using
    unnecessary force.
    3. Disqualification
    This is where a player is supposed to live the
    court or the remaining period part of the game.
    However one shall substitute after two minutes.
    Occasions
    At the third suspension.
    Endangering the life of an opponent e.g. pushing
    an opponent who is in air.
    Unsportsman – like language.
    Unregistered player entering the court/playing.
    It is indicated by read card
    Expulsion
    This is where a player is supposed to leave court
    for the rest of the game and shall not be
    substituted. An expelled player shall be required
    to leave the team bench and vicinity of the game.
    It is indicated with 2 hands crossed above the
    head.
    Occasions
    Assaulting a fellow player or an official
    Spitting to a fellow player.
    OFFICIALS IN HANDBALL
    1. Court referee
     Shall start the game by blowing the whistle
    during the throw off.
     Shall raise his hand to confirm a score
    when a goal has been made.
     He shall penalize any infringement within
    the court and incase of any disapproval
    with the other referee, his decision shall be
    final.
     During a penalty throw, he shall ensure
    that the thrower does not step on the line.
    Goal line referee
     Confirm the score by blowing two sharp
    whistles when a goal is scored.
     Shall penalize any infringement along the
    6m line.
    Combined duties of the referees
     They shall run the game according to the
    laid down rules and regulations.
     They shall inspect the facilities equipment
    and players before the start of the game.
     They sign the score sheet at the end of the
    game.
     They shall inspect the score at the end of
    each half or any other time one feels like.
     They shall make the final decision in case
    of any disapproval between the table
    officials.
     They shall penalize the players according
    to the laid down rules and regulations.
     They shall keep a record of scores and
    shall confirm the score before approving
    the score in the score sheet.
     One of them shall minister the toss-up of
    the coin at the start of the game.
    3. Time keeper
    Shall take note of the time at the start of the game.
    Shall make a signal at the expiration of the game.
    He shall alert the court referee two minutes to the
    end of a half of the game.
    Shall time the two minutes suspension.
    Shall stop the game clock as instructed by the
    referee during time out:
    Shall take note of any time wasted e.g. in case of
    injuries or any other interruption and shall add that
    time at the end of the particular half.
    36
    BASIC SKILLS
    1. Passes
    Similar to those used in net ball apart from over
    arm pass which is only used in hand ball.
    2. Shots
    These includes dive shot, jump shot, set shot,
    sling/under arm shot, standing shot, hook shot.
    3. Dribbling
    Constant bouncing of the ball on the ground by
    use of one hand.
    4. Dodging/faking/feinting.
    This is provoking the opponent to go in the wrong
    direction.
    5. Blocking
    Restricting movement of the opponent by using
    various body parts e.g. chest (frontal blocking)
    back (rear blocking) side (linear blocking)
    6. Catching
    Single and double hand catching
    Qualities of a good keeper
     Courageous
     Flexible
     Good reaction time
     Very fast/swift
     Reasonably tall
     Disciplined
     Conversant with the rules and regulations
    of the games
     Dedicated/committed.
     Strong
     Good grip of the ball.
     Good co-ordination.
    SYSTEMS OF PLAY
    Defence system
    1. Man to man
    A player is given a specific opponent to mark or
    guard.
    2. Zonal guard
    Each player is given a specific area or region in
    the court to guard.
    3. Combined cover
    This is the combination of both man to man and
    zonal defence.
    Attacking tactics
    1. Simple first break
    Only one player sprints forward to make a score
    2. Complex first break.

    More than one rushes forward to make attack.
    3. Figure 8
    This is an attack made by three players with the
    ball at any given time. A player follows his or her
    pass.
    4. Posting
    The use of a very tall player against short player.
    He is given high pass that the other players cannot
    touch then he scores
    5. Screening
    6. Overloading/piston movement.
    Playing systems
    i. 6:0 ii. 5:1 iii. 4:2 iv. 3:3 v. 3:2:1 vi. 2:3:1
    METHODOLOGY
    This is the scientific study of various teaching
    approaches/methods done systematically.
    Factors to consider while choosing teaching
    method.
     Age of the learners
     Previous experience
     Equipment available
     Facilities available
     Nature of the skill or activity
     Time available
     Safety precautions
     Mental ability
     Physical ability
     Sporting season
     Weather
     Size of the class
     Class discipline.
    METHODS OF TEACHING
    1. Direct/formal method
    Teacher dominates the class/teaching and
    determines the activities to be done and the
    apparatus to be used.
    Merits
    A lot of work is covered
    It saves time
    Discipline is maintained in the class
    Teaching/learning is systematic
    Avoids a lot of repetition
    Class coaching is possible
    Appropriate when dealing with young pupils who
    have no previous experience.

    37
    Appropriate when dealing with large class but
    apparatus are limited.
    Apparatus not familiar with the pupils are not
    neglected.
    Injuries are minimized.
    Demerits
     Activities/apparatus not familiar with the
    teacher are neglected.
     Pupils do not progress at there own pace.
     Do not cater for individual difference e.g
    physical and mental abilities.
     Pupils are passive and bored throughout.
     Pupils’ creativity/discovery are hindered
    because they are not given the freedom.
     Does not promote self-confidence in
    pupils.
     Does not express self-expression and
    satisfaction.
    2. Indirect/informal method
    Pupils are given the freedom to select the
    apparatus/activities of their choice. Role of the
    teacher is supervise and provide apparatus.
    Merits
     Enhances pupils’ maximum participation.
     Pupils progress at their own pace.
     Promote self confidence in pupils.
     Promote self-expression and satisfaction
     Caters for individual differences
     Promotes pupils discovery/creativity.
    Demerits
     Class coaching not possible because pupils
    are doing different activities
     Require more space/facilities
     Apparatus not familiar with pupils are
    neglected.
     Take a lot of time
     A lot of apparatus/equipment is required.
     There is a lot of repetition.
     Class control discipline is not possible.
     Very little is covered.
     More injuries.
    3. Limitation of on line method
    Borrows advantages of both direct and indirect
    methods of teaching.
    4. Part method
    This is when the whole skill is divided into various
    components and each part is taught at a time.
    Appropriate when dealing with complex skills e.g.
    when teaching pole vault we have;
    Grip>carriage>approach>plant>take off
    flight>release>landing.
    5. Whole method
    This is applicable when whole skill cannot be
    broken into parts e.g. fly spring, cartwheel e.t.c
    6. Task method
    This is when pupils are given assignment by the
    teacher to accomplish within a given period of
    time e.g. 10 press-ups within 5 seconds.
    7. Discovery method
    This is when the teacher presents a problem to the
    pupils and gives them a chance to look for the
    solution e.g. stopping the ball using the chest. The
    problem will be to find other parts of the body that
    can be used to stop the ball.
    8. Reciprocal method
    This is done in pairs. One performs the other
    observes and later gives comments.
    SCHEMES OF WORK
    This is the break down of syllabus into smaller
    teachable units done systematically spread over a
    given period of time e.g. week, month, term or
    year.
    Purpose of scheme of work.
     Make teaching become systematic to avoid
    repetition and lesson oversight.
     To consult various references in advance.
     To gather the lesson requirements in good
    time
     To budget time properly.
     Professional requirement for inspection
    and administrative purposes.
     Assist teachers during evaluation e.g.
    pupils and self-evaluation.
    Incase of new teacher he can comfortably fit into
    the class (doesn’t break the continuity)
    Types of schemes of work
    1) General scheme of work
    The contents of class activity and group activities
    are taken from different topics e.g. gymnastics,
    netball, athletics e.t.c
    2) Specify topic based scheme of work
    The contents of the class activity and group
    activities are taken from same topic.
    3) Theory scheme of work
    This is when topics such as exercise and nutrition,
    sports injuries, first aid, rules of the game,
    Olympic education are taught in class.
    PARTS OF THE SCHEME OF WORK
    (The description is as per the new syllabus)
    It has 9 columns.
    i. Week
    This is the week of the term
    ii. Lesson
    38
    This is the lesson number for the specific week.
    iii. Topic
    The area where you derive the content e.g. net ball
    gymnastics e.t.c.
    iv. Content
    This is the subtopic or the specific skill you are
    dealing with e.g. in gymnastics we may have swan
    balance.
    v. Objectives
    The behaviour change you expect from the
    learners by the end of the stated duration i.e. a
    period of about 30 or 35 minutes.
    A good objective should have the following
    characteristics:
     Should be specific
     Should be measurable
     Should be achievable
     Should be behavioural.
    vi. Teaching/learning activities
    Teaching activities are those that shall be
    performed by the teacher during the learning
    process while learning activities are those that
    shall be performed by the learners during the
    learning process.
    vii. Resources
    This shows the apparatus and the equipment that
    will be used during the learning process.
    viii. Reference
    This shows materials used by the teacher as his
    sources of information. They may include books,
    magazines, newspaper e.t.c.
    ix. Remarks
    This column is filled after teaching. It shows
    whether the lesson was taught or not and if not
    taught must show the reasons as to why it was not
    taught. If it was taught then must show whether
    the objectives were achieved or not.
    LESSON PLAN (New Syllabus)
    This is a work schedule guiding the teacher on
    what is to be taught at a given stage of the lesson
    and the allocation of each stage. It guides the
    teacher so that he does not go a stray.
    Parts of the lesson plan.
    A. Row headers
    1. Introduction
    This comprises of both introductory and
    compensatory activities. It has 2 introductory and
    3 compensatory activities.
    Introductory activities
    These are activities or exercises involving the
    whole body. They should lively, motivating and
    stimulating.
    Purpose
     To give general warm up to the body
     For psychological/mental preparation
     Creation of interest/motivation
     Changes pupils mood from classroom to
    field.
    Compensatory activities
    These are activities or exercise meant for specific
    parts of the body to be used in a given skill. They
    are supposed to be vigorous and lively.
    Purposes
     To give further general warm up of the
    body
     To give specific warm up of the body parts
    that will be used in the skill to be learnt.
     To mobilize body joints and strengthen the
    muscles.
    To facilitate steepness in flexibility of the body
    thereby reducing chances of injuries.
    2. Development
    This is where the teacher explains and
    demonstrates the skill that appears in the content
    column of the scheme of work.
    3. Application
    This is the practical stage where the pupils are
    divided into group and are given chance to
    practice the skill for proper mastery. The
    teacher’s role is to supervise and to correct
    mistakes.
    Purpose of grouping.
     For practice of the new skill.
     Where rules and regulations of the game
    are emphasized.
     Promotes spirit of sportsmanship.
     Promotes the spirit of sharing apparatus.
     Promote the spirit of co-operation.
     Promotes socialization.
     Give time for a teacher to attend
    individual/group.
     Promote self-center of belonging.
    Factors to consider when grouping pupils
     Nature of the skill
     Size of the class
     Apparatus available
     Space or facilities available
     Body size of the pupils i.e. height and
    weight
     Physical abilities of the learners
     Mental abilities of the learners.
    39
     Age of the pupils
     Past experience
     Gender/sex
    4) Conclusion
    This is the stage where pupils are involved in less
    vigorous and less strenuous activities to cool the
    body system.
    Purpose
     For relaxation
     For cooling down the body system
     Changing pupils mind from the field to
    classroom
     Psychological preparation for other
    activities in the school.
     Where the teacher gives instruction for the
    next lesson.
    B. Column headers
    i. Content
    This shows activity/activities you will be doing in
    that part.
    ii. Objectives
    This shows the reason why you are doing the
    activity.
    iii. Teaching/learning activities
    This will show the teaching point of what you will
    be doing in that part.
    iv. Organization
    This will show formation that you will use while
    performing activity in that part.
    v. Resources
    This will show the apparatus and equipment that
    will be used in that particular part.
    vi. References
    These are the sources of information to be taught.
    vii. Resources
    Comments on how activities were performed.
    STEPS/STAGES OF TEACHING
    PSYCHOMOTOR
    1. Explanation
    Factors to be considered
    Good formation that the teacher and pupils can
    easily see each other.
    Explain only when pupils are attentive.
    Explain systematically to avoid repetition
    Explanation should be brief and precise
    Use the language that pupils understand.
     Introduction of all vocabularies should be
    done during the explanation stage.
     Teacher should be conversant with the
    content.
     Pupils should not face direction of the sun.
    2. Demonstration
     The skill is demonstrated by the teacher for
    the pupils to have a mental picture of the
    skill
    Importance
     It enhances the comprehension of the skill
    being taught i.e. what is seen is retained for
    along time.
     Takes short time.
     Some skills can’t be taught without
    demonstration.
     Can be used to compare different
    movement.
     Help form good teacher/pupil relationship.
    Instances when pupil demonstration is
    preferred
     When the pupil is well conversant with the
    skill than the teacher.
     When the teacher cannot perform the skill
    because he or she might be unwell or not
    changed.
     When the skill involved needs paring.
     When the pupils involved are too young to
    pair with the teacher.
     When the teacher wants to pin point key
    point key areas of demonstration.
    Factors to be considered during demonstration
     Provide adequate space
     Good formation/organization.
     Adequate time.
     Avoid prolonged demonstration.
     Avoid wrong demonstration.
     Avoid using one pupil all the times.
    3. Practical/participation
     Factors to consider
     Adequate apparatus.
     Adequate space.
     Adequate time.
     Close supervision of the pupils’ work.
     Correction from poor performance.
     Teacher to ensure maximum participation
    by all pupils.
    4. Exploration/discovery
    This gives pupils opportunity to experiment with
    the skill.
    Purpose
    Allows for self – satisfaction
    Gives pupils self – confidence.
    40
     Gives pupils freedom to handle and
    manipulate the apparatus.
     Gives pupils sense of achievement
    5. Evaluation
    Meant to assess pupils’ acquisition of the skill
    Methods of evaluation.
     Ask them to demonstrate.
     Let them explain oral questions or written
    quizzes.
     Observe them during game situation.
     Project.
    Ways of motivating children during the lesson
     Teacher must be interested/cheerful.
     Teacher must be actively involved.
     Teacher must be in correct P.E. uniforms.
     Supervise pupils.
     Praise for the correct performance.
     Teacher to give clear instructions.
     Good pupil/teacher relationship.
     Teacher to be confident.
    Class control
     Pupils have freedom but to a limit.
     Use field markers to mark enough space.
     Use of voice i.e. clear, loud and
    commanding.
     Teacher should have a good mastery of the
    skill.
     Use appropriate language.
     Be firm in decision making/authoritative.
     Making trouble shooters group leaders by
    giving them some responsibilities.
     Have a good working relationship with the
    pupils.
    IMPROVISATION
     The act of making or preparing an article
    for use in learning process by use of locally
    available materials to replace the real
    article.
     Factors to consider when improvising
     Number or pupils in the class.
     The materials available.
     The cost involved.
     Durability of the item.
     The safety of the equipment.
     The functional utility of the item.
     The relevance of the apparatus involved.
     Importance of the apparatus.
     Makes the lesson formal.
     Ensure proper learning of the subject.
     Helps to maintain the interest.
     Trains co-ordination
     Improves quality of teaching
     Children master skill well by doing
     Children naturally enjoy playing with the
    apparatus.
     Makes class control easier.
     Help prevent injuries.
    Qualities of a good improvised item.
     Should resemble real object in shape size
    weight and appearance.
     Should be safe to use and have no sharp
    edges.
     Should be durable and avoid fragile ones.
     Should be pleasing to the eye.
     Should have proper gravity.
     Should suit the age of the pupils.
     Should be functional i.e. relevance to the
    skill being taught.
    Dangers of improvised items
     Are not durable
     Can cause injuries to the user
     They don’t motivate the learners as the real
    ones.
     May not resemble the real one hence the
    function may not be effective.
    Care and storage of apparatus.
     P.E apparatus should be well looked after.
     Point pupils to carry them to and from the
    field.
     Ones used for a particular activity should
    be moved from the areas of operation to
    save them from being stepped on.
     Apparatus should be well set so that pupils
    can reach them so easily.
    Factors influencing the occurrence of injuries
    1. Old age due to less flexibility, elasticity,
    strength, endurance, speed e.t.c
    2. Insufficient warm up. This is concerned with
    Raising body temperature with 20
    c.
     Mobilizing joints and strengthening
    muscles
     Mobilizing substances to be used in
    production of energy.
     Prepare body tissue for proper ventilation.
     To stimulate hormone e.g. adrenaline and
    non-adrenaline which help to suppress the
    onset of fatigue.
     Prepare one psychologically and level of
    conditioning.
    3. Lack of adequate rest and pause. This makes
    the glycogen depot to get exhausted and therefore
    one suffers due to lack of metabolism or
    accumulation of lactic acid.
    4. Lack of balanced diet.
    41
    5. Nature of the game
    6. Over dressing and under dressing
    7. Experience on the sport
    8. Sports specific techniques
    9. Health status of the subject
    10. Play grounds
    11. Faulty apparatus
    12. Poor demonstration/instructions.
    Role of the teacher in prevention of injuries
     Group learners according to age and
    learning
     ability.
     Teaching of correct technique.
     Ensure proper clothing.
     Always give ample time for
    acclimatization to avoid heat stroke, heat
    exhaustion e.t.c
     Should have knowledge of student medical
    record, health status for him to have knowhow on how to treat them.
     Provide strict and proper supervision
    during physical exercise activities.
     Ensure safe warm environment.
     Should have general knowledge on health
    education.
     Educate pupils so that they can be able to
    recognize dangers in equipment and
    facilities.
    Reasons for encouraging pupils to sit upright.
     To ensure that pupils are attentive.
     So that pupils can have very good view of
    the teacher.
     To facilitate good blood circulation in the
    body
     To avoid day dreaming/fantasy.
     Help in maintaining good class control.
     To facilitate good air circulation in the
    body.
    Importance of teacher’s self-evaluation.
    (i) To check whether the method was appropriate
    (ii) To find out whether the time was appropriately
    used.
    (iii) To check the effectiveness of the apparatus
    used.
    (iv) Help the teacher to prepare for remedial work
    for the pupils.
    (v) To check the safety of the apparatus used.
    (vi) To find out how much the pupils have
    mastered.
    How to occupy sick pupils or disabled in your
    class.
     You can use them as judges during
    competition in the class.
     Use them to take care of the apparatus and
    also distributing them.
     Use them to maintain discipline in the class
    by helping you to identify those who are
    misbehaving.
     Involve in some very light activities.
     Use them as group leaders to give
    instruction to other pupils.
    Factors considered when evaluating P.E.
    program for a whole year.
    1. Time
     Whether it was enough/was there any
    wastage/was it used well.
     Time allocation for various topics.
    2. Apparatus
     Were the apparatus enough?
     Were they appropriate for the level of the
    learners?
     Were they bought or improvised?
     Did they cause injury?
    3. Space
     Were the learners organized?
     Were the apparatus well spaced?
     Was there enough space between the
    pupils?
    4. Safety
    Did the teacher ensure that the facilities and
    equipment are safe for the pupils?
    Is the teacher conversant with the first aid
    knowledge.
    Was there adequate teacher’s supervision?

    42
    BASKET BALL
    The court
    Sideline (28m)

    Back
    (Base)
    line
    (15 m)

    Team’s bench Officials’ bench

    Parts of the court
    Centerline
     Subdivide the court into two equal halves
     The game starts along this line with jump
    ball.
     Substitution takes place along this line.
    Side line
     Length of the court (28 meters)
     Throw in takes place along this line
     Used for the purposes of substitution
     Team’s bench and official table located
    along this line.
     It is the referee’s operation area
    Base line
     Form width of the court (15m)
     Throw in can be taken along this line
     Its where back board is fixed
     Start of the game after score.
    Center circle
    Radius 1.9m
    Where the game starts with the jump ball.

    Restricted area

    Team’s bench
     Used for penalizing common infringement
    with jump ball.
    Free throw line
     Where free throws are taken from
    3 point line
    It helps in demarcating 3 point and 2 point areas.
    Restricted area
     No player is supposed to be in this area
    during free throw.
     Unguarded attacking player is not
    supposed to remain in the opponents’
    restricted area without a ball for a period
    exceeding three seconds.
    Field goal area (2 point)
     Indicates when two points are awarded
    when basket is scored.
    3 point area
     Indicates when 3 point is awarded
    Team’s bench
    43
    3 point line Field goal area Free throw lane
    (2 point)
    Centerline
    Free throw
    Line
    Restraining of circles
    R – 1.9 m 3 point field area
    ———–
    ——————

     This is where the substitute and the team
    officials sit.
     Officials table
     This where the scorer timekeeper and 24
    second operator sits.
     Marks
     Indicates line up when free throw is being
    taken.
    TEAM SIZE
    A team is made up of 5 players.
    The players should wear jerseys containing
    numbers 4 – 15
    DURATION
    4 quarters of ten minutes each with a resting
    period of 5 minutes. Incase of a tie, a period of 5
    minutes is added.
    ART OF TE GAME
    It starts with jump ball at the center circle.
    Procedure for jump ball.
    Two opposing players at the center circle, each on
    his side of the court. The rest of the players to be
    outside the center circle.
    Referee tosses the ball between the two and then
    they jump to tap the ball outside the circle.
    If one of the players commits a violation, the
    opponent is given the ball for throw in on the
    sideline.
    Occasions when jump ball is administered
     Start of every quarter.
     Start of second half
     Start of extra period.
     Incase of common ball where it is
    administered in any of the restraining
    circles.
    TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT
     Stop watch
     24 second operating device
     Score board
     Foul markers – numbers ranging 1-5
     Game clock
     Score sheet.
    BASIC SKILLS
    Catching
    Passing
    Shooting e.g. set shot, jump shot, stay up hook
    shot.
    Dribbling: This can be either low or high dribble.
    Reasons for dribbling
     To beat an opponent
     To cover the space
     To create a good scoring chance when a
    teammate is marked.
    Faulty dribbling
     Double dribbling
     Dribbling using both hands simultaneously
    carrying/lifting the ball.
     Pivoting
     Dodging/feinting/faking
    SCORING
    A score in basketball is called a basket.
    A basket is considered to have been scored when a
    live ball completely passes through the ring from
    above.
    A dead ball
    After the score
    Expiry of the time
    Ball out of the court
    When referee blows a whistle incase of a foul or
    violation.
    A live ball
    When a ball is tapped outside the center circle
    during a jump ball.
    During free throw when the ball is disposed to the
    player by the referee.
    When the referee touches the ball during the throw
    in.
    Value of a basket
    1 point – awarded during free throw
    2 poins – awarded when score was made from
    within goal area.
    3 points – awarded when the score was made from
    within the 3 point area.
    Held ball
    When two opposing players claim possession of
    the ball at the same time and are struggling for it.
    When the player holds the ball without dribbling,
    passing or shooting for a period exceeding 5
    seconds.
    When the ball hangs between back board and the
    ring.
    44
    TIME RULES
    3seconds:
    Unguarded player without a ball should not remain
    in the opponents’ restricted area for a period
    exceeding 3 seconds.
    5 seconds:
    A player should not exceed 5 seconds during
    throw in when the ball has been touched by the
    referee.
    A player should not hold the ball without passing,
    dribbling or shooting for a period exceeding 5
    seconds.
    A player should not exceed 5 seconds during free
    throw when the referee has disposed the ball.
    8 seconds
    A team in control of the ball should make sure that
    the ball moves from the backcourt to frontcourt
    within 8 seconds.
    24 seconds
    A team should make an attempt to score at the
    opponents’ basket within a period of 24 seconds.
    30 seconds
    A disqualified player must be substituted within
    this time.
    20 seconds
    This is time for substitution.
    1 minute
    This is duration for time out.
    Playing zones
    G G
    F F
    C —— Center
    G——- Guards
    F——- Forwards
    Playing systems
    2:1:2
    3:2
    2:3
    Attacking systems
    Simple fast break
    Complex fast break
    Screening
    Posting
    Overloading
    Disqualification
    A player is disqualified after committing 5
    personal fouls.
    Must be substituted within 30 seconds.
    Defence system
    Man to man defence
    Zonal defence
    Combined cover
    SUBSTITUTION
    A team can substitute the whole team.
    Substitution is effected when court player leaves
    the court and the substitute enters
    Must be done within 20 seconds
    A disqualified player must be substituted within
    30 seconds.
    Substitution cannot be done during free throw
    unless serious injury.
    Procedure
    The substitute reports to the official table and
    gives signal for substitution.
    The substitute then sits at the substitution bench.
    When the ball is dead the scorer or timekeeper
    signals the referee who authorizes substitution.
    The substitute enters the court when the player
    leaves the court.
    TIME OUT
    This is a period of interception of the game
    requested by the coach or assistant coach for
    technical talk.
    Requested when the ball is dead.
    Each team is entitled to one time out of minute
    between 1st , 2nd , 3rd and extra time periods.
    During the 4th period 2 time outs can be given to
    each team.
    Substitution can also take place during this time.
    45
    C
    1. Violations
    2. Fouls
    1. VIOLATIONS
    This is breaking of the rules when a players is
    progressing with the ball i.e. offence committed
    when a player is with the ball. They include:
     Breaking of time regulations.
     Back court play.
     Taking more than 2 steps with the ball i.e.
    walking/travelling.
     Kicking the ball intentionally.
     Breaking the rules during jump ball.
     Throwing the ball out of the court.
     Breaking the free throw rule.
     Illegal dribble e.g. using two hands to
    dribble simultaneously
     Lifting, carrying the ball.
     Double catch/repossessing.
    Penalty for the violations
    A throw in either from the back line or sideline is
    awarded.
    2. FOULS
    This is the breaking of the rules concerning the
    physical contact with an opponent or displaying
    unsportsmanlike behaviours.
     Physical contacts
     Pushing
     Blocking
     Charging
     Holding
     Tripping.
    Types of fouls
    1. Technical fouls
    These are fouls that are against the spirit of
    games/unsportsmanlike behaviours.
    They include:
     Changing the jersey number without
    informing the referee.
     Entering as a substitute without referee’s
    permission.
     Hanging on the ring.
     Failure to lift up hands when the foul has
    been called upon you.
     Delaying the ball to be played e.g. during
    throw in.
     Intimidating the opponent.
    2. Personal fouls
    Occur when a player intentionally contact an
    opponent physically. 3 personal fouls lead to
    disqualification and substitution.
    Examples of personal fouls
    1. Normal personal foul
    When the player contact with an opponent
    intentionally due to inexperience/poor skill
    mastery.
    2. Intentional foul
    When a player deliberately contact the opponent
    or when the player didn’t make any attempt to
    prevent the contact.
    3. Double foul
    When two opposing players contact one another.
    4. Multiple foul
    When two or more teammates contact one another.
    5. Disqualifying foul
    Very dangerous foul/very serious unbearing
    contact.
    Penalty
    Incase a player was in act of shooting and he
    happens to be fouled and the score was successful
    he is given points (2 or 3) and one free throw.
    If the basket was not successful he is given 2 or 3
    shots/throws.
    Other personal fouls (not shooting foul) are
    penalized with a throw in from the side or base
    line.
    Procedure for calling a foul.
     Referee blows the whistle.
     Give signal for the clock to be stopped.
     Indicate by raising his hand up that a foul
    has been committed.
     Point at the player who has committed the
    foul.
     The player acknowledges by raising his
    hands up.
     Referee turns to the official table and
    shows the number of the player who has
    committed the offence.
     Indicate the kind of offence and the penalty
    to be given.
     The penalty is taken.
    SPORTS INJURIES
    NEURO INJURIES (C.N.S & BRAIN)
    1. UNCONSCIOUSNESS
    46
    The state of not being able to respond to a given
    stimuli i.e. casualty is not aware or alert of what is
    happening.
    Causes
     Head knock
     Shock
     Heart attack
     Poison
     Drunkard ness
     Diseases of brain
     Shortage of blood in brain
     Lack of oxygen and blood supply
    Stages of consciousness to unconsciousness
    i) Full consciousness – The casualty is not to
    respond to the stimuli e.g. feeling the paid when
    touched.
    ii) Drowsiness – The casualty is easily aroused but
    relapses to unconsciousness.
    iii) Stupor – Casualty aroused by a lot of
    difficulties and information given is not reliable.
    iv) Coma – The casualty cannot be aroused at all
    Treatment
    Place the casualty in a comfortable position i.e.
    recovery/ coma position
    Open the airway
    Loosen the tight clothing
    Resume artificial resuscitation (mouth to mouth,
    mouth to nose, or chest compression e.t.c)
    Treat for wounds
    Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    2. STROKE
    Caused by blood clot blocking the blood vessels to
    the brain. Very common with people having high
    blood pressure.
    Signs and symptoms
    Internal bleeding shown by
    Blood shot eyes
    Skin becomes pale
    Blood coming out through the body openings
    Stool/urine contains blood stain
    Blurred speech
    Loss of power on sensations in arms and legs
    (paralyzed)
    Treatment
    Same as unconsciousness
    3. HYSTERIA
    This is caused by anxiety or too much worry
    Treatment
    Reassure the casualty
    4. CONCLUSION
    Caused by shaking up of the brain as a result of
    falling or direct blow.
    Signs and symptoms
     Unconsciousness
     Dizziness
     Headache
     Loss of memory
     Vomiting
     Nausea
     Weak pulse
    Treatment
     Place the casualty in a comfortable position
     Keep the casualty awake
     Provide a fresh air
     Give adequate rest
     Give a lot of fluids to prevent vomiting
    Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    5. COMPRESSION
    Caused by pressure in the brain from the fracture
    on the skull with the bone depressed or bleeding
    and swelling within the brain.
    Signs and symptoms
     Confusion
     Intense headache
     Slow noisy breathing
     Paralysis on one side of the body
     Unconsciousness
     Slow strong pulse
     Unequal pupils
     Dry and flushed face
     Twitching of the limbs
     Convulsion
    Treatment
     Place the casualty in a recovery position
     Stop further bleeding
     Immobilize the broken bone
     Give the casualty cool fluids, adequate rest
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    6. SHOCK
    This is when the blood pressure is very low
    leading to collapsing of the body system.
    47
    Causes
     Good or bad news
     Stress
     Injuries
     Severe pain
     Nerve stimulation
     Severe illness
     Loss of the body fluids (bleeding or over
    sweating)
     Dehydration
     Acute abdominal emergencies e.g.
     Rapture of appendix
     Heart attack
    Signs and symptoms
     Cold dumpy skin
     Sweating
     Shivering
     Confusion
     Skin becomes pale
     Fast but weak pulse rate
     Shallow breathing
     Nausea
     Vision is blurred
     Restlessness
     Coma
     Stunned attitude leading to anxiousness
    Treatment
     Remove the cause of the shock
     Rest the casualty either by sitting or lying
    him with the legs higher than the head.
     Cover him but don’t make him feel too
    warm
     Reassure the casualty by being calm and
    confident.
     For minor shock give casualty warm drinks
     Provide room for breathing and fresh air.
     Loosen tight clothing
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    7. FAINTING (SYNCOPE)
    This is a complete loss of consciousness due to
    lack of oxygen in the brain.
    Causes
    – Injuries – Severe pain
    – Lack of food – fatigue
    – Horrifying sites – Illness
    – Bad or good news
    – Lack of enough oxygen in the brain
    Signs and symptoms
    Dumpy and cold skin – Dry lips
    Face becomes pale – Sweating
    Shallow breathing – Yawning
     Gradual unconsciousness
    Treatment
     Rest the casualty on his back with the feet
    slightly higher than the head to allow blood
    flow from the brain
     Loosen tight clothing
     Keep away the crowd
     Sit the casualty on the chair and put his
    head between the knees
     Hold his jaws and talk to him
     Fan the casualty to supply fresh air
     Place the casualty in a recovery position
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital
    8. ASPHYXIA (SUFFOCATION)
    This is a condition that a person suffer due to
    inadequate supply of oxygen in the blood (brain
    and tissue)
    Causes
     Choking (obstruction of the airway)
     Strangulation
     Chest compression
     Electrical injury
     Poisoning
     Paralysis incases of a stroke
     Air pollution
     Drowning
     Carbon monoxide.
    Signs and symptoms
     Rate and depth of breathing is rapid and
    noisy
     Shallow breathing with froth
     Congestion around the neck
     Fits may occur
     Restlessness
     Unconsciousness
     Pale lips
     Increased heart rate
     Dizziness
     Casualty points at the mouth and the throat.
    Treatment
     Remove the casualty from the cause
     Open the airway
     Loosen tight clothing
     Reassure the casualty
     Raise legs higher than the head
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    Methods of emergency resuscitation
    1. Mouth to mouth resuscitation (Kiss of life)
    Lie the casualty facing up
    Tilt the head backwards
    48
     Hold the jaws
     Breath to the mouth several times until you
    see movement of the chest. The exercise
    to continue up to a period of 10 minutes.
    Why mouth to mouth may not be possible
    Sometimes
     Incase the casualty is producing body
    fluids through the mouth e.g. vomit blood.
     Incase there is serious injuries around in
    the mouth.
     Incase the casualty is suffering from
    contagious disease.
     Incase the casualty is facing downwards
    2. Mouth to nose
    3. Cardiac massage (Heart compression)
    4. Nielsen Holger
    ENVIROMENTAL INJURIES
    High temperature
    (a) Heat exhaustion
    This condition occurs due to abnormal loss of salt
    and water in the body in a very humid
    environment. Water and salt is lost during
    vomiting and diahroearing.
    Signs and symptoms
     Moist skin
     Fatigue
     Dizziness
     Pulse faster but weak
     Muscle cramp
     Pale skin.
    Treatment
     Place the casualty in cool area.
     Loosen tight clothing
     Place feet slightly higher than the head.
     Treat for shock
     Dispose to the hospital.
    (b) Heat stroke
    This is when the body is not able to loose excess
    heat.
    Causes
    Exposure to very high temperatures
    Signs and symptoms
     Restlessness
     Unconsciousness
     Flushed skin, dry and burning
     Pulse is faster and strong
     Temperature extremely high.
     Fits/convulsions may occur.
    Treatment
     Place in cool area
     Apply cold applications
     Fan the casualty
     Raise the legs slightly higher than the head
     Loosen tight clothing.
    (c) Sun burn
    This caused by severe burn of the sun
    Signs and symptoms
    Skin is red, hot, tender, swollen and blistering
    Treatment
     Sponging
     Sips of cold water
     Place the casualty in a cold area.
    Low temperature
    (a) Frost bite
     Damage to the body tissue caused by
    exposure to extreme/severe cold. Blood
    vessels contract reducing the blood supply.
     Signs and symptoms
     Skin becomes extremely cold
     Skin becomes numb
     Skin change colour to grayish
     Skin feels hard and stiff
     Loss of function.
    Treatment
     Remove all cold and wet cloths
     Place the body in warm place
     Remove tight items e.g. rings, belts e.t.c
     Give hot fluids
     Dispose the casualty to the hospitals
    (b) Hypothermia
    This is dangerous lowering of the body
    temperature caused by prolonged immersion in
    cold water and general exposure to extreme cold.
    Signs and symptoms
     Dizziness
     Severe headache
     Impair ness of muscular co-ordination
     Speech becomes blurred.
    Treatment
    Rap the casualty in a warm dry environment
    Keep the victim a wake
    Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    (c) Heat cramp
    Caused by diminishing level of minerals in the
    body
    Signs and symptoms
    Painful muscles
    49
     Nausea
     Diarrhea
     Severe headache
    Treatment
     Rest the casualty in a comfortable position
     Massage the muscles
     Place the casualty in a cool area
     Replace the fluid in the area.
    BONE INJURIES
    1. Fracture
    This is cracking or breaking of the bone
     Causes
     Direct force
     Indirect force
     Muscular contraction/action.
    Description of fractures
    (a) Green stick
    This is cracking of the bone due to body weight
    Mostly common with children.
    (b) Cross fracture
    The bone is cut across
    (c) Oblique fracture
    The angle of breakage is 450
    (d) Spiral fracture
    The line of breakage has spiral shape
    (e) Quashed fracture
    The bone is severely damaged
    (f) Avulsion
    The bone moves out of its position
    Types of fractures
    1. Simple/closed
    This is when the bone is injured and the
    surrounding tissue is not interfered with i.e. no
    would occurs.
    2. Open/compound complicated
    This is where the broken bon penetrates through
    the skin injuring other body tissues e.g. muscles
    and blood vessels
    3. Multiple fracture
    This is when body suffers more than one fracture.
    Bone is broken at more than one point.
    Signs and symptoms
    Swelling and bruises
    Pain
    Tenderness
    Deformity.
     Lose of movement and co-ordination
     Shock
     Bleeding
     Pale skin
     Temperature rises
    Treatment
     Treat for shock
     Stop bleeding
     Treat for wounds
     Put the affected part on the splinters
     Immobilize the affected part
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital
    JOINT INJURIES
    1. Sprain
    This is when the tendons and ligaments at the
    joints are torn or twisted due to sudden turning of
    the joint in a natural movement.
    Signs and symptoms
     Tenderness
     Loss of movement
     Severe pain
     Change in skin colour
     Rise in temperature
     Treatment
     Support the joint in a comfortable position
     Treat for shock
     Elevate injured part
     Apply cold ice to control swelling, reduce
    pain e.t.c
     Apply firm bandage at the joint
     Rest the joint with no active movement
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital
    2. Dislocation/luxation
    Displacement of one or more bones at the joint i.e
    bones out of the alignment.
    Causes
     Direct force
     Indirect force
     Muscular contraction/action
    Signs and symptoms
     Bones not in the right place (deformity)
     Pain over the joint
     Bleeding due to tear of the muscles
     Swelling
     Affected part sensitive pressure and pain
     Tenderness
     Loss of movement
     Pale skin
    50
    SKIN/MUSCLES INJURIES
    1. Wound
    This is a break in continuity of the body tissue e.g.
    skin.
    Classification of wounds
    (a) Open wounds: this is when there is a break in
    the skin.
    (b) Closed wound: this is when there is injury on
    the underlying tissue.
    Types of open wounds
    (i) Abrasion
    Caused by friction on the surface of the body.
    Skin may be removed discoloration of the area and
    bleeding e.g. sliding and tackling in soccer.
    (ii) Incision/clear cut
    The line of the cut is straight. Produced by sharp
    cutting objects like knife, razor e.t.c
    (iii) Laceration/torn
    This is irregular breaking or tearing of the tissue
    caused by a great force exerted on the body e.g. by
    barbed wire.
    (iv) Puncture/stabs
    Caused by sharp objects piercing the skin creating
    a hole in the tissue e.g. stepping on a thorn or nail,
    being stabbed with a knife.
    (v) Avulsions
    This occurs when a tissue is forcibly separated or
    torn from the victim’s body. There is a lot of
    bleeding.
    (vi) Contusions/bruises
    This capillary bleeding beneath the unbroken skin.
    This is caused by a knock or a blow by blunt
    instrument. The blood vessels are torn and the
    tissues are damaged.
    Signs and symptoms
     Severe pain
     Swelling
     Rise in temperature
     Discoloration
     Skin becomes pale
     Treatment
     Rest in a comfortable position
     Cold application
    (vii) Burns and scalds
    Burns are caused by a dry fire or heat.
    Scalds are caused by moist heat.
    General treatment for all wounds
    Remove all the impurities.
    Wash the wound with warm soapy water
    (should be running water).
    Cover the wound with dressing e.g. cotton or
    gauze
    Place the bandage on the dressing
    Immobilize the affected part.
    Stop any bleeding
    Treat for shock
    Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    2. Bleeding
    This is oozing of the blood from the wound or
    injury.
    Types of bleeding
    i. External bleeding
    a) Arterial bleeding
    The blood spurts out and is bright red color due to
    plenty of oxygen.
    b) Venous bleeding
    The blood flows out smoothly and is dark red in
    colour due to less oxygen.
    c) Capillary bleeding
    The blood oozes out and is bright red in colour.
    Pressure points
    These are where arteries near the bone and can be
    pressed to stop bleeding e.g. wrist/radial; base of
    the neck/carotid, temple, elbow/radial vein, base
    of the thigh/groin.
    Signs and symptoms of external bleeding
     Face/lips become pale
     Skin cold and dumpy
     Casualty feels fainty/dizziness
     The pulse is rapidly becoming weaker
     Restlessness
     Shallow breathing
     Yawning
     Thirsty
    Treatment
     Direct pressure on the affected part
     Indirect pressure on the affected part
     Cold applications e.g. ice cubes, cold spray
     Elevation of the affected part to reduce the
    blood flow to the affected part.
     Cover the wound with sterilized dressings
     Immobilize the affected part
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    ii)internal bleeding
    This is oozing of blood from internal body
    organs/tissues without break of the skin.
    51
    Signs and symptoms
     Swelling on the affected part.
     Blood coming out from nose, ears and
    other openings.
     Pain
     Blood shot eyes
     Skin is dark in colour
     Urine/stool containing blood.
     How the body naturally stops bleeding
     Lowering of the body temperature
     Blood pressure decreases
     Heart rate decreases
     Vasco constriction of the blood vessels
     Reduced supply of the blood to the
    affected area.
    Artificial treatment
     Elevation of the bleeding part to reduce the
    blood flow to the wound
     Direct pressure on the affected part.
     Indirect
     Cold applications e.g. ice cubes
     Cover the would with sterilized dressings
     Immobilize the affected part.
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital.
    3. Muscle cramp/muscle pull
    Muscle cramp is sudden contraction of the muscle
    fibres due to insufficient ions (salt) in the body.
    Muscle pull is sudden overstretching of the muscle
    fibres.
    Causes
     Lack of enough salt intake
     Excessive sweating
     Improper training
     Overhauling if muscles i.e. warming and
    cooling effect.
     Fatigue
     External forces e.g. knock, blow
     Inability to relax tight muscles
     Loose of function
     Swelling
    Treatment
     Extend the affected muscles, pull both
    muscle to allow contraction
     Encourage adequate fluids and salt intake
     Rest the muscles in a comfortable position
     Apply cold application
     Massage the affected area
    4. Muscle tear
    This can either be complete tear or partial tear
    Causes
     Direct force on the muscle
     Indirect force (tension force)
     A cut by sharp object
    Signs and symptoms
     Pain
     Cramp
     Swelling
     Depression
     Loss of function of the affected part
     Discoloration: due to internal bleeding
    Treatment
     Apply ice to reduce pain
     Immobilize the affected part
     Secure the affected part with bandage
     Dispose the casualty to the hospital
    5. Muscle soreness
    This is pain along the muscles due to accumulation
    of lactic acid.
    6. Muscle strain
    This is overstretching of a muscle beyond its limit.
    7. Blisters
    This is caused by rough surface/wearing of very
    tight shoes
    Treatment
     Cold application
     Never peel the blisters
    FIRST AID
    This is the first medical treatment given to the
    casualty before disposing to hospital.
    It is a skilled application of treatment given on the
    occurance of injuries or sudden illness suing the
    locally available materials and facilities.
    First aid terminologies
    a) Signs
    This is what a first aider can be able to observe or
    feel.
    b) Symptoms
    These are sensations/feelings experienced by the
    casualty
    c) Diagnosis
    This is medical method of identifying a given
    injury
    d) Prognosis
    This is the chance of survival
    e) Treatment
    These are the efforts and measures taken to cure
    an illness/injury
    f) Rehabilitation
    52
    This is the effect aimed at restoring the person to
    his normal place/restoring the injury part to its
    normal position.
    Objectives of first aid
     To sustain or save life
     To prevent the condition from worsening
     To promote recovery
     Relieve pain
    Qualities of a good first aider
     Should be in a position to use common
    sense
     Should be observant i.e. can be able to
    detect the signs and symptoms.
     Should be gentle i.e. avoid rough handling
    of the casualty.
     Should be resourceful i.e. should use
    locally available materials
     Should be tactful i.e. should be calm to
    avoid alarming the casualty.
     Should be explicit i.e. clear in the
    instructions giving.
     Should be confident
     Should be sympathetic
     Should be perseverance i.e. continue with
    the treatment to the end.
     Discriminative i.e. should be able to give
    priorities.
    The scope of first aide
    1. Assessing the situation
    Find out:
     The cause of the injury
     The dangers around
     Safety of both casualty and first aider.
    2. Diagnosis
    This involves identifying the injury
    Methods of medical diagnosis
    a) Inspection (observation)
    Check for:
    Bleeding, swelling, change of skin color, vomiting
    and tenderness.
    Auscultation (listening)
    Listen to:
    Heartbeat, breathing
    (c) Palpation (touching)
    You tough to feel:
    Swellings, broken bones, rise in temperature,
    tenderness e.t.c
    d) Tapping
    You tap the chest to find out whether there is
    internal bleeding/water in the chest.
    (e) Medical history of the casualty
    You can check the available document; listen to
    the story narrated by the conscious casualty or
    story given by the people around.
    Contents of first aid box
    – Safety pins – Scissors
    – Dressings – Methylated spirit
    – Bandages – Clinical thermometer
    – Pain killers – Disinfectant/antiseptic
    – Glucose/dextrosal – Jelly
    – Ice cubes – First aid book
    – Tweezers – Ointments
    Dressings
    This is the immediate protective cover placed over
    the wound e.g. cotton wool and gauze
    Uses of dressings
     To protect the wound
     To prevent germs from entering the wound
     To absorb discharge e.g. pus/blood
     Protect further swelling
     Stop bleeding.
    Bandages
    These are thin woven materials used to hold the
    dressings in place /putting the splints in position.
    Examples include: gauze, elastic, adhesive, binder
    of muslin, emergency bandages e.g. string,
    triangular bandages.
    Uses of bandages
     Used to hold dressings in position
     To support splints
     To stop further bleeding
     To carry the casualty
     To support the body part
     To immobilize the affected part.
    NOSE BLEEDING
    This is the loss blood from the body through the
    nose due to internal injury.
    Causes
     High blood pressure
     Internal injuries to the head
     Sharp objects entering the nose
     Change in altitude
     Sneezing (forceful blowing of nose)
    53
    TRAINING
    This is improving of components of physical
    fitness.
    Physical fitness components
    Strength: force applied
    Power: rate or speed of the force.
    Agility: Ability to chance direction
    Flexibility: rate of movement around the joint
    Co-ordination: working together of the body
    systems.
    Speed: quickness to perform given task
    Balance: ability to maintain body stability
    Endurance: ability to work for long time without
    being tired.
     Reaction time
     Methods of training
     Circuit training
     Internal training
     Fatleck training
     Cross country training
     Jogging
     Swimming
     Cycling
    Benefits of training
    For feeling better (well being)
    Maintenance of the body weight
    For health benefits (prevent psychosomatic)
    Diseases e.g. stress, depression, hysteria e.t.c
    Enhancement of physical capability
    For relaxation
    For enjoyment
    Slowing down of the aging process
    Correction of some body defects
    Negative effects of over-training
    Reduction of reaction time due to fatigue.
    Muscles become hypertrophy (increase in size)
    May bring some injuries e.g. wearing of bones due
    to friction
    The player become very aggressive (irritable)
    Muscles become stale due to accumulation of
    excess lactic acid.
    Depletion of stored glycogen.
    Fatigue (tiredness)
    Decreasing of cognitive abilities
    Reasons for having a rest/recovery period
    To heal the injuries
    So that the depleted glycogen in the muscles can
    be restored.
    Components of warm up program
    Stretching and curling of the body parts
    Specific activities related to the specific body parts
    to be used.
    Callisthenics – Exercise involving major body
    muscles.
    Merits of warm up
    Increase body temperature by 20
    c
    Increase flexibility of the muscles
    For proper distribution of blood in the body
    Improve flexibility around the joints.
    Prevention of injuries by warming up the muscles.
    Improve co-ordination and accuracy.
    Merits of cool down process
    To bring the body to the resting state
    To bring circulation to the normal
    To improve elimination of lactic acid
    For psychological preparation for other activities
    To normalize respiratory systems.
    Environmental factors affecting performance
    Air pollution
    Speed of wind
    Altitude (shortage of oxygen)
    Humidity
    Atmospheric pressure
    Factors influencing performance of an
    individual
     Age – Drugs
     Physical fitness – Diet
     Heredity/genetics
     Facilities/equipment
     Climatic conditions
     Environmental factors (mentioned above)
     Psychological factor (motivation)
    High altitude training
    At higher altitude there is less oxygen as compared
    to the lower altitudes. Athletes respond to this by
    their bodies producing more red blood cells that
    are consequently used in transporting oxygen to
    the body parts. In this way they are capable of
    running long distance events due to high amount
    of oxygen carried in the tissues involved.
    Atmospheric pressure is also limited at high
    altitude. This explains why explosive events
    (anaerobic) are
    54
    Performed better in high altitude (low air
    resistance)
    Why athletes move to high altitude for training.
    To enhance proper transportation of oxygen to the
    muscles.
    To increase the RBC in the blood this helps in the
    absorption of oxygen.
    Increase total volume blood circulation in the
    body.
    Acclimatization – This is when a player moves to a
    given climatic to get used to the condition of that
    place (physiological adaptation).
    Effects of training in high altitude areas
    Breathing becomes deeper.
    Volume of blood in circulation increases
    The number of RBC increases thus improvement
    of oxygen in the blood.
    Increase in pulmonary ventilation, which help to
    burn out of lactic acid.
    Increase the muscles tissue.
    Why Kenyans are so good in long distance
    races
     Physique (body structure)
     Presence of role models
     Good climate
     Culture / tradition
     Serious training
     Improved training personnel
     Self motivation
     Diet
     Genetic inheritance
    Phases of training
    (i) Macro-cycle
    This is entire training season form on-season to
    off-season.
    (ii) Meso-cycle
    This is a training unit within a meso-cycle e.g. a
    lay, a month or a week.
    Training principles
    (a) Specificity
    The training is aimed at specific part of the body
    to be used in the activity.
    (b) Principle of reversibility
    Re-training occurs rapidly when one stops
    training.
    (c) Principle of interference
    Training of one component of fitness might
    interfere with another component of fitness e.g.
    training for endurance might interfere with
    training for strength.
    (d) Principle of cross transfer
    An example of this is where running to develop
    cardio-vascular endurance may also develop
    muscular endurance.
    (e) Principle of over load
    This when the part of the body is worked beyond
    normal (physiological stress).
    (f) Principle of progression
    This requires the over load or physiological stress
    to be increased gradually or progressively in
    stages.
    Training pyramid
    Off – season
    Pre-season
    On-season
    Off-season
    This period is normally called recovery/rest
    period.
    It is characterized by:
     Limited participation in specific sport
     Low intensity exercise.
    During this season the participants are given
    time to:
     Replace the energy consumed during the
    competition time and also to allow for the
    healing process to take place
     To break the monotony of the game
     To avoid effects of training.
    Diet for off-season
     Carbohydrate to replace consumed energy
     Proteins and vitamins to repair worn out
    tissues and healing injuries.
    Pre-season
    This is the season just before the competition.
    The trainer should emphasize on physical
    conditioning.
    55
    of the body i.e develop component physical fitness
    and skill development sports.
    Diet
    Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins
    On-season
    This is the competition time where emphasis is
    laid on quality performance. There is also
    building of energy capacity and fine skill
    development. It also involves psychological
    preparation for events to come. The presence of
    the coach is highly required.
    Diet.
    Foods containing all food nutrients.
    EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
     Effects of training/exercise to the growth
    and development of all child.
     Improves physical fitness.
     Improve body posture
     Helps to correct defects at an early stage
    before they become pronounced e.g.
    lordiosis, kyophosis, knock-knee
     Help fasten growth of new body cells so
    that the child grows up faster/increase of
    red blood cells.
     Improves the character of the growing
    child i.e. positive attitudes.
     Relaxation of the child’s mind, which
    helps to reduce tensions, which can result
    from psychological illness e.g. hysteria,
    stress.
     Improves proper functioning of all the
    body organs and systems.
     Progressively gain body co-ordination,
    balance strength and control in movement.
     Getting rid of excess fat in the body.
    Effects of training to human muscles
     Help to eliminate lactic acid
     Make the muscles to increase in size
    (hypertrophy)
     Reduce stress within the muscles
     Muscles are able to operate for a longer
    period of time without getting fatigue.
     Increases muscles strength.
     Muscles become tough and firm.
     Improves metabolism.
     Reduces muscles injuries.
     Dilation of blood vessels hence better
    blood supply to muscles.
     Improve supply of nutrients to the muscles
    Effects of training/exercise to human heart
     Increase in cardiac out put
     Decreases heart related diseases e.g.
    hypertension, blood pressure.
     Cardiac reserves increases.
     Reduces heart rate, which is a good
    indicator of cardio-vascular endurance.
     Increases stroke volume i.e. volume of
    blood pumped per beat.
     Increase oxygen intake
     Strengthen heart muscles
     Reduces cholesterol in the heart.
     Improves functioning of the heart.
    Effects of training in human lungs
     Proper ventilation of air within the lung
    cavity i.e. gaseous exchange is improved.
     Respiratory muscles are strengthened e.g.
    diaphragm, internal and external
    intercostals muscles.
     Internal capacity improves
     Increase in volume of oxygen absorption in
    the blood stream (total lung cavity)
     Minimizes respiratory diseases e.g. T.B,
    Cold, Asthma.
     Improves residual volume i.e. the amount
    of air remaining in the lungs after
    breathing out.
     Breathing system becomes effective and
    efficient.
    Effects of training to human posture
     Improves postural defects e.g. cardiosis
     Maintains good posture
     Good postural appearance.
    Factors affecting human posture
     Fitness level/conditioning
     Disease/illness
     Injuries
     Disability
     Bone structure
     Muscles structure
     Gender/sex.
    BODY ANATOMY
    56
    This is the study of body parts or organs e.g. skin,
    bones, blood, joints, muscles etc.
    BONES
    These are the framework or structure of the body
    Functions of the bone
     Gives the shape to the body
     Enables movement of the body
     Provide support to the muscles
     Manufacturing of red blood cells (in the
    marrow)
     Protect delicate body organs e.g. skull
    protect brain, ribcage protect lung and
    heart.
     Act as shock absorber.
    Types of bones
     Long bones
     Flat bones
     Irregular bones
     Short bones
    SKIN
     This is the outer covering of the body.
     Functions of the skin
     Prevents micro-organism from entering the
    body
     Protects delicate body parts
     Store excess fats in adipose tissue
     Absorb vitamin D, which is responsible for
    the formation of the strong bones and teeth.
     Helps in regulation of body temperature.
     Protects the body from harmful ultra-violet
    ray from the sun.
     Acts as excretory organ by removing waste
    like sweat from the body.
     Acts as a sensory organ.
    MUSCLES
    These are the connective tissues in the body that
    controls body movement through the process of
    contraction and relaxation. They are made up of
    fibres (elongated cells).
    TYPES OF MUSCLES
    (i) Stripped/skeletal/voluntary
    Characteristics
    They are und the control of will (CNS)
    They are responsible for the co-ordinated
    movement e.g. jumping, eating etc.
    They have liberal capillary network.
    Some of them are antagonistic in nature.
    What determines the strength of a muscle
    The strength of a muscle is determined by the
    number of motor fibres activated at any one given
    time.
    Reciprocal enervation
    This is where one group of muscles are relaxing
    and the other group are contracting.
    Muscular tone.
    This is a case where voluntary muscle is
    maintained in a state of tension to allow quick
    response to the stimulus.
    (ii) Unstripped/smooth/visceral/involuntary
    Characteristics
     They are not under the control of CNS
     They are unstripped
     They are very sensitive to mechanical
    stimulation.
     They work slowly over a long period of
    time
     They are found in internal organs
     They don’t get tired easily.
     Examples include:
     Muscle of the alimentary canal, the eye,
    blood vessels.
    (iii) Cardiac muscles
    These are muscles that make up heart.
    Characteristics
     They are not under the control of will.
     Found in the walls of the heart.
     Can work on their own.
     Can maintain 2nd alternate relaxation
    without nervous stimulation.
     They are capable of continuing to beat
    even when taken out of the body.
    Injuries occurring to muscles
    -Muscles pull – Muscles strain
    -Muscles cramp – Muscles soreness
    -Muscles tear
    BLOOD
    Components of blood
    (i) Plasma
    (ii) Platelets
    (iii) Blood cells
    (iv) Fibrins
    Functions of blood
    Transportation of oxygen in the form of
    oxyhaemoglobin.
    Transportation of Co2 in the form of
    carboxyhaemoglobin.
    57
     Contains white blood cells, which helps in
    fighting infections.
     Transportation of food nutrients.
     It also transports enzymes and hormones to
    parts where they are needed.
     Cools the body temperature due to heat
    produced during the exercise.
     It has platelets, which helps in blood
    clotting.
     Transports waste products.
    JOINTS
    This is where two or more bones meet.
    Functions of the joint.
     Helps in body movement
     Helps in maintaining body balance
     Absorption of shock
    Types of joints
    a) Fixed/fibrous joints: these are
    immovable joints e.g. skull, teeth.
    SOCCER
    THE FIELD PLAY
    Touch line (110m)
    Penalty area
    16.5m Penalty arc

    7.32m Goal Area
    I
    Penalty spot
    Corner arc R-1m
    1. Touch line/side line (110m)
    Forms the length of the field
    b) Slightly movable/cartilaginous e.g. the
    vertebrae column
    c) Freely movable joints/synovial joints are joints
    which can move freely.
    Types of synovial joints
    (v) Ball and socket e.g. knee joint,
    shoulder
    (ii) Hinge joint: e.g elbow
    (iii) Gliding joint: vertebral column
    (iv) Pivot joint: at the neck, ulna and radius
    (vi) saddle joint: lower jaw
    Possible movement along the synovial joint
     Bending and flexion (reducing the angle
    and the joint)
     Extension (increasing the angle along the
    joint)
     Abduction – moving parts of the body
    away from the body
     Rotation – movement around the axis
     Circumduction – combination of both
    internal and external movement.
    16.5m
    5.5m

    11m
    Center circle 5.5m
    R – 9.15m
    Goal line
    (75m)

    Substitution takes place along this line
    Used during throw in.
    58
    Where the reams bench and officials bench is
    located.
    Where the referee assistants operate from.
    Center line
    Subdivides the field into 2 equal halves.
    Substitution takes place along this line.
    Place kick takes place along this line
    Indicates when the player is offside.
    Center circle
    Where the players are supposed to be during the
    penalty shots.
    Where place kick is taken
    Goal line (75m)
    Forms width of the field
    Confirms the score
    Where the goal post is fixed.
    Indicates when a corner kick is to be awarded.
    Goal area/box (5.5m x 18.32m)
    This where the goalkeeper can’t be charged while
    handling the ball.
    Penalty area (40.32 x 16.5m)
    Where the goalkeeper enjoys privileges e.g.
    handling the ball.
    The opponents should be outside this area during
    goal kick.
    The ball is considered to be in play once it moves
    out of this area during foal kick.
    If a player commits any of the ten penal offences
    within this area then penalty kick is awarded to the
    opponents.
    Penalty are (R – 9.15m)
    Helps to maintain the opponents away from the
    goal at a distance of 9.15m during penalty kick.
    Penalty spot
    11m from the goal line where the ball is placed
    during penalty kick.
    MAIN LAWS OF THE GAME
    LAW 1.
    The ball
    Spherical and made if leather or other suitable
    materials.
    Circumference between 68cm – 70cm
    Weight between 410g – 450g.
    2. Flag posts
    Placed in all the 4 corners
    Should be 1.5m high
    3. Goal posts
    Two upright posts measuring 2.44m
    Cross bar measuring 7.32m. All the posts should
    be painted black and white.
    Net should be fixed for the purpose of:
    (i) Confirming the score
    (ii) Avoid a lot of disputes
    (iii) Avoid wastage of time be preventing the ball
    from going far.
    LAW: 2
    Players’ equipment
    A player should not use any equipment or wear
    anything that is dangerous to himself or another
    player. Basic/compulsory equipment include
    Jersey/shirt
    Shorts
    Stockings
    Shin guards
    Foot wear
    Goalkeeper’s gloves
    Each goalkeeper wears a colour that distinguishes
    him from other players and the referee.
    LAW 3
    Number of players
    A match is played with two teams each consisting
    of players not exceeding 11 of whom one is
    designed to be a goalkeeper. A match may not
    start if either of the teams is having less than 7
    players. Between 3 & 5 substitutions may be
    made depending on the competition. The names
    prior to the start of the game.
    Any other player may change place with the
    goalkeeper provided that:
    The referee is informed the change is made
    The change is made during a stoppage.
    LAW 4:
    Officials
    Referee
    Enforces the laws of the game
    Ensures that the ball meets the requirement.
    59
    Controls the match with the assistant referees:
    Ensures that the players equipment meet the
    requirement.
    Acts as a timekeeper and keeps the records of the
    match.
    Stops, suspends or terminate the match, at his
    discretion for any infringement of the law.
    Stops, suspends or terminate the match at his
    discretions because of outside interference of any
    kind.
    Stops the match if a player is seriously injured and
    ensures that he is removed from the field.
    Allow the play to continue until the ball is out of
    play of if a player is slightly injured.
    Punishes more serious offences if a player
    commits more than one offence at a time.
    Takes disciplinary actions against a player guilty
    of caution able and sending off offences.
    Acts on the advice of assistant referee on the
    incidents that he has not seen.
    Restarts the match after if had been stopped.
    NB/ Decisions of the referee regarding facts
    concerned with the play are final.
    Assistant referees
    Two assistant referees are appointed whose duties
    include indication of the following:
    When the ball is out of the field of play, which
    side is entitled to corner kick, goal kick and throw
    in.
    When a player may be penalized for being offside.
    When substitution is requested.
    When misconduct or any other incidence has
    occurred out of the view of the referee.
    (c) Match commission
    He is the representative of the
    federation/organization organizing the tournament.
    He writes the report on how the game progressed
    and incase of any incident he reports to the
    federation.
    (d) Fourth official (substitution referee)
    Assist referee in general administrative duties e.g.
    inspecting players’ equipment, facilities and
    registering players.
    He helps to enforce substitution.
    Incase the center referee is incapacitated he can
    take the whistle.
    Qualities of a good referee
    Physical fit
    Conversant with the latest rules of the game
    Good eye sight
    Sympathetic
    Friendly and cheerful
    Firm in decision making
    Should not be biased.
    LAW 5
    Duration of the match
    The match lasts two equal periods lasting 45
    minutes each.
    Players are entitled to a resting interval of 15
    minutes during half time. Allowances for time
    lost is made in either period for all time lost
    through:
    Substitution
    Assessment of injuries
    Removal of injured players
    Wasting time
    During penalty kick.
    LAW 6:
    Start and restart of the play
    A coin is tossed and the team that wins decides on
    which goal it will attack in the 1st half. The other
    team takes the kick off (place kick). The team
    wins the coin takes the kick off in the 2nd half.
    Place kick (kick off)
    It is administered in the following instances:
    At the start of the match
    After a goal has been scored.
    At the start of each period of the extra time where
    applicable.
    A goal may be scored directly from a place kick.
    After a team scores a goal the other team takes the
    kick off.
    Procedure
    All players at there respective halves of the field
    of play.
    Ball at the center spot.
    The team starting lines up along the center b
    within the center circle.
    Opponents outside the center circle and must
    maintain a distance of 9.15m from the ball.
    Ball considered being in play once it moves
    forward.
    A player cannot pass the ball to himself.
    60
    Drop ball
    This is a way of restarting the match after a
    temporary stoppage. The referee drops the ball at
    the point where it was located.
    Cases when awarded.
     When there is simultaneous offence.
     When there is technical problem e.g.
    basting of the ball
     External interference e.g. spectator
    invading the court.
     When referee is uncertain of the player
    who has committed the offence.
     When the game was stopped due to bad
    weather.
     When the game was stopped when
    lowering national flag.
     Stoppage in case of injuries.
    Procedures
    Done at the point where the incident occurred.
    Two opposing players stand facing each other and
    hands straight along side their body.
    Referee drops the ball down considering the waist
    of the shorter player.
    The ball is considered to be in play once it touches
    the ground.
    LAW 7
    Ball in and out of play
    Ball out of play
    If it has wholly crossed the goal line or touchline
    whether in air or on ground.
    When play has been stopped by referee.
    Bal in play
    The moment referee blows the whistle for the
    game to commence during place kick and throw
    in.
    When the ball hits the ground during drop ball.
    When the ball moves forward during corner kick.
    When ball hits goal post, corner flag, referee or
    referee assistant who is standing in the field.
    When the ball moves out of the penalty area
    during goal kick.
    LAW 8:
    Method of scoring
    A goal is scored when the whole ball passes over
    the goal line in between the upright post and under
    the cross bar. If both teams score equal
    Number of goals or no goals scored, the match is
    drawn.
    For matches ending in a draw, competition rules
    may state provisions involving extra time or other
    procedure to determine the winner.
    LAW 9:
    OFFSIDE
    Offside position
    It is not an offence in itself to be in an offside
    position.
    A player is in offside position if he is nearer to his
    opponents’ goal line than the ball and the 2nd last
    opponent.
    A player is not offside position if:
     He is in his own half of the field of play
     He is in level with the 2nd last opponent
     He is in level with the last 2 opponents.
    Offences
    A player in offside position is only penalized if , at
    the moment the ball touches or is played by one of
    his team mate, he is in the opinion of the referee
    involved in active play by:
     Interfering with the play
     Interfering with the opponent
     Gaining an advantage by being in that
    position.
    No offences
    There is no offside offence if a player receives a
    ball directly from:
     Goal kick
     Corner kick
     Throw in
    For any offside offence the referee awards an
    indirect free kick at the place where the
    infringement occurred.
    LAW 10:
    Fouls and misconducts
    Fouls —these are offences due to a player
    breaking the law of the game.
    Misconduct – these are offences due to a player
    displaying unsportsman like behaviour or playing
    contrary to the game to the spirit of the game.
    They are penalized as follows:
    a) Direct free kick
    Awarded to opposing team if a player commits
    any of the following offences (ten penal offences)
     Kicking or attempt to kick an opponent.
    61
     Tripping or attempt to trip an opponent.
     Jumping at an opponent
     Charges at an opponent
     Strike or attempt to strike an opponent.
     Pushes an opponent
     Tackles an opponent making contact with
    the opponent first before touching the ball.
     Holds an opponent.
     Spits at an opponent.
     Handles the ball deliberately (except
    goalkeeper)
    Penalty Kick
    This awarded if any of the above offences are
    committed inside a player’s penalty area
    intentionally.
    Procedure
     Ball is placed at the penalty spot.
     All other players outside the penalty are
    except the kicker.
     Goalkeeper to remain stationary along the
    goal line until the kick is taken.
     The ball should be kicked once and in
    forward direction.
    c) Indirect kick
    This is awarded to the opposing team if a player,
    in the opinion of the referee, commits any of the
    following offences.
     Plays in dangerous manner.
     Impedes the progress of an opponent.
     Prevents the goalkeeper form releasing the
    ball from his hands.
    It is also awarded to the opposing team, if a
    goalkeeper inside his own penalty area commits
    any of the following offences:
     Takes more than 4 steps or 6 seconds while
    controlling the ball with his hands before
    releasing it from his possession.
     Touches the ball again with his hands after
    it has been released from his possession
    and has not been touched by any other
    player.
     Touches the ball with his hands after it has
    been deliberately kicked to him by a
    teammate.
     Wastes time.
    d) Disciplinary sanctions
    Yellow card
    This is shown when a player commits any of the
    following offences.
    Is guilty of unsporting behaviour.
     Shows dissent by word or action
     Persistently infringes the law of the game
     Delays the restart of the play
     Fails to respect the distance required when
    play is restarted a corner kick or free kick.
     Enters or re-enters the field or play without
    referee’s permission.
     Deliberately leaves the field of play
    without referee’s permission.
    e) Sending – off offences
    Red-card
     This is shown to a player who commits any
    of the following offences:
     Is guilty of serious foul play
     Is guilt of violent conduct.
     Spits at an opponent or any other person.
     Denies an opponent a goal or an obvious
    scoring opportunity by deliberately
    handling the ball (this does not apply to
    goal keeper within his own penalty area.)
     Denies an obvious goal scoring
    opportunity to an opponent moving
    towards the player’s goal by an offence
    punishable by free kick or penalty kick.
     Uses offensive, insulting or abusive
    language
     Receive a second caution (yellow card) in
    the same match.
    LAW 11
    Throw in
    This method of restarting a play awarded when a
    whole ball passes over the touchline either on the
    ground or in the air. It is awarded to opponent of
    the player who lastly touched the ball.
    A goal cannot be scored directly from throwin.
    Conditions to be observed:
     Should be taken at the point where it
    crossed the touchline.
     Opponents should be 9.15m away from the
    ball.
     The player cannot pas the ball to himself.
     Ball must be delivered from behind and
    overhead.
     The thrower should note the field of play
    before releasing the ball.
    LAW 12
    Goal kick
    This is a method of restarting a play.
    62
    It is awarded when the whole ball, having lastly
    been touched by a player of the attacking team and
    passes over the goal line either on the ground or in
    air and the goal is not scored as per law 8.
    Procedure
     The ball is placed on top of the goal area
    line.
     All the opponents outside the penalty area.
     A goal may be scored directly from the
    goal kick.
    LAW 13
    Corner kick
    This is a method of restarting a play
    It is awarded when the whole ball having last been
    touched by a player of the defending team passes
    over the goal line and a goal is not scored in
    accordance with law 8.
    A goal may be scored from corner kick.
    Procedure
     The ball is placed at the corner arc.
     Opponents 9.15m away from the ball.
     Flag should not be removed.
     A player can’t be offside during corner
    kick.
     A player cannot pass a ball to himself.
    LAW 14.
    Kicks from penalty mark (penalty shoot out).
    Taking kicks from a penalty mark is a method of
    determining a winning team where the competition
    requires a winning team after the match have been
    drawn.
    Procedure
     Referee chooses the goal at which the
    kicks shall be taken.
     Referee tosses a coin and the team for the
    winning captain takes the first kick.
     Referee keeps a record of kicks taken.
     Each team takes 5 kicks alternatively.
     If both teams have taken 5 kicks and one
    has scored more goals than the other could
    score, even if it were to complete 5 kicks
    no more kicks are taken.
     If after both teams have taken 5 kicks, both
    have scored same number of goal, kick
    continue until one team has scored a goal
    more than the other from the same number
    of kicks.
     Each kick is taken by a different player and
    all eligible players must take a kick before
    a player takes a second kick.
     All players except the player taking the
    kick and the two goalkeepers must remain
    within the center circle.
    BASIC SKILLS OF THE GAME
    1. GOALKEEPING
    A good goalkeeper should have knowledge on the
    following:
    Panting: this when a goalkeeper catches the ball
    and does not take 4 steps of 6 seconds before
    tossing the ball in air and kicking it.
    Narrowing the angle: this is moving from the goal
    line towards the attacker with the ball.
    Other skills require of a goalkeeper are diving and
    grip.
    2. HEADING
    Heading skills that can be used by a player
    include:
    Side head
    Forward head
    Back head.
    Reasons for heading
    To score
    To give a pass
    To control the ball
    3. PASSING
    This is the application of small amount of force on
    the ball in order to reach the other teammate. Part
    of the foot used in passing include:
     Inside of the foot.
     Instep
     Toe
     Heel
     Outside of the foot.
    Types of passes
     Wall pass
     Through pass
     Square pass
     Diagonal pass
     Inter pass
    4. KICKING
    This is the application of great force on the ball
    using your foot to go up the field or to shoot.
    Types of passes
    a) Banana/curve/swerve.
    b) Scissors/orthodox
    c) Volley kick
    Half — ball lands first, bounce and then hit.
    Full—ball is hit before it lands
    d) Chip/loft: raising over the goalkeeper.
    63
    5. TACKLING
    This involves getting the ball away from an
    opponent.
     Styles of tackling
     Linear tackling
     Sliding
     Frontal
     Heading
     Rear.
    6. DRIBBLING
    This is moving with the ball under control by short
    controlled taps.
    Types of dribbling
    Single leg/open
    Double leg/closed
    Reasons for dribbling
    To advance with the ball
    To give teammate room to open
    To beat an opponent
    To create a clear chance of scoring
    To cover the distance.
    7. SHIELDING/SCREENING

    1. Goal keeper 7. Outside right
    2. Right full back 8. Inside right
    3. Left full back 9. Center forward
    4. Left half back 10. Inside left
    5. Center back 11. Outside left
    6. Right half back
    Formations (playing systems)
    (i) Classic formation: 2-3-5
    (ii) WM formation: 3-2-2-3
    (iii) 4-2-4
    (iv) Sweeper system: 1-4-3-2
    (v) 5-3-2
    (vi) 4-4-2
    This is putting the ball away from the opponent by
    leaning on the ball without causing obstruction.
    8. BALL CONTROL
    (a) Trapping
    This is applied when controlling aerial balls
    though the ball is not completely controlled. Parts
    used in trapping the ball include: Head, shoulder,
    thigh, heel, instep and sole.
    (b) Stopping
    Used to control the ball completely dead. Parts
    used include; shoulder, instep, inside of the foot
    and outside of the foot.
    9. JUGGLING
    Tapping the ball in air using several parts of the
    body.
    10. DODGING/FEINTING/FAKING
    This is anticipating the opponent to go in the
    wrong direction.
    PLAY POSITIONS
    Qualities of a good goalkeeper
     Reasonably tall
     Good reaction to time
     Courageous
     Swift
     Good grip
     Good eye sight
     Strong
    Qualities of mid fielders
     Good ball dribbling
     Good ball distribution/passing
     Should be swift.
    Qualities of full back
     Good timing/reaction time
     Enduring
     Good tackling technique
     Strong shots/kicks
    Qualities of forward players
     Very fast
     Good accurate shots
     Good reaction time
     Good ball control.