14,000 promotions vacancies for teachers re-advertised by TSC in 2023

RE-ADVERTISEMENT TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION, TSC PROMOTIONS 2023

RE-ADVERTISEMENT; TEACHERS SERVICE COMMISSION

The Teachers Service Commission, TSC, is a Constitutional Commission established under article 237 of the Constitution. One of its mandate is to appoint and deploy institutional administrators.

Pursuant to this mandate, the Commission invites applications from suitably qualified teachers for the posts shown below in line with the Teachers Career Progression Guidelines.

Interested candidates, who meet the required qualifications, should submit their applications online through the TSC portal – www.teachersonline.go.ke so as to be received on or before 31st January, 2023.

Manual applications shall not be considered.

_______________________________________________________

TSC Promotions 2023 – Advertised posts, requirements, how to apply

TSC announces 14,738 promotions vacancies for teachers 2022/2023

Promotion of teachers by TSC; Read the latest details

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 VACANCIES FOR CHIEF PRINCIPAL (TEACHER TRAINING COLLEGES)

Advert No. Advert Name T-Scale Grade Posts
27/2022 Chief Principal (Teacher Training Colleges) 15 D5 4
TOTAL 4

 

VACANCIES FOR PRINCIPALS, DEPUTY PRINCIPALS, SENIOR MASTERS, SECONDARY TEACHERS, HEAD TEACHERS AND DEPUTY HEAD TEACHERS IN SECONDARY AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS

S/No Advert No. Advert Name T-Scale Grade Posts
1. 28/2022 Chief Principal (Regular School) 15 D5 73
2. 29/2022 Chief Principal (SNE School) 15 D5 4
3. 30/2022 Principal (Regular School) 13 D3 602
4. 31/2022 Principal (SNE School) 13 D3 8
5. 32/2022 Deputy Principal I 13 D3 17
6. 33/2022 Deputy Principal II 12 D2 725

 

7. 34/2022 Deputy Principal III (Regular School) 11 D1 224
8. 35/2022 Deputy Principal III (SNE School) 11 D1 15
9. 36/2022 Senior Master II 11 D1 208
10. 37/2022 Head teacher (Regular School) 10 C5 2,733
11. 38/2022 Head teacher (SNE School) 10 C5 32
12. 39/2022 Deputy Head teacher II (Regular School) 9 C4 7,720
13. 40/2022 Deputy Head teacher II (SNE School) 9 C4 22
14. 41/2022 Secondary Teacher I 8 C3 1,330
TOTAL 13,713

 

VACANCIES FOR TEACHERS DEPLOYED AS PRINCIPALS, DEPUTY PRINCIPALS, HEAD TEACHERS & DEPUTY HEAD TEACHERS IN ASAL AND HARD-TO-STAFF COUNTIES/SUB COUNTIES indicated below;

(Baringo (Baringo North, Tiaty East, Tiaty West and Marigat Sub-Counties), Garissa. Homa Bay (Suba and Mbita Sub-Counties), Isiolo, Kajiado (Mashuuru, Loitoktok and Kajiado West Sub-Counties), Kilifi (Magarini and Ganze Sub-Counties), Kitui (Mumoni, Mutitu North and Tseikuru), Kwale, Lamu, Mandera, Marsabit, Narok (Narok South and North Sub-Counties Counties), Samburu, Taita Taveta, Tana River, Turkana, Wajir and West Pokot).

S/No Advert No. Advert Name T-Scale Grade Posts
1 42/2022 Principal 13 D3 25
2 43/2022 Deputy Principal II 12 D2 17
3 44/2022 Deputy Principal III 11 D1 8
4 45/2022 Senior Master III 10 C5 7
5 46/2022 Senior Master IV 9 C4 10
6 47/2022 Deputy Principal III 11 D1 20
7 48/2022 Senior Master III 10 C5 7
8 49/2022 Senior Master IV 9 C4 90
9 50/2022 Head teacher 10 C5 62
10 51/2022 Deputy Head teacher II 9 C4 21
11 52/2022 Senior Teacher I 8 C3 20
12 53/2022 Senior Teacher II 7 C2 32
13 54/2022 Deputy Head teacher II 9 C4 195
14 55/2022 Senior Teacher I 8 C3 223
15 56/2022 Senior Teacher II 7 C2 284
TOTAL 1,021

 

NOTE:

  1. Applicants shall be required to upload the letter of deployment to the current responsibility during application.
  2. Candidates who will be successful in the interviews shall be required to present valid Chapter six documents before they are considered for appointment.

Teachers Service Commission is an equal opportunity employer and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply.

VACANCIES FOR PRINCIPALS, DEPUTY PRINCIPALS, SENIOR MASTERS, SECONDARY TEACHERS, HEAD TEACHERS AND DEPUTY HEAD TEACHERS IN SECONDARY AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN 2023

The Teachers Service Commission is a Constitutional Commission established under article

237 of the Constitution. One of its mandate is to appoint and deploy institutional administrators.

Pursuant to this mandate, the Commission invites applications from suitably qualified teachers for the posts shown below in line with the Teachers Career Progression Guidelines.

Interested candidates, who meet the required qualifications, should submit their applications online through the TSC portal – www.teachersonline.go.ke so as to be received on or before 23rd January, 2023. Manual applications shall not be considered.

Teachers Service Commission is an equal opportunity employer and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply.

ADVERT NO. 28/2022: CHIEF PRINCIPAL (REGULAR SECONDARY SCHOOL) T-SCALE 15 – 73 POSTS

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Senior Principal T-Scale 14 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal and performance contracting process;
  3. have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  4. meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  5. meet any other requirements deemed necessary by the Commission.

_________________________________________________________

Related Content;

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ADVERT NO. 29/2022: CHIEF PRINCIPAL (SNE SECONDARY SCHOOL)

T-SCALE 15 – 4 POSTS

(Hearing Impairment (2 posts), Multiple (1 post), Physical Impairment (1 post) REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Senior Principal T-Scale 14 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have at least a Diploma in Special Needs Education (in the area of specialty indicated);
  • have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal and performance contracting process;
  1. have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  2. meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  3. meet any other requirements deemed necessary by the

ADVERT NO. 30/2022: PRINCIPAL (REGULAR SECONDARY SCHOOL) T-SCALE 13 – 602 POSTS

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Deputy Principal II/Senior Master I T-Scale 12 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have obtained a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  1. meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  2. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

ADVERT NO. 31/2022: PRINCIPAL (SNE SECONDARY SCHOOL)

T-SCALE 13 – 8 POSTS

(Hearing Impairment (6 posts), Multiple (1 post), Physical Impairment (1 post) REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Deputy Principal II/Senior Master I T-Scale 12 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have at least a Diploma in Special Needs Education (in the area of specialty indicated);
  • have obtained a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  1. have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  2. meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  3. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the Commission. ADVERT 32/2022: DEPUTY PRINCIPAL I T-SCALE 13 17 POSTS

_________________________________________________________

Continue reading;

TSC Promotions 2023 – Advertised posts, requirements, how to apply

TSC announces 14,738 promotions vacancies for teachers 2022/2023

How to apply for the advertised TSC promotions vacancies and online application portal

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REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Deputy Principal II or Senior Master I T-Scale 12 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  1. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

ADVERT NO. 33/2022: DEPUTY PRINCIPAL II T-SCALE 12 – 725 POSTS REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Deputy Principal III or Senior Master II T-Scale 11 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have obtained a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  1. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

 

ADVERT NO. 34/2022: DEPUTY PRINCIPAL III (REGULAR SECONDARY SCHOOL) T-SCALE 11 – 224 POSTS

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

  1. have served as Senior Master III T-Scale 10 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have obtained a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution;
  1. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

 

ADVERT NO. 35/2022: DEPUTY PRINCIPAL III (SNE SECONDARY SCHOOL)

 

T-SCALE 11 – 15 POSTS

(Hearing Impairment (14 posts), Visual Impairement (1 post) REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Senior Master III T-Scale 10 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have at least a Diploma in Special Needs Education (in the area of specialty indicated);
  • have obtained a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  1. meet the requirements of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution;
  2. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

 

ADVERT NO. 36/2022: SENIOR MASTER II T-SCALE-11 – 208 POSTS REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as a Senior Master III T-Scale 10 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have a satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide support to other teachers;
  1. meet the provisions of Chapter six (6) of the Constitution; and
  2. meet any other requirement deemed necessary by the

 

ADVERT NO. 37/2022: HEAD TEACHER (REGULAR PRIMARY SCHOOL) T-SCALE 10 – 2,733 POSTS

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Deputy Head Teacher II TSC Scale 9 for a minimum period of three

(3) years;

  1. have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  1. meet the requirements of Chapter Six (6) of the Constitution; and
  2. meet any other requirement the Commission may deem

 

ADVERT NO. 38/2022: HEAD TEACHER (SNE PRIMARY SCHOOL)

 

T-SCALE 10 – 32 POSTS

(Hearing Impairment (11 posts), Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities (14 posts), Multiple (3 posts), Physical Impairment (2 posts), Visual Impairement (2 posts)

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Deputy Head Teacher II TSC Scale 9 for a minimum period of three

(3) years;

  1. have at least a Diploma in Special Needs Education (in the area of specialty indicated);
  • have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  1. have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  2. meet the requirements of Chapter Six (6) of the Constitution; and
  3. meet any other requirement the Commission may deem

 

ADVERT NO. 39/2022: DEPUTY HEAD TEACHER II (REGULAR PRIMARY SCHOOL) T-SCALE 9 – 7,720 POSTS

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Senior Teacher I T- Scale 8 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal;
  • have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;
  1. meet the requirements of Chapter Six (6) of the Constitution; and
  2. meet any other requirement the Commission may deem

 

ADVERT NO. 40/2022: DEPUTY HEAD TEACHER II (SNE PRIMARY SCHOOL)

T-SCALE 9 – 22 POSTS

(Hearing Impairment (4 posts), Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities (13 posts), Multiple (1 post), Physical Impairment (3 posts), Visual Impairement (1 post)

REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Senior Teacher I T- Scale 8 for a minimum period of three (3) years;
  2. have at least a Diploma in Special Needs Education (in the area of specialty indicated);
  • have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal;
  1. have demonstrated ability to supervise, mentor and provide professional support to other teachers;

 

  1. meet the requirements of Chapter Six (6) of the Constitution; and
  2. meet any other requirement the Commission may deem

 

ADVERT NO. 41/2022: SECONDARY TEACHER I T-SCALE 8 – 1,330 POSTS REQUIREMENTS FOR APPOINTMENT

For appointment to this grade, a teacher must: –

 

  1. have served as Secondary School Teacher II T-Scale 7 for a minimum period of three

(3) years;

  1. have satisfactory rating in the performance appraisal process;
  • meet any other requirements deemed necessary by the Comiision

NOTE:

Candidates who are successful in the interviews shall be required to present valid Chapter 6 documents before they are appointed.

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RADIOACTIVITY PHYSICS SIMPLIFIED NOTES FREE

RADIOACTIVITY

INTRODUCTION

  • In 1896 Henri Becquerel accidently discovered that Uranium salt crystals emitted invisible radiation that darkened a photographic plate even when covered to exclude light.
  • Madame Curie & her husband Pierre discovered Polonium & Radium.
  • Marie Curie described these elements as being radioactive and concluded that the radiations originate from the nucleus. They called this phenomenon

Radioactivity or radioactive decay is the spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclides to form stable ones with the emission of radiation. Unstable nuclides continue to disintegrate until a stable atom is formed.

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

The nucleus of an atom has a specific number of protons and neutrons. The number of protons in the nucleus is called the atomic or proton number while the sum of the number of protons and neutrons is called the mass or nucleon number.

An atom X of mass number A and atomic number Z can be represented as . If the number of neutrons in the nucleus is N, then:

A= Z+N.

Thus, hydrogen can be represented by , helium by and neon by . Some atoms have the same number of protons in the nucleus yet different mass numbers. Such atoms are referred to as isotopes. Examples of isotopes include carbon- 12 and carbon- 14. Isobars – are nuclides with the same mass number A but different atomic number Z – Ra, Ac. Th.

The energy holding the protons and neutrons together in the nucleus is called the binding or nuclear energy.

The masses of atoms are conveniently given in terms of atomic mass units (u) where (u) is 1/12th the mass of one atom of carbon-12 and has a value of 1.660 × 10-27 kg. Hence the mass of one proton is equal to 1.67 × 10-27 and is equal to 1u.

NUCLEAR STABILITY

When the ratio of the number of protons to the number of neutrons in a nucleus is about 1:1, the nuclide is said to be stable, otherwise it is an unstable. For unstable nucleus, it has to undergo disintegration in an attempt to achieve stability. Below is a stability curve;

 

 

 

From the graph, it is observed that the unstable nuclides are outside the stability line. Those nuclides above the stability line have too many neutrons; hence decay in such a way that the proton number increases. Those below the stability line have too many protons and therefore decay in such a way that their proton number decreases.

TYPES OF RADIACTIONS

In the process of disintergration of radioactive elements, there are three radiations which may be emitted namely;

  • Alpha (α) radiations
  • Beta (β) radiations
  • Gamma (γ) radiations.

Radiations emitted by radioactive elements are identified according to the properties they exhibit. Their behavior can be observed when they are passed through a magnetic or an electric fields

Similarly, their behavior can be observed when they are passed through a field as shown below:

  1. ALPHA (α) RADIATIONS:
  • Are positively charged.
  • Are massive or heavy and thus have shorter range in air. They are slightly deflected by strong magnetic or electric field due to their higher mass.
  • Cause the highest ionization effect on the particles on their paths compared to beta and gamma radiations, thereby losing most of their energy.
  • Have the least penetrating ability or power compared to the other two radiations. They can be stooped by a thick sheet of paper.
  1. BETA RADIATIONS:
  • Are negatively charged.
  • Are lighter compared to alpha radiations. Hence they are greatly deflected by strong magnetic or electric field.
  • Have longer range in air.
  • Cause less ionization compared to alpha radiations. Hence they have a higher penetrating ability or power. They can penetrate a thick sheet of paper but can be stopped by a thin aluminium foil.
  1. GAMMA RADIATIONS:
  • Are massless and do not have charge. Hence they are not deflected by both magnetic and electric fields.
  • Are electromagnetic waves.
  • Cause very little ionization. Hence most of their energy is intact. They have the highest penetrating ability or power of all the three radiations. They can penetrate thick paper and aluminium but is stopped by thick lead.

COMPARISONS OF THE THREE RADIATIONS

  • Range in air
  • α-particles – are the least penetrating of the three radiations.

They have a few cm in air about 5 cm.

  • β-particles – are more penetrating than alpha particles.

Several metres in air – 5m

  • g-rays – are the most penetrating of the three. Hardly affected by air. Intensity reduces as they spread.
  • Absorption
  • α-particles – are stopped by very thin aluminium, paper or skin.
  • β-particles – can pass through 1 mm of aluminium: -stopped by a few mm of aluminium or Perspex.
  • g-rays – can pass through metal and even several mm of lead but stopped by 5 cm of lead.

N/B 1 cm thickness of lead is referred to as the half-thickness for the lead since it lowers the intensity of the radiation to half the original volume. Gamma rays are similar to the x-rays, but they have a generally shorter wavelength. The main difference between X-rays and gamma rays is that gamma rays originate from energy changes in the nucleus of atoms while X-rays originate from energy changes associated with electron structure of atoms.

  • Effect of electric field
  • α-particles – Small deflection.

Attracted towards the negative plate, indication a (+ve) charge.

  • β-particles – Strongly deflected.

Attracted towards the positive plate indicating a (-ve) charge – use Fleming’s left hand rule for direction of force.

  • g-rays – Not affected by an electric field. Indicating no charge.
  • Effect of magnetic field
  • α-particles – Deflected by magnetic field, but only a powerful field has an effect, indicating that the particles are relatively heavy.
  • -The positive charge which they carry results in their deflection in the opposite direction to beta-particles.
  • β-particles – They are strongly deflected by magnetic field because of their lower mass or light mass
  • g-rays – They are not affected by magnetic field and carry on straight as the speed of light.
  • Ionization effects

When alpha, beta or gamma radiations pass through air, they knock off electrons from air molecules resulting in the formation of positive ions. This effect is called ionisation.

Therefore, if electrons become detached from molecules in a gas, ions are produced and the gas is ionized.

  • α-particles – They are very strong ionizers as they are able to knock off more electrons as they pass through air. They discharge electroscope rapidly.
  • β-particles – Cause less ionization, about 1/10th that of α-particles. Discharge electroscope slowly.
  • g-rays – Cause negligible ionization1/1000th of alpha. Does not discharge electroscope.

Table below shows the characteristics of alpha particle, beta particle, and gamma particle.

Characteristic Alpha particle Beta particle Gamma particle
Nature Positively charged helium nucleus, He Negatively charged electron, e Neutral
In an electric field Bends to the negative plate Bends to the positive plate Does not bend, showing that it is neutral.
In magnetic field Bends a little showing that it has a big mass. Direction of the bend indicates that it is positively charged. Bends a lot showing that it has a small mass. Direction of the bend indicates that it is negatively charged. Does not bend showing that it is neutral.
Ionising power Strongest Intermediate Weakest
Penetrating power low Intermediate High
Stopped by A thin sheet of paper A few millimeters of aluminium A few centimeters of lead or concrete
Range in air A few centimeters A few metres A few hundred metres
Speed 1/20 X the speed of light, c 3%-99% of the speed of light, c The speed of light, c

 

RADIOACTIVITY

Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of the particles from the nucleus of an unstable nuclide.

It can also be defined as the spontaneous disintegration of unstable nuclides to form stable ones with the emission of radiation  

Radioactive decay is the disintegration of certain naturally occurring nuclides with emission of α, β and g-rays.

Radioactive decay involves the emission of Alpha and Beta particles but sometimes extra energy is released as Gamma rays.

Note that a particular radioactive decay process must not necessarily emit all the three radiations.

Radioactive decay is not dependent on physical factors like pressure, temperature or chemical composition of the nuclide.

There are three types of radioactive decay:

  • ALPHA DECAY

This decay process emits alpha radiation(s). Alpha radiation is the nucleus of a helium atom represented by . If a nuclide decays by releasing an alpha particle, the mass number of the parent nuclide is reduced by 4 while atomic number is reduced by 2. This is expressed as;

+

(Parent nuclide)                      (Daughter nuclide)                 (Alpha nuclide)

For example, Uranium 238 decays to Thorium 234 by emitting an alpha particle. The decay is expressed as;

+

Similarly, polonium undergoes alpha decay to become lead.

+

 

 

 

 

  • BETA DECAY

When an atom undergoes beta decay, it emits a beta particle. A beta particle is a fast moving electron represented by . The mass number of such a nuclide remains the same while its atomic number increases by one (1). This is expressed as:

+

(Parent nuclide)                      (Daughter nuclide)                 (Beta nuclide)

Radioactive sodium, for example undergoes beta decay to become magnesium. This is written as;

+

 

  • GAMMA DECAY

Gamma decay does not have any effect on the mass number or atomic number of the nuclide. Instead the nuclide attains stability by simply releasing energy in the form of gamma radiation.

For example,;

  • Cobalt-60;

 

  • Thorium-230;

 

Example 1

Thorium-230 [ ] undergoes decay to become Randon-222[ ]. Find the number of alpha particles emitted.

 

 

 

SOLN

Let the number of alpha particles emitted be x. the expression for the decay is;

 

Thus;

4x +222           =          230                  OR       2x + 86            =          90

4x        =          8                                              2x        =          4

Hence, x          =          2                                              x          =          2

Two alpha particles are emitted.

Example 2

Lead-214 ( ) decays to polonium-214( ) by emitting β-particles. Calculate the number of β-particles emitted.

SOLN

Let x be the number of β-particles emitted.

+   X ( )

82        =          84-x

X    =          2

Two β-particles are emitted.

Example 3

Uranium-238 ( ) undergoes a decay emitting alpha and beta particles to become lead-206 ( ). Calculate the number of alpha and beta particles emitted.

SOLN

Let the number of α and β-particles emitted be x and y respectively

+

238      =          206+4x

4x        =          32

X         =          8

Also;

92        =          82+2x-y

92        =          82 + 16 – y

92        =          98 – y

Y         =          6

Eight alpha particles and 6 beta particles are emitted.

Example 4

Uranium ( ) decays to polonium ( ) by emitting alpha particles. Write down the nuclide equation to represent the decay process. Hence determine the number of alpha particles emitted.

SOLN

+   X ( )

234            = 218+4x

4X       =16

X         =          4

Alternatively,

92       =          84+2x

X         =8/2     =4

The decay equation is therefore;

+   4 ( )

RADIATION DETECTORS

Below are some of the radiation detectors:

  • A PHOTOGRAPHIC EMULSIONS

All the three radiations affect photographic emulsion or plate. When radioactive radiations strike a photographic film, they cause photographic emulsion i.e the film is blackened.

Photographic films are very useful to workers who handle radioactive materials. The workers are given special badges which contain small piece of unexposed photographic film. This will darken when exposed to radioactive radiations and hence a safety precaution should be taken.

  • THE LEAF ELECTROSCOPE

We have already seen that alpha and beta particles can ionize particles on their paths. This produces ions. If a source of these radiations is brought near the cap of a charged electroscope, the electroscope repels ions of similar charge but attracts those of the opposite charge. This neutralizes the electroscope and the leaf falls.

This method is most suitable for alpha particles since they cause the highest ionization but is not suitable for gamma radiations because they cause the least ionization.

  • CLOUD CHAMBER

When air is cooled until the vapour it contains reaches saturation, it is possible to cool it further without condensation occurring. Under these conditions, the vapour is said to be super-saturated. This can only occur if the air is free of any dust, which normally acts as nuclei for condensation. The ionization of air molecules by radiation can be investigated by a cloud chamber. The common types of cloud chambers include;

  • Expansion cloud chamber
  • Diffusion cloud chamber

 

  1. EXPANSION CLOUD CHAMBER

When a radioactive element emits radiations into the chamber, the air inside is ionized.

 

 

 

 

 

 

If the piston is now moved down suddenly, air in the chamber will expand and cooling occurs. When this happens, the ions formed act as nuclei on which the saturated alcohol or water vapour condenses, forming tracks.

  1. THE DIFFUSION CLOUD CHAMBER

The common diffusion chamber is made up of a cylindrical transparent container. It is partitioned into two compartments by a blackened metal plate. The upper compartment is fitted with the transparent Perspex lid and its top lined with a thin strip of felt ring soaked in alcohol or water. The bottom is fitted with sponge and closed with removable cover. The upper compartment contains air, which is at the room temperature at the top. The air at the bottom is at about -780C due to a layer of dry ice in the lower compartment. The felt ring is soaked in alcohol. This alcohol vapourizes in the warm region, diffuse down and is then cooled.

                             Black metal base  Perspex lid        Radioactive source

                                                                                                          Felt ring soaked in alcohol

    Light source                                                                               

                                                                                                         Dry ice [solid carbon (iv) oxide]

                                                                                                         Sponge

                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                        Wedge

                                           

                                            Removable base

This detector uses the concept that when an ionizing radiation passes through air with saturated vapour, then the vapour is observed to condense on the ions formed. This explains why aeroplanes sometime leave trails of cloud behind them as they move through super saturated air.

In the diffusion cloud chamber, alcohol vaporizes and diffuses towards black metal base. When a charged particle from the radioactive source; either alpha or beta particle, knocks the air particles ions are produced. The vaporized alcohol condenses on the formed ions. Since positive ions are heavy, they remain behind forming tracks which can be clearly seen through the Perspex lid.  To enhance visibility, a source of light is used to illuminate the chamber.

The dry ice is used to keep the black metal base cool while the sponge is used to keep the dry ice in contact with the black metal base.

Each radiation will produce a specific track as shown below:

Tracks due to alpha radiation

 

 

They are short, straight and thick due to the following:

  • Alpha particles cause heavy ionization, rapidly losing energy, hence shorter range in air.
  • They are massive and their path cannot therefore be changed by air molecules. It is not easy to displace them from their path by air particles.
  • They cause more ions on their paths as they knock off more elecrons

Tracks due to beta radiation

 

 

 

They are generally thin and irregular in direction due to:

  • Their longer range in air.
  • They are lighter due to their lower mass.
  • Irregular in direction (not straight), meaning that they can be displaced by air particles. They are also repelled by electrons of atoms within their path.

Tracks due to gamma radiation

 

 

Tracks due to gamma radiation are generally scanty and disjointed. These tracks do not come directly from the source but from electrons released by the gas atoms when they are struck by gamma radiation. The electrons then produce their own tracks.

  • THE GEIGER MULLER (GM) TUBE

 

The tube consists of a thin mica (or aluminium) window at one end of a closed glass tube which contains argon gas and little bromine gas at low pressure. A thin wire runs through the centre of the tube and is connected to the positive terminal of a high voltage supply. The walls of the tube are coated with a conductor and connected to negative terminal of the power supply.

When a radioactive substance is placed in front of the window, the radiation enters the tube through the thin mica window. The radiation ionizes argon gas. Opposite ions are attracted to either the cathode or the anode making a pulse of current to flow. As these ions move towards either electrode, they continue ionizing the argon gas producing more ions. The current is passed through an amplifier and then to a ratemeter where it is registered.

Note that only one pulse should be registered for each ionizing particle entering the tube. However, due to the high energy content of the positive ions, more electrons may be liberated from the surface of the cathode when struck by the positive ions. Such electrons are called secondary electrons. The secondary ionization causes the formation of avalanche of electrons. These can cause further ionization rendering the pulse registered incorrect.

To counter this, bromine is used which acts as a quenching agent, absorbing the energy of the positive ions before they reach the cathode.

The time taken by positive ins to move away from the anode (reducing the shielding effect) so that the field comes to normal is called dead time.

This method is not suitable for detection of gamma radiations due to its low ionization effect.

BACKGROUND RADIATION

Sometimes even in the absence of a radioactive source nearby, a GM tube may still register some radiations. This is called background radiation and it is present within the atmosphere. The count registered in the absence of the radioactive substance or source is called background count. Some of the causes of background radiation include;

  • Cosmic rays from outer space
  • Radiations from the sun
  • Some rocks which contain traces of radioactive material, e.g., granite
  • Natural and artificial radioisotopes

ARTIFICIAL RADIOACTIVITY

Some naturally occurring nuclides which are not radioactive can be made artificially radioactive by bombarding nuclei of stable atoms with alpha-particles, beta-particles, protons or neutrons.

For example, when nitrogen-14( ) nuclide, which is stable, is bombarded with fast moving alpha particles, radioactive oxygen is formed. This is represented by;

+                          +

Other artificially radioactive nuclides are silicon-27 ( ), sulphur-35 ( ) and chlorine-36 ( ).

 

THE DECAY LAW

A radioactive decay is a spontaneous, random process in which one cannot point out the nuclide that will disintegrate next. The choice of the nuclide that decays is governed by chance. This is because extremely large number of atoms is usually involved.

The decay law states that the rate of disintegration at any given time is directly proportional to the number of nuclides present at that time (remaining undecayed). This can be expressed as;

α-N; where N is the number of nuclides present at the given time. It follows that;

=-λN, where λ- is the decay constant.

Note that the negative sign indicates that the number N is decreasing with time.

is referred to as the activity of the material.

 

HALF LIFE

This is the time taken for half the number of nuclides initially present in a given radioactive sample to decay.

Consider 2g of radium, whose half-life is 1600 years. In 1600 years 1g will have decayed. In the next 1600 years, ½ g of the sample will be remaining. This is illustrated in the table below:

No. of years No. of half-lives Mass decayed (g) Mass remaining (g)
0              0            0 2
1600              1            1 1
3200              2           1 ½ ½
4800              3           1 ¾ ¼
6400             4           1 7/8 1/8

 

It can also be shown that the number of nuclides remaining undecayed, N after time T is given by;

N         =          N0(½)T/t   ; where N0 is the original number of nuclides and t the halt-life.

 

A graph of the number of nuclides remaining N against time T appears as shown below:

 N0

Number

Of radiation

nuclei

                         

 

 

                          0t½                                                     Time T

 

 

In order to plot the correct graph, it is advisable to first subtract the background radiation if does exist from each count rate before plotting the values. This will ensure that only count rate due to the radioactive material is used to plot the graph. This is because the value of the background radiation usually fluctuates.

The graph shows that the activity decreases by the same fraction in succession equal time intervals, that is, its exponential curve.

                                                          Example 5

A radioactive substance is found to have an activity of 360 counts per second. 30minutes later, it was 45counts per second. Determine its half life.

SOLN

360             t½              180       t½                90         t½             45

Hence ;  3t½               =30minutes

t½ =30/3               =10minutes.

Alternatively ;

N                     =N0(½)T/t½

45                    =360(½)30/t½

2-3                                 =2-30/t½

-3                    =-30/t½

t½=-30/-3        =10minutes

                                                    Example 6

A radioactive substance has a half life of 10hours. Calculate the percentage of the sample that remains after 25hours.

SOLN

N  =  N0(½)25/10

But percentage of the sample remaining after 25hrs is given by;

[N/N0] x 100

Hence; Percentage remaining    =            [{N0 (½)25/10}/N0] x 100

=            17.68%

                                                            Example 7

A GM tube is used to measure the decay of a certain radioactive substance and the results are as shown in the table below. The background radiation is 25counts per hour.

Time (hrs) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Countrate (counts/h) 425 255 175 105 73 51

Plot a graph of Countrate against time and use it to determine the half life of the material.

Example 8

When the values in the table below are plotted, we obtain the graph shown below;

The following are also common graphs that can be obtained from activity of the radioactive substances;

 

NUCLEAR FUSION AND FISSION

Nuclear fusion is defined as the fusing of the nuclei to form a heavier nucleus. Nuclear fusion is where light nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus. The process is accompanied by the release of large amounts of energy. Example is the fusion of lithium and hydrogen to give helium.

+                                    +

Beryllium formed is radioactive hence it disintegrates into two alpha particles.

Nuclear fission is the splitting of the radioactive nuclei into more stable nuclei. Nuclear fission occurs when a nucleus splits into smaller more stable nuclei. This happens by the nucleus absorbing a neutron. During nuclear fission, the binding energy is released. Example is the fission of uranium- 235;

+                                  +   + 2( )

The produced neutrons are called fission neutrons. One neutron may sometimes split to produce many atoms. When this occurs, it is called a chain reaction. Nuclear fission is the principle on which hydrogen bombs work. This process if not controlled may lead to explosions.

APPLICATIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY

  1. In medicine:
  • Gamma rays can be used to control cancerous growths in the human body. The radiations kill cancer cells when the tumour is subjected to it.
  • Gamma rays are also used to sterilize surgical equipment.
  • It can also be used for killing pests or making them sterile.
  • Can also used to monitor blood circulation disorders and the functioning of thyroid gland.
  1. In carbon dating– it uses the ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-14 to estimate the ages of fossils.
  2. Detecting Pipe Bursts-underground pipes carrying water or oil many suffer bursts or leakages. Therefore, the content being transported through the pipe is mixed with some radioactive substance which can be detected by a radiation detector on the ground around the area of leakage.
  3. In Agriculture– a radiation detector can be used to monitor the uptake of minerals introduced to plants by mixing it with some weak radioactive substance. Gamma rays can also be used to kill pests or make them sterile.
  4. Determination of thicknesses of thin metal sheets, paper or plastics– a GM tube is used to measure the thickness of the metal plates, paper or plastic. The source of radiation is placed on one side while the GM tube is placed on the opposite side. The metal plate is passed between the source and the detector. The count rate registered is a measure of the thickness of the metal plate. To be more efficient, a thickness gauge can be adapted which automatically controls the thickness of the metal foils, paper or plastics. A thickness gauge can be adapted for automatic control of the manufacturing process.
  5. Detection of Flaws– cracks and airspaces in the welded joints can be detected using gamma radiation from cobalt-60.

HAZARDS OF RADIOACTIVITY AND THEIR REMEDY

The effects of radiation on a human body depend on:

  • The nature of the radiation,
  • Dosage and
  • Part of the body irradiated.

Excessive exposure of body cells to radiations can lead to burn effects or genetic damage. Extreme heavy doses can be fatal. There could also be delayed effects such as cancer, leukemia and hereditary defects.

Gamma rays and beta radiation are more dangerous compared to alpha radiation due to their high degree of penetration.

PRECAUTIONS

Precautions should therefore be taken when handling radioactive materials. These include:

  • Always use forceps to handle radioactive materials. Never use bare hands to hold such materials.
  • Keep radioactive materials in thick lead boxes.
  • Use radiation absorbers in hospitals and research laboratories.
  • Reduce time spent near radiation sources.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactivity

  1. (a) Define radioactive decay

(b) A radioactive element decays to 1/128 of its original activity after 49 days. Determine its

half –life

 

238                                 y                               

      U                       Z    +

92                                 x

 

  • (b) (i) Determine the value of x and y in the nuclear equation below:-

 

 

(ii) The half life of a radioactive element is 20minutes. The mass of the element after 120

minutes is 0.03125g. Determine the original mass of the element

(iii) What evidence supports the fact that gamma rays are not charged

(iv) Alpha particles have low penetrating power as opposed to beta particles. Give a reason

for this

  1. v) A manufacturer wishes to check the thickness of steel sheets he produces. Explain how

this can  be done using a radioactive source and a counter

  1. a) What is meant by radio active decay?
  2. b) Uranium 235 was bombarded with a neutron and fission took place in the following manner:
235
90
a
1

 

 

 92 U + 10n                                38Rn  +      bX   +  10(    0n)

Determine the values of a and b

  1. c) When carrying out experiments with radio active substance one is instructed that the source

should never held with bare hands but with forceps. Give a reason for the instruction

  1. d) The diagram below shows the paths taken by three radiations A, B and C from a radio
X
A
B
Y
c

active isotope through an electric field

 

 

  1. i) State the charge on plate Y
  2. ii) Identify the radiation A and C

iii) Give a reason why C deviates move A

e
A
233
  1. e) Th disintergrates into radium (Ra) by emission of two alpha and two beta particles as

in equation    90 Th                             Z Ra + 2( 2H) + 2 (  -1)

State:

  1. i) The atomic number of the daughter nuclide
  2. ii) The mass number of the daughter nuclide
  3. f) One of the application of Beta emission (B) is controlling thickness gauge. Explain

how they  are used for this purpose?

  1. The following is a nuclear reaction for a fusion process resulting from the reaction of polonium
210                                           S                                     T

81         3 ßdecay           84      a decay        82

with loss of beta particles

 

 

 

P 1

(i) Determine the values of S and T

(ii) State the source of the energy released

  1. The expression below is an equation for radioactive element A. Element B and C are the daughter

nuclides. A, B and C are not the actual symbols of any of the elements

238                                                                                   234      X

A                                                         B             + C

92                                                                                      90        Y

(a) State what type of radioactive decay this is.

(b) What is the value of:

X………………  Y……………………

  1. Arrange the following in order of increasing frequency: Red light, Infrared radiation, X-rays,

UV radiation, Short –radio waves, TV and Fm radio waves, Am radio waves and Long radio

waves.

 

  1. Radium -222 is a radioactive element with a half-life period of 38 sec. What fraction of the mass

of a sample of this element remain after 380 sec.

 

  1. (a) Define the term half-life of a radioactive material

(b) (i) Use the table below to plot a graph of activity against time

Activity (Disintegration/seconds) 680 567 474 395 276 160 112 64
Time t (days) 0 1 2 3 5 8 10 14

(ii) Find the half-life of the material in days

(c)  The half-life of a radio-active substance is 138 days. A sample of the substance

has 8 x 1010  un-decayed nuclei at time t = 0. How many un-decayed nuclei will

be left after 690 days?

(d) An element x (uranium) decays by emitting two alpha particles and a beta particle

to yield element Y

(i) State the atomic number and mass number of Y

(ii) Write down the decay equation

  1. a) What is meant by radioactive decay?
  2. b) A radioactive source placed 12cm from the detector produced a constant count rate

of 5 counts per minute. When the source is moved close to 3cm, the count rate varies

as follows;

Time 0 20 40 60 80
Count rate 101 65 43 29 21

 

  1. i) State the type of radiation emitted.
  2.  ii) Explain the constant count rate when the source is 12cm away.

iii) Plot a graph of count rate against time (Use graph paper)

  1.  iv) Use the graph to estimate the half life of the element
  2. State one advantage of:
  3. i) A lead-acid accumulative over a dry cell
  4. ii) A dry cell over lead-acid accumulator

 

 

ANSWERS

  1. a) Radioactive decay is the spontaneous random emission of particles from the nucleus

of an unstable nuclide

P

 

(b) There are 7 half lives ( t½ )

7t½ = 49 days

P

 

t½ = 49

P

 

7

= 7days

  1. (b) (i) y =238-4(1) = 242

X = g2

(ii) 120 = 6 half lives

20

0.03125 x 26 = 2g

(iii) They are deflected by both electric and magnetic fields

(iv) Alpha particles are heavy (massive)

(v) – The sheets are brought in turns between radioactive source and the counter.

– The count rate is a measure of the thickness of the metal sheet.

  1. a) Spontaneous disintegration of unstable atoms in order to gain stability
  2. b) i) a = 236 – 91= 145
  3.    ii) b = 92- 38 = 54
  4. c) radioactive substances are harmful to the body when ingested
  5.   d) i) Negative

ii)A – Beta radiation                                  C – Alpha radiation

iii) C – more massive than A

  1. e) i) A = 233 – 8 = 225
  2. ii) Z = 90 – [(2 x2) + (2x – 1)]

= 90 – (4 – 2)

= 90 – 2  = 88

  1.   f) – a beta source is placed on one side of a moving sheet of paper and a G.N detector

on the other side

– If the material is too thin, the count rate at the detector will be too high and

vice versa

P 1
  1. (i)           S – 210
P 1

T – 206

(ii) The splitting of a heavy nuclide to lighter particles (fission process)

  1. State what type of radioactive decay this is. –        Alpha decay
  2. a) X…4      Y…2
  3. Long radio waves, AM radio waves, T.V and FM Radio waves, short Radio waves, infra red

radiation, red-light , Uv radiation and X-rays.

  1. No. of half lifes = 380 = 10
P
1/t

38

N = No (½ )

P

 

 380 = (½)10 = 1

38                 1024

  1. (a) Time taken for the activity of a sample of a radioactive material to reduce to half

of the original   value

(b) (i) S – scale – simple and uniform / consistent

p – Plotting at least 4 points correct

C – Line must pass through at least 3 points

P

(ii) -Half-life 319 ±0.1 days (1mk)

-Readings –off from the graph clearly

 

 

 

 

(c)

Time Nuclei
0
P(1mk)

8 x 1010

138 4 x 1010
276 2 x 1010
414 1 x 1010
552 0.5 x 1010
690 0.25 x 1010

 

Therefore Nuclei remaining un-decayed

T/t= 2.5x 109      (1mk)

P

OR N = No (½ )½

N = 8×1010(½)

= 0.25 x 1010 = 2.5 x 109 (2mks)

 

(d) (i) mass number = 228 a.m.u   (1mk)

Atomic number = 89 a.m.u            (1mk)

236                                      232                                      228                                      228

 

92                                         90                                         88                                         96

 0

-1

4

2

4

2

(ii)

 

2023 Form One Admission Letters, Joining Instructions Online

Form one intake 2023 (How to get selection results quickly, online joining instructions, reporting date) – Latest Simplified guide

The 2023 Form One Admission results can be easily and quickly accessed through the Ministry of Education portal and SMS service. The fastest way is by using the SMS Code 22263. Here is your simplified guide on how to receive the 2023 form one selection results, online form one joining instructions 2023 and form one admission 2023.

How to quickly receive your 2023 form one admission results.

Follow the simple steps below in order to get your 2023 form one selection results easily;

STEP 1: Go to SMS (Messages) in your phone and create a new SMS. Enter the recipient number (where to send the sms to) as 22263.

STEP 2: Enter your KCPE 2022 index number in full (11 digits) i.e 42707142001.

STEP 3: Once you are satisfied that the index number and recipient details are correct, just send the SMS.

STEP 4: Please remember that this is a premium service and you will pay Sh25 per an SMS.

STEP 5: In case the SMS from the Ministry of Education delays, kindly be a little bit patient before sending the SMS again. This is because, immediately the placement results are announced, there will be many individuals sending same SMSs and this may cause the delays.

STEP 6: Finally, only send the placement confirmation SMS once the Ministry of Education formally releases the results to the public.

HOW TO DOWNLOAD THE 2023 FORM ONE ADMISSION LETTERS AND JOINING INSTRUCTIONS.

The 2023 form one joining instructions and admission letters are uploaded onto the Ministry of Education online portal where you can easily download it. The admission letter is very important for you so as to prepare for form one reporting.

Here are detailed guides on how to download the 2023 form one admission letters for all categories of schools;

DETAILS ON THE OFFICIAL 2023 FORM ONE ADMISSION LETTER AND JOINING INSTRUCTIONS.

The 2023 form one admission letter will have a number of details. See a summary of the details below;

S/N Admission letter details
1 Ministry of education letter head and logo
2 Name of the student
3 Index Number of the student
4 Sub county of the student (Location of former primary school)
5 Secondary school admitted to
6 Form one reporting date
7 Former primary school’s details
8 The 2023 fee guidelines from the Ministry

A DESCRIPTION OF ALL THE DETAILS ON THE 2023 FORM ONE ADMISSION LETTER

Here is a detailed description of the 2023 official form one admission letter:

  • All the 2023 FORM ONE admission letters will bear the Ministry of Education’s letter head; The letter contains the Education Ministry’s logo and head.
  • Name of the student, Index number and Sub County,
  • School admitted to (The Secondary school where the student has been placed),
  • Reporting date; Which is in January, 2023.
  • Former primary school’s details; the letter must be stamped by the head teacher, A disclaimer on the letter reads; “This letter will be authenticated on being duly certified by the primary school head complete with a certified copy of birth certificate and finally confirmed by the admitting principal. The letter is issued without any erasure  or alteration and cannot be changed through any form of endorsement whatsoever; utterance of false documents is an offence punishable by law.”
  • The 2023 fee guidelines from the Ministry (The letter gives fees directions thus; “The maximum fees payable per year is detailed in the attached schedule, do confirm the category of your school before making any payment.”)
  • Parents/ Guardians expected to go to schools where their kids have been placed to pick further joining instructions and requirements. (“Urgently get in touch with your new principal at the above school for admission requirements,” says the admission letter from the Ministry.)

Other details that learners would get from the secondary school where they have been selected to join include:

  • Uniform descriptions,
  • Boarding requirements; mattresses, blankets, e.t.c
  • Any books’ requirements and
  •  Other personal effects as may be prescribed by individual schools.

How to download the 2023 form one admission letters for KCPE 2022 Candidates

Candidates selected to join Form one in 2023 can now download their admission letters, online. These letters have been uploaded to the Education Ministry Portal.

To download the admission letter to National Schools

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admssion letter. You will see the window .
  2. After clicking the tab ‘Click here to Access Form One School Placement Letter’, you will be redirected to a new window (as shown below). Now, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre/school is located and key in your index number and then click ‘Submit’.
  3. Form one admission letters download portal 2
  4. In the new window, Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  5. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  6. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  7. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate

Access the Official ministry of Education’s download page by using this link: https://www.education.go.ke/index.php/online-services/form-one-selection

To download the admission letter to Extra County Schools

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admssion letter. You will land in the window shown below;
  2. Extra County 2023 Form Admission Letter Download Portal 1
  3. By clicking the tab ‘Click here to Access Form One School Placement Letter’, you will be redirected to a new window (as shown below).
  4. Extra County 2023 Form Admission Letter Download Portal 2
  5. Now, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre is found and key in your index number and Submit.
  6. Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  7. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  8. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  9. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate

To download the admission letter to County Schools:

  1. Click on this link to access the download page from the Ministry of Education’s Website: Ministry of education download link for form one admission letter. You will see the window below.
  2. County School 2023 Form Admission Letter Download Portal 1
  3. Now, click the tab ‘Click here to Access Form One School Placement Letter’, and you will be redirected to a new window (as shown below).
  4. Form one admission letters download portal 2
  5. Next, Select the county and sub-county where your KCPE centre is located and key in your index number and Submit.
  6. Click on the link named “admission letter” at the bottom of the page for a copy of your admission letter.
  7. Use the printer icon to print or download icon to download to your computer.
  8. Get your primary school’s headteacher to endorse the letter and stamp it in the space provided.
  9. Finally, present it for admission together with a certified copy of birth certificate.

QUICK LINKS

KCSE/KCPE ONLINE RESULTS PORTAL

KCSE/KCPE ONLINE RESULTS PORTAL

KCSE PORTAL

THE KNEC KCSE PORTAL

KNEC PORTAL LOGIN.

THE KNEC CBA PORTAL

KNEC SCHOOL EXAMS PORTAL

KNEC PORTAL FOR KCPE RESULTS

THE KCPE KNEC PORTAL FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS.

KNEC EXAMINERS PORTAL

THE KNEC CONTRACTED PROFESSIONALS PORTAL

THE KNEC CBA PORTAL

KNEC EXAMINERS LOGIN PORTAL

KNEC PORTALS

THE KNEC LCBE PORTAL

THE OFFICIAL KNEC WEBSITE

Education Ministry issues stern warning to schools on purchase and usage of textbooks, revision materials

The Education Ministry has warned schools on the procurement and utilization of textbooks and other revision materials. In the latest directive, the Ministry warns schools to only purchase approved textbooks as listed in the Orange books. This comes after an outcry from parents who claim to have been forced to buy a vulgar book for their class six kids. The book titled Blood Ties, by storymoja life series, and authored by Zimkhitha Mlamzeli caused frenzy in Social media platforms for containing vulgar language.

But, now the Ministry has told schools to use only approved instructional materials.
“It has been noted with concern that some schools are procuring unapproved books that contain unsuitable contents,” warns the Ministry through a circular titled ‘Re: Use of approved books in schools’ and dated 19th September, 2019 by Elyas Abdi; the Ministry’s Director General.

“Please note that any Principal/Head teacher who fails to implement this policy will be in contravention of Section 27 of the KICD Act, 2013,” adds Abdi.

Section 27 (1) of the KICD Act, 2013 states;
‘Except as provided for under this Act, no person or institution shall develop or implement any curriculum or curriculum materials in respect to any education institution to which this Act applies, without approval and accreditation in accordance with the provisions of this Act or any other written law’.

Those found culpable, of contravention of this section, shall be liable on conviction for imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or to a fine not exceeding one million shillings, or both.

Approved Books

The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) Vets all instructional materials intended for use in all Basic Educational Institutions implementing the national curriculum. After vetting, the Ministry publishes the vetted and approved books in two volumes (Orange book);
1). Approved list of text books and other instructional materials for secondary schools.
2). Approved list of school text books and other instructional material for Pre-Primary, Primary Schools and Teacher Training Colleges.

“The latest edition of the above is the 16th Edition, January 2017. An addendum to the Orange book for Competence Based Curriculum for Pre-Primary one, Pre-Primary two and Grade one to three was published in 2019 and is available on the KICD website”, adds Abdi.

On its part, the KICD said the book in question had not been approved as should be the norm. “This book is not approved by KICD. It is not listed in the Orange book that contains a list of all books that schools should use for teaching and learning,” said KICD in a tweet.

KICD has at the same time warned parents and teachers to be on high alert not to purchase unapproved educational materials. “Not all books in the market are approved. That is why teachers and parents are expected to rely on the Orange book to buy right books. We have previously responded to worrying content whose origin was books from foreign countries. This book is not approved,” warns the KICD.

In a rejoinder, the Publisher of ‘Blood Ties’ admits that the book that has been circulating for the wrong reasons is not approved by KICD.

The Publisher of 'Blood Ties' admits that the book that has been circulating for the wrong reasons is not approved by KICD.
The Publisher of ‘Blood Ties’ admits that the book that has been circulating for the wrong reasons is not approved by KICD.

The Education Ministry does direct supply of text books to schools. Statistics from the ministry reveal that in the past one year, the government has supplied 32 million books for learners in secondary schools covering six core subjects; Mathematics, English, Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Kiswahili.

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NTSA Driving Test Application Portal – Ultimate Guide

NTSA Driving Test Application Portal – Ultimate Procedure

Test Booking

When an applicant is satisfied that he can take a driving test, he shall be required to book for a test stating the date, time and location he would like to go for the driving test. A test booking certificate shall be issued upon payment of the prescribed fee. All driving tests are undertaken at Driving Test Units (DTU) which are based across the country. The driving tests are conducted by driving test examiners (DTE) and shall include a test of the applicant’s –

  1. Knowledge of the rules of road;
  2. Knowledge of recognized road signals and road signs;
  3. Knowledge of any authorized road or highway code; and
  4. Physical fitness to drive a motor vehicle of the class for which the license is required.

Once an applicant has passed a driving test, he shall be issued with a certificate of competence (C of C) indicating the class or classes of motor vehicle he is permitted to drive. The C of C is valid for a period of three (3) months, and upon expiry, it will be at the discretion of the licensing officer to decide whether the applicant will under-go another driving test, or on the contrary approve the application for payment of the driving license.

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Light Academy KCSE 2020-2021 results analysis, grade count and results for all candidates

Light Academy KCSE 2020/2021 RESULTS ANALYSIS (SCHOOL MEAN, INDIVIDUAL CANDIDATES’ RESULTS AND MEAN GRADE SUMMARY)-  The School is a top performing high school located in Nairobi, Kenya. Here is the KCSE 2020 results analysis for the school.

Light Academy has always maintained a good run in the KCSE examinations over the years. For instance, in the 2019 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) examination results the school emerged among the top 100 schools in the whole country.

You may also like;

Light Academy managed a mean score of 9.84 in the 2019 KCSE examinations.. Read more details here; KCSE 2019 list of top 200 schools nationally; Full list.

You may also likeKCSE 2019 national results and ranking per subject- Physics

LIGHT ACADEMY KCSE 2020 RESULTS ANALYSIS AND MEAN GRADE SUMMARY

We have analysed results for Light Academy in the KCSE 2020 examinations. Get the school’s KCSE 2020/2021 results and all schools in the country plus candidates in the official Knec results portal, here; KCSE 2020-2021 OFFICIAL RESULTS PORTAL.

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The 2021 KCSE results portal.

We have more KCSE 2020-2021 articles for you here;

KCSE 2020-2021 Top 100 Schools nationally

KCSE 2020-2021 Top 100 schools per county

QUICK KNEC LINKS

KCSE/KCPE ONLINE RESULTS PORTAL

KCSE PORTAL

THE KNEC KCSE PORTAL

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The Kisumu National polytechnic courses, requirements,contacts, location,how to apply,fees and website

Introduction

Kisumu poly logo

Kisumu National Polytechnic is located on the outskirts of Kisumu City, within Kisumu County, about 3 km east of the city centre and about 342 kilometers from Nairobi, Kenya’s capital city. Kisumu City stands at the centre of the Great Lakes Region and is fast emerging as a hub for the East Africa Economic Union. It is also emerging as an academic city with a range of newly established and flourishing colleges and universities. As an ISO certified institution, The Kisumu National Polytechnic is committed to providing affordable, accessible, sustainable and quality training by ensuring our services are effective and efficient and meet the client’s expectations. The Kisumu National Polytechnic is committed to complying with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems. 
To achieve this, the polytechnic has established Quality Objectives that stakeholders will review from time to time for continuous improvement. 
The key quality objectives seek to:

  • Achieve and maintain a level of quality training which enhances the institutions’ reputation with clients.
  • Ensure compliance with the Technical and Vocational Education and Training Act, 2013, and other relevant statutory and safety requirements.
  • Endeavour to maximize client satisfaction through our services.

The Kisumu National Polytechnic is committed to comply with requirements of ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems.
To achieve this, the Polytechnic has established Quality Objectives which shall be reviewed from time to time for suitability and provision of continual improvement

How to get placement

The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS) is a State Corporation that provides career guidance and selects students for admission to universities, national polytechnics, technical training institutes and other accredited higher learning institutions for Government of Kenya-sponsored programmes.

Log onto their website www.kuccps.ac.ke for more information.

Funding.

Many people will like to be part of this learning institutions but lacks funding or financial support luckily, there is hope because of availability of helb fundings to this institutions.
Students pursuing Certificate and Diploma courses in select public universities, select university colleges, public national polytechnics and Institutes of Technology and Technical Training institutes country-wide are eligible for this loan and bursary. Orphans, single-parent students and other deserving students will be given priority.
Application Requirements:
1.Admission letter from the institution.
2.National Identification Card.
3.Applicants should access and fill the relevant TVET Loan and Bursary Application Form (TLAF).
4.Print TWO copies of the duly filled Loan Application Form.
5.Have the TVET Loan Application Form signed and stamped by the Dean of Students/Financial Aid Officers.
Retain one copy of the duly filled TLAF (Mandatory).
Drop the TLAF personally at the HELB students Service Centre on the Mezannine One, Anniversary Towers or any of the SELECT Huduma Centers nearest to you.

Visit Helb website for more information.

Programs offered at Kisumu National polytechnic

Kisumu polytechnic offers KNEC, CDACC curriculum among others

Craft

1. Business Management

2. Carpentry and Joinery

3. Electrical Installation

4. Electronics

5. Food & Beverage (Production, Sales & Service)

6. Information and Technology

7. Marine Engineering

8. Masonry

9. Mechanical Engineering

10. Motor Vehicle Mechanics

11. Plumbing

12. Science Laboratory Technology

13. Secretarial Studies

14. Social Community Development

15. Telecommunication Engineering

Certificate Courses

1. Architecture

2. Automotive Engineering

3. Building Construction

4. Business Administration

5. Business Education

6. Business Management

7. Civil Engineering

8. Computer Accounting Packages

9. Computer Applications

10. Computer Graphics

11. Computer Programming

12. Credit Management Technician

13. Electrical Installation

14. Food & Beverage Preparation

15. General Fitting & Welding

16. Hotel & Catering Supervision

17. Human Resource Management

18. Information Communication Technology

19. Information Technology

20. Investment & Securities Management Technician

21. Masonry

22. Mechanical Engineering, (Production and Plant)

23. Sales & Marketing

24. Science Lab Technology

25. Secretarial Studies

26. Securities & Investment Analyst

27. Supply Chain Management

28. Tourism, Travel & Hospitality

29. Transport Management

Diploma/Professional Courses

1. Accountancy

2. Analytical Chemistry

3. ATC I, II

4. Applied Chemistry

5. Applied Biology

6. Automotive Engineering

7. Building Construction

8. Business Management

9. Civil Engineering

10. Computer Studies

11. CPA I, ll

12. Electrical Engineering

13. Electronics Engineering

14. Entrepreneurship

15. Food & Beverage Management

16. Human Resource Management

17. Information Communication Technology

18. Information Technology

19. Land Sun/eying

20. Mechanical Engineering, Production and Plant

21. Medical Laboratory Sciences

22. Personnel Management

23. Quantity Surveying

24. Road Transport Management

25. Sales & Marketing

26. Secretarial Studies

27. Social Work & Communication Development

28. Supply Chain Management

29. Telecommunication Engineering

30. Tourism, Travel & Hospitality

31. Purchasing & Supplies Management

32. Refrigeration & Air Conditioning

Kisumu polytechnic contacts

Tel: 057-2501501, 2501502
WIRELESS: 020 2046190,
MOBILE: 0723 446773
EMAIL: [email protected], [email protected]
P.O. BOX 143, KISUMU 40100

Website kisumupoly.ac.ke

Important news. Just for you, click on the links below;

Why Obado is home away from home at the Industrial area prison; gets VIP treatment

It has emerged that the Migori governor Okoth Obado had been denied bail and remanded at the Industrial Area Prison until October 8 when the court will hear afresh his bail application is enjoying VIP treatment.

“At this juncture I am disallowing the application and he will appear with the others on October 8th,” Justice Jessie Lessit had said on 27/9/2018 while rejecting Obado’s bail application.

File photo- Okoth Obado consults his lawyer in court
File photo- Okoth Obado consults withhis lawyer in court

High Court Judge Jessie Lessit concurred with the prosecution that the suspect has a likelihood to tamper with the evidence, endanger national security.

“The nature has been changing and more and more are being charged with the case. Interference can also be affected by the releasing of some of the persons facing the same charge,” she said.

The three are facing charges in the murder case of Rongo University student Sharon Otieno.

But, contrary to the lives led by most prisoners Obado is home away from home at the Industrial area prison:

  • Governor Obado stays in a high end segment of the industrial area prison referred to as block 2. This segment of the prison holds a very few number of ‘Very important persons’. Obado shares the room with 2 other murder suspects.
  • Obado sleeps on a ‘magnificent’ three deck bed with a mattress and bedding; that are regularly cleaned and changed.
  • The Block B 2 Industrial area prison’s segment has maximum security and is guarded by a Sergeant police officer on a 24 hours basis.
  • His food is not the normal prison ugali, beans and poridge. In fact, his food is brought into the prison from the exterior hotels.
  • Obado does not wear the normal ‘ugly’ prison uniforms. He has been allowed to wear his own clothes, contrary to pictures doing rounds on social media. Obado wears neatly passed suits to court proceedings.
  • The embattled governor receives a large number of daily visitors including Migori county government officials.

Indeed, Governor Okoth Obado is home away from home at the Industrial area prison, where he will spend another nine days till his bail ruling is made on 8 October, 2018.

You may also like:

This man Okoth Obado! We dissect Obado’s life, times and the Controversies Surrounding the Migori Governor.

 

ENGLISH FORM FOUR LESSON PLANS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1

SCHOOL:_______________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: ______________CLASS: ___

DATE: ______________  DAY: _____________ WEEK: _________ .LESSON: ____

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/Oral Narratives

SUB-TOPIC: Human Tales

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  1. Read a human tale presented and answer questions on it.
  2. Give the features and functions of human tales.

T/LEARNING RESOURCES: Samples of human tales, audio presentation of human tales

REFERENCES: ORAL LITERATURE FOR SCHOOLS

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Tells a story set in the modern world about people.

(b)   Asks students to identify the main character and their role.

(c)   Tells the learners that they will be learning human tales.

(a)   Listens to the story.

(b)   Identifies the main character and its role.

(c)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Explains the features and functions of the human tales.

2.      Issues a handout containing human tale.

3.      Asks students some questions on the tale.

4.      Asks students to give the functions and features of the tale just read.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes too.

2.      Reads the tale.

3.      Answers the questions.

4.      Gives the features and function of the read tale..

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(a)   Asks students to give the functions of human tales.

(b)   Asks learners to state the features of human tales.

(a)   Gives the functions of human tales.

(b)   States the features of human tales.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Narratives

  Human Tales

 

COMMENTS:

__________________________________________________________________________

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2020

SCHOOL: _______________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2020  DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Turn Taking

SUB-TOPIC: Violations in Turn Taking

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  1. Explain the common turn taking violations.
  2. Identify these violations in the conversations carried out in class.

T/L RESOURCES: Video presentation of turn-taking

REFERENCES:  New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG 146, Head Start English Bk 4 pg 21-22

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Reviews the previous lesson. Asks students the various ways of achieving smooth turn taking.

b)      Tells them that they will be learning turn taking violations.

a)      States the various ways of achieving smooth turn taking.

b)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Defines turn taking violations.

2.      Asks students to suggest some violations in turn taking. Refers them to what they have discussed in the previous lessons.

3.      Plays the audio.

4.      Asks students to identify the turn taking violations evident in the audio.

5.      Groups the learners and asks them to hold a short discussion. Key is the use of turn taking violations.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

2.      Suggests some turn taking violations.

3.      Listens to the audio.

4.      Identifies the violations.

5.      Holds a short discussion.

 

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

a)      Asks some students to mention turn taking violations from the role plays.

b)      Asks the students to suggest solutions to the violations.

a)      Mentions the violations.

 

b)      Suggests solutions to the violations.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Turn Taking

Violations in Turn Taking

COMMENTS:

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

 

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: _______________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/Oral Narratives

SUB-TOPIC: Devices used in Story Telling

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Explain the story telling devices a narrator use during a live performance.
  • Discuss how they would perform selected sections of the narrative read.

T/L RESOURCES: Narrative to be read, PowerPoint presentation of devices used in story telling

REFERENCES:

Studying Oral Literature pg 14-18

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Asks students how storytellers usually make their stories captivating to the audience.

(b)   Tells the learners that a story becomes captivating when the storytellers employs the (a) above.

(a)   Explains how the storytellers usually make their stories captivating to the audience.

(b)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Explains some devices used by narrators.

2.      Asks students to explain other devices.

3.      Issues a handout containing a narrative.

4.      Asks students in group to discuss the devices to use in telling the story read.

5.      Asks a group to recount the story using the devices discussed.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes too.

2.      Explains other devices.

3.      Reads the narrative.

4.      Discusses the devices.

 

5.      Retells the story.

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(a)   Asks students to explain the storytelling devices used by the narrator during a live performance.

(b)   Gives an exercise.

(a)   Explains the storytelling devices.

 

(b)   Writes the exercise.

 

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Narratives

Devices used in Story Telling

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: _______________________________________________ TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Negotiation Skills

SUB-TOPIC: Stages of Negotiation

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Outline the stages of negotiation.
  • Follow the steps outlined to carry negotiation on various situations.

T/L RESOURCES: Items to be bought during the role play, video demonstration of stages in negotiation

REFERENCES:  New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG

Head Start English Bk 4 pg102-103

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students whether they have ever haggled over the price of things at the market.

b)      Tells them the process of reaching the price agreeable is negotiation.

c)      Asks students to state other situations in which agreements can be reached while avoiding disputes.

a)      Says whether or not they have bargained.

b)      Listens and takes notes.

c)      Mentions:

·         Haggling over the price of a dress.

·         Increasing salary/better conditions

·         resolving conflicts

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Explains some situations mentioned by students in part 1.

2.      Outlines the stages in negotiation.

3.      Groups the learners. Asks them to discuss a situation that involves negotiation.

4.      Asks a pair to haggle over the prices of the items brought.

5.      Asks students to identify the stages in the negotiation.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

2.      Listens and takes notes.

3.      Discusses the situation.

4.      Haggles over the price.

5.      Identifies the stages and award the pair marks.

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students to outline the stages in negotiation.

b)      Writes an exercise.

a)      Outlines the stages.

b)      Writes the exercise in their exercise book.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Negotiation Skills

Stages of Negotiation

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: _______________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/ Oral Poetry

SUB-TOPIC: Religious Poetry

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Read a religious song presented and answer questions on it.
  • Explain the features and functions of religious songs.

T/L RESOURCES: Songs to be read, audio presentation of a religious oral poem

REFERENCES: Studying Oral Lit pg 68

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Defines oral poetry.

(b)   Asks learners to give types of oral poetry.

 

(c)   Tells them that they will be learning religious poetry.

(a)   Listens and seeks clarification.

(b)   Gives:

·         Love poetry

·         Work poetry

·         Religious poetry

(c)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1)      Explains some features of religious poetry.

2)      Asks students to explain other features and functions of the religious poetry.

3)      Issues a handout containing a religious poem.

4)      Asks students in group to discuss the features of religious poetry from the song read.

5)      Asks students to sing any religious poetry.

1)      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes too.

2)      Explains other features and functions.

3)      Reads the religious poem.

4)      Discusses the features.

5)      Sings religious songs.

 

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(a)   Asks students to explain the features and function of the religious song sung in step 5 above.

(b)   Gives the exercise.

(a)   Explains the features.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Poetry

Religious Poetry

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

 

 

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________ TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING / Reading Skills

SUB-TOPIC:  Summarizing

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Read a passage given and respond to questions on it.
  • Summarize the passage read.

T/L RESOURCES: Articles and poems to be read

REFERENCES:  New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG 239

Head Start English Bk 4 pg

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

5 minutes

(a)   Asks students to give the features of summary.

(b)   Tells them that they would be learning how to write a summary effectively.

(a)   Gives the features of summary.

(b)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

30 minutes

1.      Outlines the steps in writing summary.

2.      Issues a handout with a passage to be read.

3.      Roups the learners. Writes 2 questions to be answered in note form.

4.      Asks individuals to write summary using the points drafted in step 3 above.

1.      Listens and takes notes.

2.      Reads the passage.

3.      Writes a draft in note form. Also summarizes the first question.

4.      Writes a summary.

CONCLUSION

5 minutes

(a)   Asks some students to read aloud their summaries.

(b)   Writes an exercise on the chalkboard.

(a)   Corrects the others.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                                   READING

                                                                  Reading Skills

                                                                  Summarizing

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Paying Attention/Listening

SUB-TOPIC: Techniques of Paying Attention

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Explain the techniques of ensuring active listening.
  • Demonstrate the ability to actively listen following the points explained.

T/L RESOURCES: Short speech to be read as others listen

REFERENCES: 

Head Start English Bk 4 pg

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students to identify situations that call for active listening.

b)      Tells them there is need to be an active listener in all the situations mentioned.

a)      Identifies the situations.

b)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Asks students how they usually ensure they remain attentive throughout during a church sermon.

2.      Explains other ways of ensuring active listening.

3.      Takes a few minutes reading an article.

4.      Asks students to identify the techniques of active listening displayed by the learners.

1.      Explains how they ensure they remain attentive during the sermon.

2.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

3.      Listens to the article. Demonstrates the points in step 2.

4.      Identifies the points considered and award the pair marks.

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students to state the techniques of ensuring active listening.

b)      Writes an exercise.

a)      States the techniques.

b)      Writes the exercise in their exercise book.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Paying Attention/Listening

Techniques of Paying Attention

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/comprehension

SUB-TOPIC: Abortion: Let Your Desires be Ruled by Reason

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Read the passage and respond to questions after it.
  • Use new words in sentences of their own.
 

T/L RESOURCES: Picture on the students’ book/ Dictionaries

REFERENCES:

Head Start English Bk 4 pg 163-165

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Talks about the issue raised in the passage without letting them know they are about to read a passage.

(b)   Asks students question concerning the issue.

(c)   Tells the students the passage they are about to read and asks them to open their course books.

(a)   Listens and seeks clarification.

 

(b)   Answers the questions asked.

(c)   Opens their books.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Asks students to read the paragraphs in turns.

2.      Asks students to retell the passage in their own words.

3.      Asks students some questions on the passage.

4.      Identifies some new words and asks students to give their meanings and use in each in their own words.

1.      Reads the paragraphs.

2.      Retells the passage in their words.

3.      Answers the questions.

4.      Gives the meanings of the words and use them in sentences of their own.

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(a)   Asks students to discuss the lessons they learn from the passage.

(b)   Gives an exercise.

(a)   Discusses the lessons they learn from the passage.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

 

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

                                                COMPREHENSION

Abortion: Let Your Desires be Ruled by Reason

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/comprehension

SUB-TOPIC: Reading: The Best Way to Know

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Read the passage and respond to questions after it.
  • Use new words in sentences of their own.
 

T/L RESOURCES: Picture on the students’ book/ Dictionaries

REFERENCES:

Head Start English Bk 4 pg 103-104

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Talks about the issue raised in the passage without letting them know they are about to read a passage.

(b)   Asks students question concerning the issue.

(c)   Tells the students the passage they are about to read and asks them to open their course books.

(a)   Listens and seeks clarification.

 

(b)   Answers the questions asked.

(c)   Opens their books.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Asks students to read the paragraphs in turns.

2.      Asks students to dramatize the passage in their own words.

3.      Asks students some questions on the passage.

4.      Identifies some new words and asks students to give their meanings and use in each in their own words.

1.      Reads the paragraphs.

2.      Dramatizes the passage.

3.      Answers the questions.

4.      Gives the meanings of the words and use them in sentences of their own.

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

1.      Asks students to discuss the lessons they learn from the passage.

2.      Gives an exercise.

1.      Discusses the lessons they learn from the passage.

2.      Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

                                                COMPREHENSION

Reading: The Best Way to Know

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

 

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING / Reading Skills

SUB-TOPIC:  Recognizing Attitude and Tone

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Make a list of positive, negative, neutral and ironic categories of tone/attitude words.
  • Discuss the tone/attitude from the short passage read.

T/L RESOURCES: Passage to be read

REFERENCES:  New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG 137-139

Head Start English Bk 4 pg 61-62

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

5 minutes

(a)   Asks students to list adjectives used to describe tone/attitude.

(b)   Tells them that they would be learning how to recognize attitude/tone in passages.

(a)   Lists attitude/tone words.

(b)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

30 minutes

1.      Defines attitude and tone. Outlines the steps in recognizing attitude/tone.

2.      Issues a handout with a passage to be read.

3.      Groups the learners and asks them to identify the tone in the passage.

4.      Asks individuals to explain the attitude in the passage.

1.      Listens and takes notes.

2.      Reads the passage.

3.      Identifies tone.

4.      Explains the attitude.

CONCLUSION

5 minutes

(a)   Reads some explanations and asks students to identify the tone in each.

(b)   Writes an exercise on the chalkboard.

(a)   Identifies the tone in the sentences.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                                   READING

                                                                  Reading Skills

Recognizing Attitude and Tone

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Turn Taking

SUB-TOPIC: Violations in Turn Taking

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  1. Explain the common turn taking violations.
  2. Identify these violations in the conversations carried out in class.

T/L RESOURCES: Audio

REFERENCES:  New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG 146

Head Start English Bk 4 pg 21-22

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

c)      Reviews the previous lesson. Asks students the various ways of achieving smooth turn taking.

d)      Tells them that they will be learning turn taking violations.

c)      States the various ways of achieving smooth turn taking.

d)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

6.      Defines turn taking violations.

7.      Asks students to suggest some violations in turn taking. Refers them to what they have discussed in the previous lessons.

8.      Plays the audio.

9.      Asks students to identify the turn taking violations evident in the audio.

10.  Groups the learners and asks them to hold a short discussion. Key is the use of turn taking violations.

6.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

7.      Suggests some turn taking violations.

8.      Listens to the audio.

9.      Identifies the violations.

10.  Holds a short discussion.

 

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

c)      Asks some students to mention turn taking violations from the role plays.

d)      Asks the students to suggest solutions to the violations.

c)      Mentions the violations.

d)      Suggests solutions to the violations.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Turn Taking

Violations in Turn Taking

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/Oral Narratives

SUB-TOPIC: Devices used in Story Telling

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Explain the story telling devices a narrator use during a live performance.
  • Discuss how they would perform selected sections of the narrative read.

T/L RESOURCES: Narrative to be read

REFERENCES:

Studying Oral Literature pg 14-18

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(c)   Asks students how storytellers usually make their stories captivating to the audience.

(d)   Tells the learners that a story becomes captivating when the storytellers employs the (a) above.

(c)   Explains how the storytellers usually make their stories captivating to the audience.

(d)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

6.      Explains some devices used by narrators.

7.      Asks students to explain other devices.

8.      Issues a handout containing a narrative.

9.      Asks students in group to discuss the devices to use in telling the story read.

10.  Asks a group to recount the story using the devices discussed.

6.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes too.

7.      Explains other devices.

8.      Reads the narrative.

9.      Discusses the devices.

10.  Retells the story.

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(c)   Asks students to explain the storytelling devices used by the narrator during a live performance.

(d)   Gives an exercise.

(c)   Explains the storytelling devices.

 

(d)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Narratives

Devices used in Story Telling

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

 

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/Oral Narratives

SUB-TOPIC: Textual Narrative Techniques

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Discuss the textual narrative techniques giving their functions.
  • Identify the techniques from the narrative read.

T/L RESOURCES: Narrative to be read

REFERENCES:

Studying Oral Literature pg 19-20

New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Asks students to give the common features of narratives.

(b)   Tells the learners that oral narratives usually have the features mentioned and that they play a role in the narratives.

(a)   Gives the common features of narratives.

(b)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Explains some features of the oral narratives.

2.      Asks students to explain other features.

3.      Issues a handout containing a narrative.

4.      Asks students in group to discuss the features of oral narratives evident in the story read.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes too.

2.      Explains other features.

3.      Reads the narrative.

4.      Discusses the features.

 

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

(a)   Asks students to explain the features of oral narratives

(b)   Gives the exercise.

(a)   Explains the features.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Narratives

Textual Narrative Techniques

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Paying Attention/Listening

SUB-TOPIC: Signs of Inactive Audience

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Discuss the signs of an inactive listener.
  • Identify the above signs in a video played.

T/L RESOURCES: Video showing inactive listeners

REFERENCES:  Excelling in Eng. Sb 4 pg

Head Start English Bk 4 pg

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Reviews the previous lesson. Asks students to explain ways of ensuring active listening.

b)      Tells them that some speakers and even the audience can tell that some listeners are inattentive.

a)      Explains the techniques.

b)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Asks students how they usually tell that some students are inactive during the lessons.

2.      Explains other signs of in active listening.

3.      Plays the video.

4.      Asks students to identify the signs of inactive listeners in the video watched.

5.      Asks students to suggest remedies to the problems in 4 above.

1.      Gives some common signs of inattentive students.

2.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

3.      Watches the video.

4.      Identifies the signs of inactive listeners.

5.      Suggests the remedies.

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students to state the signs of inactive listening.

b)      Writes an exercise.

a)      States the signs.

b)      Writes the exercise in their exercise book.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Paying Attention/Listening

Signs of Inactive Audience

 

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: LISTENING AND SPEAKING/ Paying Attention/Listening

SUB-TOPIC: Barriers to Effective Listening

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Discuss the factors that inhibit active listening.
  • Suggest the solutions to the barriers to effective listening.

T/L RESOURCES: Video showing barriers to effective listening.

REFERENCES:  Excelling in Eng. Sb 4 pg 155-156

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Reviews the previous lesson. Asks students to explain signs of inactive listeners.

b)      Tells them that there are barriers.

a)      Explains the signs.

b)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Explains some things that get in the way of listening.

2.      Groups the learners. Asks them to discuss other barriers to effective listening.

3.      Plays the video.

4.      Asks students to identify the barriers to effective listening. As one group identifies the barrier the next group to suggest the ways of overcoming the barrier.

5.      Explains the remedies to the barriers.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

2.      Discusses the barriers.

3.      Watches the video.

4.      Identifies the barriers and suggests the solutions to the barriers.

5.      Listens and takes notes.

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

a)      Asks students to state the barriers to effective listening.

b)      Writes an exercise.

a)      States the barriers.

b)      Writes the exercise in their exercise book.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                           ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                        LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Paying Attention/Listening

Barriers to Effective Listening

 

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

 

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: WRITING/ Institutional Writing

SUB-TOPIC: Curriculum Vitae

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

  • Describe the features of a curriculum vitae.
  • Write a curriculum vitae following the features described.

T/L RESOURCES: Sample CV

REFERENCES: New Integrated Eng SB 4 PG 178-182

Excelling in Eng. Sb 4 pg 230-233

Head Start English Bk 4 pg 169-170

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

(a)   Explains the need for writing CV.

(b)   Tells the learners that they will be learning how to write a CV.

(a)   Listens and seeks clarification.

(b)   Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

32 minutes

1.      Issues sample CV.

2.      Asks students to mention the features of acv.

3.      Asks students to individually write some sections of their CV.

4.      Allows the students to read aloud their cvs.

1.      Reads the CV.

2.      Mentions the features.

3.      Writes the CV.

4.      Reads aloud their CVs.

CONCLUSION

4 minutes

(a)   Asks students to state the features of a good CV.

(b)   Gives an exercise.

(a)   States the features.

(b)   Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                    FORM 4

                                                           WRITING

Institutional Writing 

Curriculum Vitae

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS

FORM FOUR LESSON PLAN TERM 1, 2019

SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________

TCHR’S NAME: MR MURIITHI   CLASS: 4 W

DATE: 07/01/2019 DAY: MONDAY WEEK: 2 .LESSON: 1

SKILL/TOPIC: READING/ Oral Poetry

SUB-TOPIC: Structural and Stylistic Devices

OBJECTIVE: By the end of the lesson, the learner should be able to:

.
  • Explain the structural and stylistic devices used in oral poetry.
  • Identify the structural and stylistic devices used in oral poems read.

T/L RESOURCES: Songs to be read

REFERENCES:

Studying Oral Lit pg 68

PART/TIME TEACHER’S ACTIVITES LEARNER’S ACTIVITIES
INTRODUCTION

4 minutes

a)      Reads an oral poem aloud.

b)      Asks students to identify the styles used in the song.

c)      Tells them that they will be learning stylistic devices used in oral poems.

a)      Listens to the oral poem.

b)      Identifies some styles used.

c)      Listens and takes notes.

DEVELOPMENT

33 minutes

1.      Explains the common styles and structure in oral poems.

2.      Issues a handout containing a song.

3.      Identifies some styles used in the song.

4.      Issues another handout.

5.      Asks groups to present their work.

1.      Listens and seeks clarification. Takes notes.

2.      Reads the song.

3.      Identifies the other styles. Takes notes.

4.      Discusses the structure and styles used in a group.

5.      Presents their work.

CONCLUSION

3 minutes

a)      Asks students to explains the various styles used in oral poems.

b)      Gives the exercise.

a)      Explains styles.

b)      Writes the exercise.

CHALKBOARD LAYOUT

Date                                                   ENGLISH                                                          FORM 4

                                                           READING

Oral Poetry

Structural and Stylistic Devices

 

COMMENTS:

TAUGHT. GOOD RESPONSE FROM THE STUDENTS