__PHYSICS KNEC SYLLABUS AND THE CONTENTS__

__PAPER ____1____ TOPICS ARRANGED IN UNITS__

*Unit 1**(Measurement I and measurement II)*

__Measurement I__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define length, area,volume,mass,density,time interval and state the corresponding symbols and SI units
- Convert other metric units to SI units
- Estimate length, mass and time
- Use accurately various measuring instruments
- Determine experimentally the densities of substances
- Solve numerical problems on density

**Content**

- Definition of length,area,volume,density and time
- Sin units and symbols
- Estimation of quantities
- Conversion of units
- Measuring instruments:metre rule, tape measure, beam balance, stop clock/watch, measuring cylinder, pipette and burette
- Experiments on density

__Measurement II__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to *

- Measure length using vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge
- Estimate the diameter of a molecule of oil
- Solve numerical problems in measurements

**Content**

- Measurement of length using vernier calipers and micrometer screw gauge
- Decimal places ,significant figures and standard forms
- Estimation of the diameter of a molecule of oil(relate to the size of HIV virus ,mention the effects of oil spills on health and environment
- Problems in measurements

*Unit 2**(Force, forces and moments, equilibrium and stability, Hooke’s law, particulate nature of matter)*

__Force__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:*

- Define force and state its SI unit
- Describe the types of forces
- Describe experiments to illustrate cohesion ,adhesion and cohesion
- State the effects of force
- State the difference between mass and weight, W=mg
- Define scalar and vector quantities
- Solve numerical problems involving W=mg

**Content**

- Definition of force
- Types of forces (include cohesion, adhesion and surface tension
- Experiments to demonstrate cohesion, adhesion and surface tension(actual measurement of surface tension not required)
- Effects of force
- Mass, weight and their relationship
- Scalar and vector quantities
- Problems involving W=mg

__Particulate nature of matter__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic, the learner should be able to:*

- Give evidence that matter is made up of tiny particles
- Describe experiments to show that particles of matter are at constant random motion
- Explain the states of matter in terms of particle movement
- Explain diffusion

**Content**

- Experiments to show that matter is made up of tiny particles (e.g cutting papers into small pieces ,dilution experiments etc)
- Brownian motion
- States of matter
- Diffusion (grahams law not require)

__Turning effect of a force__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to;*

- Define moment of a force about a point and state its SI unit
- State and verify the principle of moments
- Solve problems involving the principle of moments

**Content**

- Moment of force ,SI unit of moment of a force
- Principle of moments
- Problems on principle of moments(consider single pivot only)

__Equilibrium and centre of gravity__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define center of gravity
- Determine experimentally the center of gravity of lamina objects
- Identify and explain the states of equilibrium
- State and explain factors affecting stability of an object
- Explain the applications of stability
- Solve numerical problems involving center of gravity and moments of a force

**Content**

- Center of gravity (experimental treatment required)
- States of equilibrium
- Factors affecting stability
- Problems on center of gravity and moments of a force(consider single pivot only)

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__Hooke’s law__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State and verify experimentally Hooke’s law
- Determine the spring constant
- Construct and calibrate a spring balance
- Solve numerical problems involving Hooke’s law

**Content**

- Hooke’s law
- Spring constant
- Spring balance
- Problems involving Hooke’s law

*Unit 3 **(Pressure, fluid flow, gas laws, floating and sinking)*

__Pressure __

**Specific objective**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define pressure and state its SI units
- Determine pressure exerted by solids
- Describe experiments to investigate factors affecting pressure in fluids
- Derive the formula p=ρgh
- State the principle of transmission of pressure in fluids (Pascal’s principle)
- Explain atmospheric pressure and its effects
- State and explain the applications of pressure
- Solve numerical problems involving pressure

**Content**

- Definition of pressure
- Pressure in solids
- Factors affecting pressure in fluids(experimental treatment required0
- Derivation of p=ρgh
- Atmospheric pressure
- Simple mercury barometer, manometers
- Applications of pressure :drinking staw,syringe,siphon,hydraulic press, hydraulic brakes, bicycle pump, force pump, lift pump
- Problems on pressure

__Fluid flow__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe streamline flow and turbulent flow
- Derive the equation of continuity
- Describe experiments to illustrate Bernoulli’s effect
- Explain the Bernoulli’s effect
- Describe the applications of Bernoulli’s effect
- Solve numerical problems involving the equation of continuity

**Content**

- Streamline flow and turbulent flow
- Equation of continuity
- Bernoulli’s effect(experimental treatment required)
- Applications of Bernoulli’s effect: Bunsen burner, spray gun,carburetor,aerofoil and spinning ball
- Problems involving the equation of continuity

__Gas laws__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State the gas laws for ideal gas
- Verify experimentally the gas laws
- Explain how absolute zero temperature may be obtained from the pressure –temperature and volume –temperature graphs
- Convert Celsius scale to Kelvin scale of temperature
- State the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases
- Explain the gas laws using the kinetic theory of gases
- Solve numerical problems involving gas laws

**Content**

- Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, pressure law, absolute zero
- Kelvin scale of temperature
- Gas laws and kinetic theory of gases(p=
^{1}/_{3}pc^{2}not required) - Problems involving gas laws (including
/^{PV}=constant)_{T}

** **

__Floating and sinking__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State Archimedes’ principle
- Verify Archimedes’ principle
- State the law of floatation
- Define relative density
- Describe the applications of Archimedes’ principle and relative density
- Solve numerical problems involving Archimedes principles

**Content**

- Archimedes’ principle ,law of floatation (experimental treatment required)
- Relative density
- Applications of Archimedes’ principle and relative density
- Problems of Archimedes’ principle

*Unit 4**(Thermal expansion, heat transfer, quantity of heat)*

__Thermal expansion__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define temperature
- Describe the functioning of the various thermometers
- Describe thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases
- Explain expansion in terms of particle behavior
- Describe the unusual expansion of water and its effects
- Explain the effects and applications of thermal expansion

**Content**

- Temperature
- Thermometer: liquid –in-glass, including clinical and six’s maximum and minimum thermometers
- Expansion of solids, liquids and gases
- Effects of expansion and contraction
- Unusual expansion of water(anomalous expansion0
- Applications of thermal expansion, include bimetallic strip

__Heat transfer__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State the difference between temperature and heat
- State and explain the modes of heat transfer
- Describe experiments to illustrate factors affecting heat transfer
- Explain applications of heat transfer

**Content**

- Heat and temperature
- Modes of heat transfer
- Factors affecting heat transfer (experimental treatment required)
- Applications of heat transfer on vacuum flask, domestic hot water system, solar concentrators

__Quantity of heat__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity
- Determine experimentally specific heat capacity of solids and liquids
- Define specific latent heat of fusion and specific latent heat of vaporization of steam
- Determine experimentally the specific latent heat of fusion of ice and the specific latent heat of vaporization of steam
- State factors affecting melting point and boiling point
- Explain the functioning of a pressure cooker and a refrigerator
- Solve problems involving quantity of heat

**Content**

- Heat capacity , specific heat capacity, units (experimental treatment required)
- Latent heat of fusion, latent heat of vaporization, units (experimental treatment required)
- Boiling and melting points
- Pressure cooker, refrigerator
- Problems involving quantity of heat (
**Q=mc****Δ****T),Q=mL**)

*Unit 5**(Linear motion, Newton’s laws of motion, work, energy, uniform circular motion)*

__Linear motion__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define distance,displacement,speed,velocity,and acceleration
- Describe experiments to determine velocity and acceleration
- Determine acceleration due to gravity
- Plot and explain motion time graphs
- Apply the equations of uniformly accelerated motion
- Solve numerical problems on uniformly accelerated motion

**Content**

- Distance,displacement,speed,velocity,and acceleration(experimental treatment required)
- Acceleration due to gravity free-fall, simple pendulum
- Motion -time graphs-displacement time graphs, velocity time graphs
- Equations of uniformly accelerated motion
- Problems on uniformly accelerated motion

__Newton’s laws of motion__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State the Newton’s laws of motion
- Describe simple experiments to illustrate inertia
- State the law of conservation of linear momentum
- Define elastic collision, inelastic collision and impulse
- Derive the equation F=ma
- Describe the application of frictional force
- Define viscosity
- Explain terminal velocity
- Solve numerical problems involving Newton’s laws and the law of conservation of linear momentum

Content

- Newton’s laws of motion (experimental treatment of inertia required)
- Conservation of linear momentum ,elastic collisions, inelastic collisions, recoil velocity ,impulse (oblique collisions not required)
- The relation F=ma
- Frictional force
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Viscosity and terminal velocity (qualitative treatment only)
- Problems involving Newton’s laws and the law of conservation of linear momentum(exclude problems on elastic collisions)

__Work energy power and machines__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to;*

- Describe energy transformation
- State the law of conservation of energy
- Define work,energy,power,and state their SI units
- Define mechanical advantage ,velocity ratio and efficiency of machines
- Solve numerical problems involving work,energy,power and machines

**Content**

- Forms of energy and energy transformations
- Sources of energy-renewable ,non-renewable
- Law of conservation of energy
- Work, energy and power (work done by resolved force not required)
- Kinetic energy and potential energy
- Simple machines
- Problems of work,energy,power and machines

__Uniform circular motion__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define angular displacement and angular velocity
- Describe simple experiments to illustrate centripetal force
- Explain the applications of uniform circular motion
- Solve numerical problems involving uniform circular motion

**Content**

- The radian, angular displacement and angular velocity
- Centripetal force; the relations F=mv
^{2}/_{r},F=mrω^{2}(derivation of the formula not necessary experimental treatment required) - Applications of uniform circular motion
- Centrifuge, vertical ,horizontal circles, banked tracks(calculation on banked tracks and conical pendulum not required)
- Problems solving (applications of relations F=mv
^{2}/r ,F=mrw^{2}in numerical calculations)

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__PAPER____ 2____ TOPICS ARRANGED IN UNITS__

*Unit 1**(Rectilinear propagation, reflection at curved surfaces, refraction of light and thin lenses)*

__Rectilinear propagation of light __

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Perform and describe experiments to show that light travels in a straight line
- Describe the formation of shadows and eclipses
- Explain the functioning of a pin-hole camera
- State the laws of reflection
- Verify experimentally laws of reflection
- State the characteristics of images formed by plane mirrors
- Explain the applications of reflection at plane surfaces
- Solve numerical problems involving pinhole camera and mirrors inclined at an angle

**Content**

- Rectilinear propagation of light(experimental treatment required)
- Formation of shadows and eclipses(umbra and penumbra)
- Pin-hole camera :image formation and magnification
- Laws of reflection
- Images formed by plane mirrors, ray diagrams, parallel and inclined mirrors
- Devices based on reflection:periscope,kaleidoscope
- Problems on pin-hole camera and mirrors inclined at an angle

__Reflection at curved surfaces__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe concave,convex,and parabolic reflectors
- Describe using ray diagram the principal axis, principal focus, center of curvature and related terms
- Locate images formed by curved mirrors by construction of ray diagrams
- Determine experimentally the characteristics of images formed by a concave mirror
- Define magnification
- Explain the applications of curved reflecting surfaces

**Content**

- Concave, convex and parabolic reflectors
- Principal axis, principal focus, center of curvature and related terms
- Location of images formed by curved mirrors by ray diagram method(experiments on concave mirrors required)
- Magnification formula
- Application of curved reflectors

__ __

__Refraction of light__

Specific objectives

*By the end topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe simple experiments to illustrate refraction of light
- State the laws refraction of light
- Verify Snell’s law
- Define refractive index
- Determine experimentally the refractive index
- Describe experiments to illustrate dispersion of white light
- Explain total internal reflection and its effect
- State the application of total internal reflection
- Solve numerical problems involving refractive index and critical angle

Content

- Refraction of light-laws of refraction (experimental treatment required)
- Determination of refractive index-Snell’s law, real/apparent depth ,critical angle
- Dispersion of white light (experimental treatment required)
- Total internal reflection and its effect: critical angle
- Application of total internal reflection-prism periscope, optical fibres
- Problems involving refractive index and critical angle

__Thin lenses__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe converging lenses and diverging lenses
- Describe using ray diagrams the principal focus, the optical centre and the focal length of a thin lens
- Determine experimentally the focal length of a converging lens
- Locate images formed by thin lenses using ray diagram construction method
- Describe the characteristics of images formed by thin lenses
- Explain image formation in the human eye
- describe the defects of vision in the human eye and how they can be corrected
- Describe the use of lenses in various optical devices
- Solve numerical problems involving the lens formula and the magnification formula

**Content**

- Types of lenses
- Ray diagrams and terms used
- Images formed –ray diagrams,characteristics,magnification
- Determination of focal length:(experimental treatment required-estimation method, lens formula, lens-mirror method
- Human eye, defects (short sightedness and long sightedness)
- Optical devices –simple microscope ,compound microscope, the camera
- Problem involving the lens formula and the magnification

*Unit 2**(Cells and simple circuits, current electricity, heating effect of electric current, mains electricity)*

__Cells and simple circuits__

**Specific objectives **

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Draw and set-up simple electric circuits
- Identify circuit symbols
- Define electric current
- Explain the working of primary and secondary cells
- Explain the care and maintenance of secondary cells

**Content**

- Simple electric circuits:cell,ammeter,voltmeter,variable resistor, connecting wires bulbs and switches
- Circuit symbols
- Electric current and its SI unit
- Primary and secondary cells. (simple cell, dry Leclanche cell, lead acid cell)

__Current electricity__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define potential difference and state its SI unit
- Measure potential difference and electric current in a circuit
- Verify ohm’s law
- Define resistance and state its si unit
- Determine experimentally the voltage –current relationship[s for various conductors
- Define m.f and explain internal resistance of a cell
- Derive the formula for effective resistance of resistors in series and in parallel
- Solve numerical problems involving ohm’s law,resisitors in series and in parallel

**Content**

- Scale reading :ammeter, voltmeter
- Electric circuits:current,potential difference
- Ohm’s law (experimental treatment required)
- Resistance: types of resistors, measurement of resistance, unit of resistance
- Electromotive force (e.m.f) and internal resistance of a cell. The relation (E=V+Ir)
- Resistors in series and parallel
- Problems involving ohm’s law resistors in series and parallel

__Heating effect of electric current__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Perform and describe experiments to illustrate heating effect of an electric current
- State the factors affecting the heating e by an electric current
- Derive the equation for electrical energy and electrical power
- Identify devices in which heating effect of an electric current is applied
- Solve numerical; problems involving electrical energy and electrical power

**Content**

- Simple experiments on heating effect
- Factors affecting electrical energy, the relation P=VIt and P=VI
- Heating devices :electric kettle, electric iron, bulb filament, electric heater
- Problems involving electrical energy and electrical power

__Mains electricity__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State the source of mains electricity
- Describe the transmission of electric power from the generating station to the consumer
- Explain the domestic wiring system
- Define the kilowatt hour
- Determine the electrical energy consumption and cost
- Solve numerical problems involving mains electricity

**Content**

- Sources of mains electricity eg. Geothermal ,hydro, nuclear e.t.c
- Power transmission (include dangers of high voltage transmission)
- Domestic wiring system
- Kwh,consumption and cost of electricity
- Problems involving mains electricity

*Unit 3**(Electrostatic I and II)*

__Electrostatics I__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe electrostatic charging of objects by rubbing(experimental treatment required)
- Explain the sources of electrostatic charges
- State the two types of charges
- State the basic law of charges (electrostatics)
- State the unit of charge
- Construct a simple leaf electroscope
- Use a charged leaf electroscope to identify conductors , insulators and types of charge

**Content**

- Electrostatic charging of objects by rubbing 9experimetal treatment required)
- Types of charges and law of charges
- The coulomb
- Leaf electroscope :features ,charging and discharging
- Charging by contact and induction
- Identification of charge
- Conductors and insulators

__Electrostatic II__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Sketch electric field patterns around charged bodies
- Describe charge distribution on conductors of various shapes
- Define capacitance and state its SI unit
- Describe charging and discharging of a capacitor (calculation involving curves not required)
- State the factors affecting the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitors
- Sate the applications of capacitors
- Solve numerical problems involving capacitors.

**Content**

- Electric field patterns
- Charge distribution on conductors :spherical and pear shaped conductors
- Action at points: lightning arrestors
- Capacitance: unit of capacitance(farad ,microfarad)factors affecting capacitance
- Applications of capacitors
- Problems involving capacitors (using
**Q=CV,C**_{t}=C_{1}+C_{2}^{1}/_{ct}=^{1}/_{c1}+^{1}/_{c2})

*Unit 4**(Waves I and II,sound,electromagnetic spectrum)*

__Waves I__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe the formation of pulse and waves
- Describe transverse and longitudinal waves
- Define amplitude (a), wavelength(λ),frequency (f) and periodic time(T) of a wave
- Derive the relation v=fλ
- Solve numerical problems involving v=fλ

**Content**

- Pulse and waves
- Transverse and longitudinal waves
- Amplitude (a) ,wavelength(λ),frequency (f) and periodic time(t)
- Relation v=fλ
- Problems involving v=fλ

__Waves II__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe experiment to illustrate the properties of waves
- Sketch wave-fronts to illustrate the properties of waves
- Explain constructive interference and destructive interference
- Describe experiments to illustrate stationary waves

**Content**

- Properties of waves including sound waves,reflection,refraction,diffraction and interfence (experimental treatment required)
- Constructive interference and destructive interference(qualitative treatment only)
- Stationary waves(qualitative and exp
__erimental treatment only)__

__Sound__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Perform and describe simple experiments to show that sound is produced by vibrating bodies
- Perform and describe an experiment to show that sound requires a material medium for propagation
- Explain the nature of sound waves
- Determine the speed of sound in air by echo method
- State the factors affecting the speed of sound
- Solve numerical problems involving speed of sound

** **

**Content**

- Sound :nature and source (experimental treatment
- Propagation of sound: compressions and rarefactions
- Speed of sound by echo method
- Factors affecting speed of sound
- Problems involving speed of sound

__Electromagnetic spectrum__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe the complete electromagnetic spectrum
- State the properties of electromagnetic waves
- Describe the methods of detecting electromagnetic radiations
- Describe the applications of electromagnetic radiations
- Solve numerical problems involving c=fλ

Content

- Electromagnetic spectrum
- Properties of electromagnetic waves
- Detection of electromagnetic radiations
- Applications of electromagnetic radiations (include green house effect)
- Problems involving c=fλ

*Unit 5**(Magnetism,magnetic effect of electric current,electromagnetic induction)*

__Magnetism__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe the properties and use of magnets
- Identify magnetic and non-magnetic materials
- State the basic law of magnetism
- Describe patterns of magnetic field
- Describe methods of magnetization and demagnetization
- Explain magnetization and demagnetization using the domain theory
- Construct a simple compass

**Content**

- Magnets: properties and uses
- Magnetic and non-magnetic materials
- Basic law of magnetism
- Magnetic field patterns
- Magnetization and demagnetization
- Domain theory of magnetism
- Care of magnets
- Construction of simple magnetic compass

__Magnetic effect of electric current__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Perform and describe experiments to determine the direction of the magnetic field round a current carrying conductor
- Construct a simple electromagnet
- State the factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet
- Determine experimentally the direction of a force on a conductor carrying current in a magnetic field(motor effect)
- State the factors affecting force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field
- Explain the working of simple electric motor and electric bell

**Content**

- Magnetic field due to a current
- Oersted’s experiment
- Magnetic field patterns on straight conductor and solenoid(right hand grip rule)
- Simple electromagnets
- Factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet
- Motor effect (Fleming’s left hand rule)
- Factors affecting force on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field (qualitative treatment only)
- Applications-electric bell, simple electric motor

__Electromagnetic induction__

**Specific objectives**

**By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:**

- Perform and describe simple experiments to illustrate electromagnetic induction
- State the factors affecting the magnitude and the direction of the induced e.m.f
- State the laws of electromagnetic induction
- Describe simple experiments to illustrate mutual induction
- Explain the working of an alternating current(a.c) generator and direct current (d.c) generator
- Explain the applications of electromagnetic induction
- Solve numerical problems involving transformers

**Content**

- Simple experiments to illustrate electromagnetic induction
- Induced e.m.f –faradays law ,Lenz’s law
- Mutual induction
- Alternating current(a.c) generator and direct current (d.c) generator
- Fleming’s right hand –rule
- Transformers
- Applications of electromagnetic induction
- Problems involving transformers

*Unit 6*

*(Photoelectric effect, X-rays, cathode rays, radioactivity and electronics)*

__Cathode rays and cathode ray tube__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Describe the production of cathode rays
- State the properties of cathode rays
- Explain the functioning of a cathode rays oscilloscope
**(C.R.O**) and a television tube (TV tube ) - Explain the use of a cathode ray oscilloscope
- Solve numerical problems involving cathode rays oscilloscope

**Content**

- Production of cathode rays
- Properties of cathode rays
- R.O and TV tube
- Uses of CRO
- Problems involving CRO

__X-rays__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Explain the production of x-rays
- State the properties of x-rays
- State the dangers of x-rays
- Explain the uses of x-rays

**Content**

- Production of X-ray, X-ray tube
- Energy changes in an x-ray tube
- Properties of X-rays
- Soft and hard X-rays
- Dangers of X-rays and precautions
- Uses of X-rays (Bragg’s law not required)

__Photoelectric effect__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Perform and describe simple experiments to illustrate the photoelectric effect
- Explain the factors that affect photoelectric emission
- Apply the equation E =hf to calculate the energy of photons
- Define threshold frequency, work function and electron volt
- Explain photoelectric emission using Einstein equation(hf
_{o}+^{1}/_{2}mv^{2}=hf) - Explain the applications of photoelectric effect
- Solve numerical problems involving photoelectric emissions

**Content**

- Photoelectric effect,photon,threshold frequency, work function, Planck’s constant and electron volt
- Factors affecting photoelectric emission
- Energy of photons
- Einstein equation(hf
_{o}+^{1}/_{2}mv^{2}=hf) - Applications of photoelectric effect-photo emissive cells, photo conductive cells, photovoltaic cells

__Radioactivity__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- Define radioactive decay and half life
- Describe the three types of radiation emitted in natural radioactivity
- Explain the detection of radioactive emissions
- Define nuclear fission and fusion
- Write balanced nuclear equations
- Explain the dangers of radioactive emissions
- State the applications of radioactivity
- Solve numerical problems involving half-life

**Content**

- Radioactive decay
- half life
- Types of radiation, properties of radiations
- Detectors of radiations
- Nuclear fission and fusion
- Nuclear equations
- Hazards of radioactivity ,precautions
- Applications
- Problems of half-life(integration not required)

__Electronics__

**Specific objectives**

*By the end of the topic the learner should be able to:*

- State the difference between conductors and insulators
- Define intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors
- Explain doping in semi-conductors
- Explain the working of a p-n junction diode
- Sketch current –voltage characteristic for a diode
- Explain the application of diodes in rectification

**Content**

- Conductors,semi-conductors,insulators
- Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors
- Doping
- P-n junction diode
- Application of diodes: half wave rectification and full wave rectification