• Sat. Jul 13th, 2024

    CRE Form Four Best Notes {All Topics Covered}

    Jul 12, 2024

    UNIT 1:                      WORK.


    1. Why do you think a man should work?
    2. A man works because it is a command from God to all men.
    3. A man should work to improve his environment
    • A man works to sustain his family
    1. A man may work for the community at large.
    2. A man works to earn his own living – e.g food, clothing and shelter
    3. A man works to get money to pay expenses for good living for example one may buy a radio, T.V. car etc.
    • A man must work to achieve his own personal development.


    1. What are the accepted rights of employment?
    2. They have a right to take their profits abroad if they are foreign
    3. It is their right to be licenced by the government to operate a business
    • It is the right of the employers to get a fair day’s work from the
    1. It is the employer’s right to be protected from fair competition
    2. It is the right of the employer to join associations of their own choice.
    3. It is the employers right to enjoy their profits
    • It is the right of the employer not to be overtaxed.


    1. Why is it necessary for a Christian to work?
    2. Through work a Christian can serve his community
    3. It is necessary for a Christian to work because God blesses the hardworking Ref. Psalms 128:1
    • Christians who work can share their incomes with the less fortunate members of the community
    1. Christians work because work was instituted by God during creation. God commanded human beings to work – Genesis 1:28.
    2. To Christians work is a way of furthering the creation activity of God.
    3. In work a Christian provides for life requirements
    • Christians work because Paul said that those who do not work should not eat.
    • Through work Christians avoid idleness which leads to sin.
    1. Through work Christians avoid parasitic life. Paul worked as a tent maker to avoid depending on fellow Christians
    2. Christians work to protect or take care of God’s creation.
    3. Christians follow Jesus’ example who was a carpenter before he started his preaching ministry.


    1. How has modern Technology and economy changed the Traditional African attitude to work?
    2. Today there is change of roles. Duties which were done by men only are being done by men only are being done by women and also duties which were done by women only are also being done by men.
    3. Ones talents are not fully utilised because of job specialization.
    • In modern society some people do not want to work but they want to earn their living through begging, stealing and playing games like gambling.
    1. Today some people use machines to work for them as opposed to the idea that everyone was a worker in Traditional African societies.
    2. In traditional African communities, the work one did was determined by age, sex and inheritance but today the choice of the occupation one does is determined by the education he has received.
    3. In traditional African communities there was co-operation in work but in modern societies there is steep competition which may lead to rivalry.
    • Today people view work in terms of career which one gets into after formal education and training while in Traditional African communities work was part and parcel of entire life process. Work began at youthful stage upto age till one was too old to work.
    • Unemployment was unheard of in traditional African communities because everyone was employed but today it is a common problem.
    1. Today some people are doing unacceptable jobs like prostitution just to earn a living.
    2. Today job inheritance is rare but in traditional African communities many jobs were inherited from parents e.g blacksmith, craftsmanship etc.
    3. In modern society work is meant to benefit an individual whilst an in traditional African communities work benefited the entire community.


    1. Give reasons why Christians condemn idlers.
    2. David committed adultery because of idleness – 2 Samuel 5:15
    3. Idleness brings deep sleep and hunger – Proverbs 19: 15
    • Paul condemns it and advises the young widows to marry to avoid idleness
    1. Idleness hinders community development
    2. Idleness leads to failure to glorify God as work glorifies God
    3. Jesus condemned idleness in the parable of the talents
    • Work distinguishes man from animals but idleness lowers the dignity of man
    • Idleness causes anti social activities like stealing, rape, murder etc.
    1. Idleness is a health hazard
    2. Idleness leads to poverty
    3. Idleness di-humanises individuals thus retarding human development
    • Idleness retards the God given talents.


    1. What are the disadvantages of industrial strikes?
    2. It leads to loss of life where violence is used.
    3. It creates animosity between the management and the workers
    • It leads to loss of earnings for the employees
    1. It spoils relationship between employer and employees
    2. It may result to destruction of property.
    3. It can result to loss of employment to the employees
    • It can lead to imprisonment to the strike participants if they are found guilty.
    • It can lead to suffering to the families or dependants of the sacked workers or during the period when the workers are not working.
    1. May lead to workers loosing all their terminal benefits
    2. It is very difficult for the workers to get employed elsewhere especially when there is serious unemployment in the country.


    1. Explain the qualities of a good employee.
    2. A good employee is one who works without or if need be with minimal supervision.
    3. A good employee is faithful to the employer
    • A good employee has great respect to his work
    1. A good employee is very punctual in his work.
    2. A good employee if he has to quit his job he does so with proper understanding between himself and the employer.
    3. A good employee works diligently
    • A good employee is honest and trustworthy towards his employer.


    1. Outline problems that face self-employed people today.
    2. Lack of sufficient capital to start off their businesses
    3. They rarely get soft loans to boost their businesses.
    • They face problems of theft and fire outbreaks like the ones that destroyed Kikomba market and Garissa lodge.
    1. Lack of good markets for their products
    2. Most of them have no administration skills
    3. Steep competition from other similar but established businesses.
    • Many a times they are misadvised by their friends
    • Problems resulting from supporting big family.


    1. State ways in which the church can promote self-employment in modern society.
    2. Help Christians in getting presses for their businesses.
    3. Opening many more training institutes to train more masons, carpenters, electricians, dress and cloth makers.
    • Through organising communal self-help projects
    1. Giving guidance and counselling on the importance of work
    2. Providing in-service courses for the self-employed to boost their productivity
    3. Cultivating a sense of responsibility in work
    • Assisting them with the initial equipment’s like tool boxes, sewing machines etc.
    • Getting for them market to sell their end products.


    1. Discuss factors causing child labour in our society.
    2. Destitution or orphanage
    3. Teenage pregnancies
    • Calamities which are either natural or political which destabilizes community
    1. Juvenile delinquency – criminology among the youth
    2. Poverty
    3. Irresponsible parenthood – for example drunkenness or over strict or harsh.
    • Search for cheap labour
    • High cost of education leading to school drop-out
    1. Insecurity or fear incase of wife fearing the husband – the wife may run away with the children who may end up seeking for employment to sustain themselves.


    1. What should the government of Kenya do to stop child-labour?
    2. The government should punish those parents who allow child labour.
    3. The government should teach the Kenyan folk that children are entitled to education
    • Government should punish those who employ children.
    1. The government should let everybody know that children are the future leaders.
    2. Everybody should be made aware by the government that employing children is a great harm to the children psychologically
    3. It should be governments policy that every child is allowed to grow to maturity and be made to persue a career of their choice.


    1. What effects can result from place of work if the workers are incited by fellow workers or malicious people?
    2. It can cause conflicts/ bad blood between employer and employees
    3. It can cause stoppage of work which lead to stoppage of production important goods, or denial of essential services
    • It can cause workers to be unmanageable.
    1. It may force the business to close down if workers bring problems.
    2. Incitement can result to strike actions
    3. When strongly incited by malicious people workers may become destructive.


    1. Explain the duties and responsibilities of employees to employers.
    2. Employees should do their work diligently and efficiently.
    3. They should pray for the success of their company
    • They are obliged to show respect and loyalty to the employer
    1. They must do their work with all the honesty and integrity.
    2. They must co-operate with other workers in the company.
    3. They must take care of the employers property
    • They must work according to the terms in the contract.
    • Workers should show good will to the employer
    1. They should not take part in strikes which have unreasonable demands.


    1. Explain ways in which employer portrays human dignity of employees.
    2. He should not sexually harass female employees.
    3. He should be sensitive and reasonable when handling the needs of lays redundant.
    • He should not exploit his workers
    1. He should exercise justice and fairness especially when handling those retiring workers
    2. He should give his workers salary equivalent to the work done
    3. The employer should provide to workers a healthy and safe public holidays
    • The employer should motivate his workers through promotions
    • He should allow his workers to join unions of their choices like KUDHEIHA.


    1. Give reasons why Christians should not resort to strike action.
    2. Strike action leads to hatred, bitterness and frustration
    3. A Christian may not take part in any strike because it can cause loss of life which is against God’s commandment – thou shall not kill.
    • Strike action is a waste of time as well as scarce resources.
    1. A Christian may not take part in a strike action because it could lead to destruction of property.


    1. What role can the state in improving poor relationship between employer and employees?
    2. The state can advise the employer to involve the employees in share holding of the business.
    3. The state can give guidance and counselling to both parties to improve their relationship.
    • The state can allow trade unions in trying to improve relationship between employer and employees.
    1. The state can call the two parties to discuss their problems openly and come out with workable solutions which can improve their relationship.
    2. The state can allow collective bargaining in the at the Association of employers meets with the union of employees for collective discussions. This would improve the relationship between employers and employees quite a great deal.


    1. How can Christians show their faith in God by working?
    2. By working hard
    3. By glorifying in the money one works for
    • By valuing work more that he money one works for
    1. By not being late to attend to his work
    2. By showing extra commitment in work
    3. By praying God before work begins.


    1. Explain what would be the Christian teaching towards work:
    2. All Christians must work since Christ worked as a carpenter and a preacher
    3. All Christians must work because it is God ordained
    • It is only through work that Christians can conquer and subdue the earth
    1. Christians must work because the Bible condemns laziness
    2. It is only through work that a Christian can meet the needs of his family
    3. All Christians must work because God is still working i.e he did not stop working after creation.
    • Christians must work to be healthy in the bodies
    • Through work Christians socialize.


    1. Explain Jesus’ teaching on work
    2. Jesus said he was working because his heavenly father was also working
    3. Jesus worked manually as a carpenter before he began his preaching work
    • Jesus worked tirelessly as an itinerant preacher. He preached form place to place without any means of transport
    1. Jesus performed signs and wonders
    2. Jesus taught his disciples to follow him and he would make them fishers of men.
    3. When accused of mixing with great sinners like tax-collectors he defended himself by saying that a doctor goes for the sick, so he associated with sinners so as to convert them.
    4. What factors would a Christian consider while choosing a career.
    5. A Christian would consider a career that he likes most eg. Some people qualify to join University to do super degrees like medicine but they opt to join Bible institutes to do theology with an aim of becoming pastors
    6. A Christian should pray to God to get His direction
    • Availability of job chances would be a determining factors
    1. In choosing a career one would also consider his physical abilities. A blind man cannot choose to be a driver.
    2. In choosing a career one considers the services to the community. He should consider a career which would give more service to his community.
    3. Finally a Christian should seek pieces of advise form fellow Christians.


    1. Explain the secular attitudes towards work.

    Secular attitudes to work are the non-edigious attitudes towards work:

    1. Today people work to meet their basic needs and other needs like buying radios, TVs, Cars and houses in urban areas.
    2. Today people work in big offices where there are many people each doing a specialised job.
    • Today we have competition in work as exemplified by the stiff competition among schools in KCPE and KCSE.
    1. Today many people hate manual work due to influence of Western Education
    2. Today the modern attitude towards work is individualistic as it is opposed to communal kind of work done in Traditional African community.
    3. Today work is determined by qualifications rather than age and sex. Today we have women working as pilots and men working as cooks in big hotels and schools.
    • Today there may be no job satisfaction because one works like a machine.


    1. State reasons why manual work is not liked by some people in Kenya today.
    2. Many people do not like manual work because it is tiresome
    3. Other people do not like manual work because it is lowly paid
    • Others dislike manual work because it makes one dirty
    1. Modern education is preparing people to white-colar jobs to the neglect of manual work.
    2. Others do not like manual work because it was a method used by colonial masters and also in schools to punish the disobedient people
    3. Manual work is seen by many people as work meant for those who are not educated.


    1. Explain in details why Africans worked:
    2. An African person worked to attain self-fulfillment. Any African enjoyed their work which was mostly manual
    3. Some Africans worked to perfect their talents and skills eg. Blacksmith.
    • An African worked to provide the basic needs of the family, namely food, shelter and clothing.
    1. An African worked because everybody was a worker, failing to work was failing in ones responsibilities.
    2. In work an African expected to tap Gods blessings.
    3. In many a time work in African society was done communally hence there was no excuse for not working.
    • In A.T.S. the lazy people were mocked and ridiculed.


    1. Explain Paul’s teaching on work:
    2. Paul taught Christians to work as he worked as a tentmaker. In this he taught them to work to avoid human parasiticism
    3. Paul taught through work a Christian glorifies God.
    • Paul taught the Thessalonians church that if one does not work he should not eat.
    1. Paul advised thieves not to steal but instead they should work.
    2. Paul advised Christians to work to get food to eat and to prevent poverty from coming to them.
    3. Paul advised that the able should work to help the helpless members of the community.
    • Paul taught Christians to work just like the early church which worked together.


    1. Under what conditions can we justify an industrial strike.
    2. Workers are justified to strike when they are sure that they will get whatever they are asking for.
    3. A strike is justifiable when the cause of the strike is a genuine cause. e.g when workers have not been paid for several months.
    • A strike is justifiable if the strikers follow all the procedures laid down in law.
    1. A strike is justifiable when all other mean of averting a strike have been tried and failed.
    2. A strike action is justifiable if the results of the strike have more good than the evil is causes.


    1. What are the duties of an employee?
    2. To work faithfully for the employer i.e he should not give poor quality work if he is capable of better.
    3. He has a duty of caring for his family from his earning
    • He must guard the property entrusted to him by the employer.
    1. Must work according to his job prescription.
    2. Should never use any force in solving problems at place of work.
    3. One must be loyal to his employer
    • He must work to promote the success of the enterprise.


    1. State the four principles found in the Hippocratic Oath taken by all doctors.
    2. Never to administer Buthanasia
    3. To keep secrets of all patients
    • Never to assist a woman in carrying out abortion
    1. Always put the interests of patients first.


    1. Explain what would happen to a firm if the employer ignores his duties.
    2. The firms production will be lowered because workers are not supervised hence they do not work properly.
    3. It is obvious the workers would result to go slow
    • Chances of thefts by workers would be very high
    1. Many workers would have no morale in their work
    2. If the customers notice this scanaric, they may run away
    3. The good relationship between employer and employee is eroded.







    1. On what grounds do Christians or those opposed to cigarette smoking refuse or condemn this practice.
    2. They argue that cigarette smoking is causing destructive fire which can destroy entire forests, industrial or even homes.
    3. They argue that smoking is the chief cause of chest and respiratory diseases
    • Smoking is an expensive leisure habit
    1. They argue that smoking has been found to cause miscarriage or birth of small and unhealthy babies.
    2. They argue that smoking obviously causes bad breath and discoloured teeth.
    3. They argue that in the field of medicine there has been a recent discovery that smoking causes poor blood circulation e.g high blood.


    1. In detail explain the effects of alcoholism on career:
    2. Alcoholism can easily lead one to embezzle public funds which are entrusted to him
    3. Alcoholism affects ones efficiency at work. Infact it reduces significantly
    • Alcoholism may make one to absent himself from work.
    1. A lot of money is spent on drinking at the expense of the basic necessities like food shelter, clothing etc.
    2. Alcoholism affects the health of a person – rendering one ineffective at work.
    3. Alcoholism may lead to break of ones family and this adversely effects one’s performance at work.
    • Drunkards may collide with fellow workers hence affecting ones career.
    • Alcoholics may have great risks in their career especially drivers cause accidents when they drive under the influence of alcohol.


    1. Why are High school boys and girls easily lured into drug abuse?
    2. Today we have great advertisement in all forms of media
    3. Great desire to discover what one feels when he/she is under the influence of a certain drug
    • Lack of counselling on the part of the parents, teachers and church ministers.
    1. Pressure from other boys or girls
    2. Frustrations as a result of blocked goals of life
    3. The drugs are readily available everywhere today.


    1. What do you think the church can do to minimise drug abuse in our society?
    2. The church should work out modalities geared to rehabilitating the drug addicts
    3. Those who have fallen victims to drug abuse should becounselled and also the would-be drug abusers.
    • The church should approach against drug-abuse
    1. The church should provide recreational facilities which would take away people from drugs.


    1. State five forms of modern leisure.
    2. Drinking
    3. Reading novels and magazines for leisure
    • Watching T.V.
    1. Joining others in parties
    2. Travelling and visiting friends
    3. Playing and games
    • Gambling
    • Playing football or other games activities
    1. Taking part in painting, knitting, weaving
    2. Writing and receiving letters to and from friends and relatives
    3. Listening to radios/ cassettes.


    1. In your understanding of the African Traditional communities, explain the leisure activities that were undertaken by them.
    2. They conducted traditional dances e.g “Kilumi”, “Kilui” dances among the Akamba, “Kamaru” and Mucungwa” dances among the Kikuyu.
    3. During harvest seasons they held games and sports like wrestling.
    • They held beer parties in ceremonies like initiation, naming and marriage or drinking even for leisure.
    1. Spent in listening to gifted and talented story tellers
    2. As they waited for food in the evening thy discussed family matters
    3. Singing songs to entertain other people.


    1. Compare and contrast the Traditional African and modern understanding of leisure.
    2. In traditional African communities leisure was done in fear of the ancestors as well as God while today such a concept is not present hence today’s leisure secular.
    3. In traditional African communities people never misused leisure unlike today when we have great misuse of leisure in drug taking.
    • In African understanding of leisure it was wholly communal while today’s leisure is dominated by individualism.
    1. In traditional African communities leisure activities were determined by age and sex while in today’s society there are no boundaries. One is free to engage in any leisure activity irrespective of age and sex.
    2. In traditional African communities no money was spent in leisure activities but today leisure activities but today leisure activities are very expensive.
    3. In African traditional communities major leisure activities took place during or after the period of harvesting while today’s leisure goes on throughout; there is no time limit e.g people drink throughout.
    • In traditional African communities older members of the community advised the youth during leisure time while today youth engage themselves in the leisure activities on their own.
    • In traditional African communities story telling dominated the evenings while today the evening are dominated by radios, T.V.s and cassettes.


    1. What are the factors that lead people to misuse leisure?
    2. Lack of guidance and counselling especially the youth
    3. Some misuse leisure due to boredom or idleness
    • Others misuse leisure because of peer group pressure
    1. Others misuse leisure due to influence from erotic pornographic literature and films.
    2. When some people have too much money (wealth) they may be tempted to misuse leisure especially in heavy drinking.
    3. Extreme poverty may make some not to afford some leisure items like the legal beer hence end up the legal beer hence and up taking illicit drinks like “kumikumi”, “Kuruta” and Kamata.
    • Others misuse leisure due to lack of variety of good leisure activities.
    • There are others who misuse leisure due to lack of appropriate education.


    1. Explain five leisure activities that are income generating:
    2. Playing soccer especially for professional players
    3. Acting in drama
    • Weaving
    1. Painting
    2. Singing – those who have live performances like Kanda Bongoman, Less Wanyika, Chania Boys band, Kimangu boys band – earn a lot of money per night.
    3. Painting – some people do it for leisure but it generates good money.


    1. Explain how leisure can be used in the Glory of God.
    2. Through praying individually or as a group
    3. Through evangelising
    • Through joining others in Christian seminars, conferences and retreats
    1. Through singing in choir
    2. Through writing Christian magazines.
    3. Through guidance and counselling to the youth or other groups that would need help.
    • Through doing manual work in the church e.g sweeping and clearing church compound.
    • Through donating funds to the church to propagate the gospel.
    1. Reading or studying the Bible.


    1. Give reasons why you think alcohol as a way of spending leisure is condemned.
    2. It can cause separation or even divorce
    3. Alcohol wastes family resources
    • Alcohol leads to poor health or death
    1. Alcohol brews quarrels within the family
    2. Alcohol is causing many accidents
    3. Alcohol leads to addiction
    • Alcohol leads to loss of means of income or employment
    • Alcohol may make one to commit crimes e.g homicide.




    1. Explain the leisure activities that are done by the youth today.
    2. The Christian youth would spend their leisure time in worshipping
    3. The youth would participate in drama
    • The youth would visit the sick
    1. The youth spend their leisure in playing football, netball etc
    2. The youth could spend their leisure time writing letters to friends
    3. Youth spend their leisure time in choir
    • They also spend their time in charitable jobs like cleaning markets and building houses for the old and poor.
    • The youth spent their leisure time travelling for site-seeing.


    1. Explain reasons why people drink.
    2. Some people drink to cover their frustrations
    3. Others drink as a way of burying problems at work, home and even at the society at large.
    • Others drink to keep company
    1. The youth would drink to show to others that they are grown ups.
    2. Others are drunkards due to heredity
    3. Others drink due to addiction.


    1. Discuss the importance of leisure to any worker.
    2. Leisure is very important to a worker to enable him attend celebrations
    3. It is time which one uses to replace lost energy
    • Workers need leisure period to attend church to pray
    1. Leisure is important for one to socialise with other people e.gmembers day.
    2. Leisure time is important because one would use it to visit friends.
    3. During leisure one gets time to engage in his hobbies e.g gambling, golf playing etc.
    • It is time one uses to do short courses which develops ones career e.g attending evening computer classes which is common today, reading for expanding / increasing knowledge.
    • This is time used to stay with family members.




    1. Explain how wealth was acquired in traditional African communities.
    2. Through hard work. A man could clear forests and have a big farm which made him rich after good harvest.
    3. Payment of dowry. Parents with many girls obtained a lot of wealth when their daughters got married.
    • By cattle raiding. This was common between the Maasai and the Kamba people.
    1. By engaging in barter trade.
    2. By inheritance of family wealth
    3. Through use of ones talents e.g blacksmith
    • By marrying many wives who inturn gave birth to many children to provide cheap labour.
    • One could obtain wealth by receiving gifts for ones good conduct or in recognition of ones special talents.


    1. What do you think are the causes of poverty at individual levels.
    2. If one is very lazy i.e he cannot work to earn a living
    3. Lack of opportunities to get good education.
    • Exploitation of the poor by the rich
    1. Lack of employment
    2. If one cannot work due to poor health
    3. Poverty can be brought by misuse of ones health.


    1. Explain the traditional African attitudes towards wealth.
    2. Wealth enabled one man to marry many wives who would inturn give birth to many children to survive the man after he dies.
    3. Wealth was measured in terms of how many heads of cattle one had, how big were his pieces of land, how many wives and children one had.
    • Wealth brought respect to individuals
    1. In traditional African communities, wealth was seen as a sign of God’s blessings.
    2. In traditional African communities, wealth was viewed as a sign of hard work
    3. In traditional African communities the rich were given decent burials
    • In traditional African communities wealth was a guarantee to the offspring that they would not suffer because they inherit wealth from their rich parents.


    1. What changes were brought to African community after the introduction of money economy by the colonial masters?
    2. Introduction of money economy caused rural urban migration
    3. Money economy motivated Africans to look for wage employment.
    • It led to Africans to become businessmen and also created social classes.
    1. It helped to create a capitalistic economy structurally depending on foreign economics
    2. Money economy led to whites taking away from Africans their arable land hence reducing Africans to squatters and later made them their workers.
    3. Money economy dismantled the closely knit traditional social systems. This was done through migrations.


    1. Explain in detail how money economy has interfered with good Christian living.
    2. Desire to a mass a lot of wealth by Christians has affected many Christians commitment to God
    3. Bride price has been commercialized hence undermining equality in the home.
    • Immoral practices, bribery and corruption is seriously undermining Christian faith.
    1. Desire for money is forcing Christians to sell their land and live squatters’ lives.
    2. Money economic has led to emergency of class systems in Kenya.
    3. Money has driven Christians to wage labour which inturn has adversely affected the family bond.
    • Money economy is making people to move from rural to urban areas hence interfering with family unity.
    • Money economy has brought about the spirit of materialism and individualism even amongst Christians.
    1. Money donations has lowered the drive to hard work to earn a living.
    2. Christians are competing in acquiring more riches.


    1. In what ways can a Christian use his wealth properly?
      i)    By giving tithes and offerings
    2. By sponsoring the spread of the Gospel
    • By giving alms to the destitute members of the community
    1. By giving food to famine stricken areas
    2. Giving money to build hospitals and rehabilitation centres
    3. Providing for his family needs
    • Giving social amenities to the poor
    • By giving professional training
    1. By giving both formal education and technical training.


    1. Explain how a modern Christian can misuse wealth.
    2. A Christian can today misuse wealth through doing gambling in casinos
    3. A Christian can misuse his wealth if he sues it abusing drugs like alcohol, other expensive drugs like heroine and cocaine etc.
    • A Christian can misuse his wealth if he/ she uses it to show off
    1. One can misuse wealth in purchase of unnecessary expensive clothes or even cars.
    2. A Christian can misuse wealth if he uses it in bribery.
    3. Wealth can easily be misused if it is used with prostitutes
    • A Christian can misuse wealth if he uses it to exploit other people especially the poor
    • Other Christians can misuse wealth if they use it to buy high position in employment.


    1. Explain how a modern Christian can misuse wealth.
    2. A Christian can today misuse wealth through doing gambling in casinos
    3. A Christian can misuse his wealth if he uses it abusing drugs like alcohol, other expensive drugs like heroine and cocaine etc.
    • A Christian can misuse his wealth if he/ she uses it to show off.
    1. One can misuse wealth in purchase of unnecessary expensive clothes or even cars
    2. A Christian can misuse wealth if he uses it in bribery
    3. Wealth can easily be misused if it is used with prostitutes.
    • A Christian can misuse wealth if he uses it to exploit other

    people especially the poor.

    • Other Christians can misuse wealth if they use it to buy high positions in employment.


    1. Explain ways in which a modern rich man may misuse his wealth.
    2. A rich man can misuse his money by spending it with prostitutes.
    3. A rich man can misuse his money through going to discos
    • A rich man can waste a lot of money through gambling
    1. A rich man can waste a lot of money buying expensive pornographic films and literature
    2. When he uses his money just to show off.
    3. It helps people do criminal acts like murdering those perceived to be his enemies
    • He may misuse his money through indulging in drug abuse.


    1. Explain how a Christian may use wealth to glorify God.
    2. A Christian can be tithing to his church
    3. A Christian can use his wealth in glory of God by supporting evangelism
    • A Christian use his money to the glory of God by donating towards building his church
    1. A Christian can use his money to buy church plot
    2. A Christian can buy relief food for the needy
    3. A Christian can be broadcasting services for his church to enable his church to preach through the radio and T.V.
    • A Christian can use his wealth donating towards homes for the destitute.
    • A Christian can use his wealth to buy bibles and distribute them to those who cannot afford to buy.


    1. Explain how a modern Christian can amass wealth.
    2. A Christian can acquire wealth through earning salary or wage.
    3. A Christian can get wealth through doing honest business
    • A Christian can get wealth through inheritance from parents because this is lawful
    1. A Christian can get wealth through receiving gifts
    2. One can get money and wealth through interest accrued from investments
    3. A Christian may amass wealth by borrowing a loan and using it properly to yield profits
    • A Christian can get wealth through working in their farms.


    1. What are the likely side effects to the very rich and the very poor in a modern community.
    2. The rich will definitely exploit the poor
    3. Wives and daughters of the very poor people may result to prostitution although some irresponsible rich men may also involve themselves in this vice.
    • Very poor people may give birth to very many children whom they cannot support who turn to be street children.
    1. The poor may result to stealing for survival
    2. The rich are tempted to grab the poor mans property
    3. Due to too much wealth the rich may turn to immorality
    • The poor mans plight is ignored by the rich.
    • The poor may live in abject poverty while the rich live in excessive luxuries.
    1. Because of extremity in terms of earthly possession, enemity may develop between the two groups.


    1. Explain how our government uses the foreign aid received from the donor countries.
    2. The government uses foreign aid in improving health care services.
    3. Aid is used in buying food for famine stricken areas
    • Aid is used in national disasters like in stopping the Hiv/ Aids scourge
    1. Aid is used by government to build institutions of learning like public universities
    2. Aid is used by government in initiating projects like construction of hydro-electric power stations, roads.
    3. Aid can also be used to finance workshops.


    1. Explain factors hindering the growth of Jua-kali sector in Kenya today.
    2. We have fearless competition among Jua-kali artisans
    3. The sector does not get soft loans
    • The sector lacks the required capital to sustain their enterprises.
    1. Most of the people involved in Jua-kali sector have no knowledge in business management.
    2. This sector lacks good markets for finished goods.
    3. Sometimes the entrepreneurs are unable to pay high taxes



    UNIT 4:                LAW, ORDER & JUSTICE.


    1. How can Christians contribute towards maintenance of law and order in the society?
    2. By keeping the laws of God just as Jesus did.
    3. By obeying the laws of the land
    • By forgiving wrongdoers
    1. By fighting against social evils like prostitution, tribalism, drug abuse, abortion, murder, stealing with violence etc.
    2. Praying for peace and justice to prevail in the community.
    3. By respecting the lawful authority
    • By condemning unjust laws and violation of human rights in the society
    • By being peace makers themselves.


    1. List five forms of punishment meted to criminals and offenders by the Kenyan law courts.
    2. Death penalty (capital punishment)
    3. Imprisonment
    • Detention under the detention camp Act.
    1. Corporal punishment
    2. Fines
    3. Forfeiture
    • Compensation
    • Youths taken to approved schools for school going young
    1. Police supervision
    2. Banning
    3. Torture
    • Deportation
    • Conditional discharge.


    1. State five reasons why as Christians we should respect the laws of our country.
    2. Christians respect the laws of the land because they ensure that justice is done.
    3. Because the Bible commands us to do so.
    • A Christian must respect the laws of the land because they protect peoples property.
    1. Laws must be respected by all Christians because they protect peoples property.
    2. Respect the country’s laws as one way of showing love to our country
    3. Laws must be respected by Christians because they specify the duties to individuals
    • Laws of the land must be respected by Christians because they come from God.
    • Christians respect laws of the country because they keep peace in the land.


    1. List five social evils that are negatively affecting Kenya’s development.
    2. Robbery and violence is affecting business in Kenya
    3. Drug abuse especially drinking is causing a lot of deaths in road carnage
    • Tribalism, Nepotism
    1. Prostitution and adultery
    2. Murder
    3. Abortion
    • Greed leading to exploitation and cheating in business
    • Bribery and corruption.


    1. What is the importance of laws to a Christian in any country?
    2. Laws maintain peace and order.
    3. Laws protect the rights of individuals.
    • Laws protect lives of citizens
    1. Laws protect individuals property
    2. To define what is legal and what is illegal
    3. To punish
    • To limit human freedom
    • To regulate human behaviour.
    1. To ensure efficiency in work.


    1. Give reasons why one of the ten commandments is against murder.
    2. Only god can take away human life
    3. The commandment forbids murder to avoid the unwanted sorrows
    • The commandment “thou shall not kill” is present among the ten commandments because life is very precious.
    1. This commandment in question forbids killing because God created every man for a divine and a specific purpose.
    2. The commandment “Thou shall not kill” forbids murder because human life is sacred.


    1. What are the causes of crimes in modern world?
    2. Growing up among habitual criminals
    3. Great desire for power may drive one to commit crimes like organise for coup-detat.
    • Egoism
    1. Great desire to get more and more riches.
    2. Being envious of other peoples wealth
    3. Lack of normal upbringing e.g parking boys and “chokoras”
    • Breakdown of traditional norms
    • Insecurity
    1. Extreme poverty
    2. Heredity – If there is criminology in the family lineage there are great chances of one becoming a criminal.


    1. List five great evils that face mankind today.
    2. Diseases – Aids is the worst
    3. Poverty
    • Ignorance or illiteracy
    1. Wars and fighting
    2. Natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, famine etc
    3. Corruption or bribery.


    1. Why are many Christians opposed to capital punishment?
    2. They argue the capital punishment is irreversible; once a person dies, you cannot bring him back to life.
    3. It is against human rights
    • It take away a family and a community member.
    1. It against Gods law – “Thou shall not kill”
    2. Those who administer the punishment and even the criminal suffer degradation.
    3. It does not serve the purpose of reforming, warning the offender because the offender dies.
    • Gods plan in punishment is to cause repentance hence the criminal does not live to repent.
    • It lowers the human dignity of the criminal
    1. It is possible to kill an innocent person because judges are human beings.
    2. God alone is the giver of life and it is only Him alone who can take it away.
    3. Capital punishment destroys Gods image found in the criminal
    • Th judge may be biased or dishonest and pass a judgement which does not deserve capital punishment.


    1. Explain ways in which a Christian can show respect for life today.
    2. By giving guidance and counselling on the value of life
    3. By conserving to environment – planting trees, flowers and grass
    • Discouraging capital punishment
    1. By ensuring that there is no pollution of water, air and land
    2. Condemning abortion
    3. Discouraging child abuse
    • By helping the less fortunate members of the community
    • Sharing natural resources with those who are unfortunate.


    1. List down atleast five forms of punishment meted against law breakers
    2. Stoning to death
    3. Excommunication
    • Cursing
    1. Chopping off of some parts of the body.
    2. Banishment
    3. Throwing of offenders in flooded rivers to drawn
    • Torture by clan elders e.g. thorning, thrashing, burning of the victims though not to death, applying of liquids like sisal fluid which causes severe itching especially among the Akamba people.
    • Shooting to death of victims especially wizards, witches and murderers.
    1. Denial of basic rights, e.g a son who frossely offended his parents could be denied a share in their inheritance in some communities.






    1. Explain how law and order was maintained in Traditional African societies.
    2. Law and order was maintained through keeping customary beliefs and regulations.
    3. Law and order was maintained through oathing. Africans feared breaking established oaths because they could result to death hence they followed the law.
    • Another way of maintaining law and order was through punishing law breakers. The forms of punishment administered to wrong doors included the following fines, canning, curses and excommunication.
    1. Africans made covenants to ensure that law and order was maintained.
    2. In traditional African communities clan elders, chiefs and priests supervised the community in a bid to maintain law and order.


    1. Why do you think crime is on the increase in modern time?
    2. Today many people are arrogant and they even do not want to respect the governing authorities.
    3. Today we have a lot of drug-abuse.
    • Today we have very many poor people and very few extremely rich people.
    1. Advancement in technology – criminals can easily communicate in mobile phones and also can move very fast due to fast means of transport.
    2. Increase in unemployment which is even affecting university graduates.
    3. Some people are committing crimes in self-defence.


    1. List five forms of idolatry in modern world.
    2. Desire for material things
    3. Love for money
    • Desire for power
    1. Desire for sex
    2. Great desire for pleasure


    1. How can Christians help ex-prisoners?
    2. Helping them to solve their problems
    3. Visiting them to show them that they belong to them
    • Preaching good news to them.
    1. Showing concern and love to them
    2. Praying for them to get Gods help
    3. Involving them in church activities
    • Welcoming them to churches, which will make them heal fast
    • Advising their families to accept and forgive them
    1. Providing them with food, shelter and clothing
    2. Providing job opportunities to them.
    3. Providing them with guidance and counselling to help them and to reform them.


    1. Explain the major reasons for punishment.
    2. To discourage or deter the criminals themselves or other would be criminalse.g public execution discourages many criminals from committing crimes. On 23/04/2001 China executed 113 criminals in sports stadium.
    3. To reform the offender. Here the criminal is taught law, how to respect it and other people.
    • Retribulation – this causing pain to the criminal equivalent the pain he caused to his victim.
    1. To guard people and their properties against criminals.


    1. What do you think would happen if a certain society is left without laws?
    2. There would be total hopelessness among many people in the community
    3. There would be serious drug abuse in the society
    • Sex-abuses like rape, homosexuality, incert and bestiality would be prevalent.
    1. There would be great misunderstanding between the youth and the old.
    2. There would be serious moral decay
    3. People would be confused on which culture to follow.


    1. Explain the characteristics of dictatorial leaders.
    2. They rule their countries with iron-hands
    3. Most dictators plunder the economies of their countries because they know any time they could be overthrown and go to live in exile.
    • Dictators show open nepotism and all forms of injustice without any fear.
    1. Dictators have no respect for religion – they end up murdering the church leaders who point out their problems.
    2. Because of the injustices they perpetuate the country develops a lot of insecurity
    3. In their rule they have no regard to the countriesconstitution ; instead they violate it greatly.


    1. What are the moral duties of the state to her citizens?
    2. The state has a duty of providing a good tax system. The state should not overtax her citizens.
    3. A state should protect the citizens from any external danger
    • The state has a duty of providing employment to her citizens
    1. The state has a duty of maintaining and overseeing justice
    2. The state has a duty of protecting rights for all the citizens
    3. The state must provide essential services like food during famines, hospitals, roads etc.


    1. How is justice maintained in Kenyan schools?
    2. There are rules and regulations to protect the rights of students and teachers
    3. There is established procedures of dealing with offenders for example punishment, suspension and expulsion.
    • Offenders are assisted through guidance and counselling
    1. Hard core students are taken to approved schools where they are given further discipline.


    1. Outline the dangers of electing an unjust ruler?
    2. An unjust ruler would rule in a dictatorial manner.
    3. An unjust ruler would ignore the country’s constitution – he would violet it grossly.
    • An unjust ruler would plunder the economy.
    1. It is obvious that an unjust ruler practice all manner of social injustices.
    2. An unjust ruler would bring a state of insecurity.
    3. An unjust ruler would abuse religion or may show bias to religion.


    1. What are the problems that Christians could encounter in trying to promote social justice in Kenya?
    2. The educated who have no regard for the uneducated whom they regard as ignorant
    3. Greed and selfishness resulting in grabbing, exploitation of the poor.
    • Opposition from the rich who are not willing to share their riches with poor.
    1. People not willing.
    2. Men not willing to share political power with women
    3. People of one race discriminating against those from other races as it was the case in South Africa during Apartheid regime.
    • When the old are not willing to share responsibilities with the youth.
    • Nepotism or clanism – that is possible favouring their own tribesmen or clansmen in share of resources, jobs and power.
    1. Greed and selfishness resulting from grabbing, exploitation of the poor and the rich and those in power.
    2. People from some denominations not willing to help people of other denominations.


    1. Explain how injustice can disrupt peace in any society.
    2. Injustice can lead to murders, robbery with violence or even assassinations.
    3. It can cause suffering e.g hunger, sicknesses and death.
    • It can lead to civil war.
    1. It cause rebellion like civil disobedience, coup detat, demonstrations, strikes, all manner of violence.
    2. To those who practice injustice, it can cause disrespect.
    3. It can led to hypocrisy and cheating.
    • It leads to international isolation like what was happening in South Africa during the period of Apartheid policy.


    1. How can Christians be good examples in doing injustice?
    2. By organising projects to help the destitute.
    3. By not being hypocritical
    • By avoiding to do any evil
    1. By leading humble lives
    2. By avoiding any quarrels amongst themselves
    3. By being responsible to others like Jesus.
    • By being ready to serve others.


    1. State six fundamental rights of a citizen according to UN’s universal declaration or Human rights.
    2. Right to marry and raise a family
    3. Right to life
    • Right to freedom of worship and expression
    1. Right to rightful arrest and fair trial
    2. Right to enjoy and use personal property freely
    3. Right to employment and a just wage.
    • Right to education
    • Right to own property
    1. Right to free association with others
    2. Right to freedom of speech and of information
    3. Right to personal freedom or liberty


    1. In what ways do Christians practice social justice?
    2. Christians practice social justice by caring for the environment
    3. By sharing their properties and resources to the less unfortunate members of the society.
    • By paying visits to the sick, prisoners and bereaved family members
    1. Praying for peace and justice in the society
    2. By calling for the justice rule of the law.
    3. By helping the poor and the needy.
    • Pointing out the social evils affecting the community
    • Christians should accomplish their domestic duties.


    1. Explain the Biblical teaching on order and justice.
    2. The Bible teaches that our God is a God of order as found in the creation account – in Psalm 17:8 God is just.
    3. Prophets Amos, Jeremiah, Issaih condemned the rich for exploiting the poor, fatherless and widows.
    • Jesus taught that people should first seek Gods kingdom and His justice.
    1. Jesus practised justice by associating with the despised member of the society like – Mathew and Saccheaus who were both tax-collectors
    2. According to prophet Isaiah, Gods justice involves helping the widows, the orphans and the poor.
    3. From (2 Samuel 12: – 1 – 15) we learn that all men are equal before God and should be treated with justice as God is against an injustice.
    • Christians are the watch dogs of the society to speak against an unjust laws or unjust practices.
    • Christians must exercise justice always by helping the hungry, thirsty, strangers, the sick and the prisoners.
    1. Jesus was opposed to Pharisees and Sadducees because they neglected justice mercy, and faith.





    1. What are the qualities of good leaders according to old testament?
    • Deuteronomy
    1. He is respected by everybody
    2. He is mature and patient
    • He is not selfish
    1. He is humble
    2. He is not a lover of alcohol
    3. He is wise
    • One who has a God fearing family
    • He speaks for the helpless
    1. He has great skills in organising people.


    1. Briefly explain the purpose of law in Traditional African society
    2. In African Traditional communities law set out the roles of the members of society.
    3. In A.T.S. law guided people in all religious matters
    • In A.T.S. law created harmony in the entire community.
    1. In A.T.S. law guided people on what should be eaten and what should not be eaten e.g among the Akamba women did not eat the heads of goats because this was purely for the men who were the family leaders.
    2. In A.T.S. law guided people in the various rites that the members had to undergo.
    3. In A.T.S. law governed the terms of trade between the members of the community and other communities.
    • In A.T.S. law set out the specific punishment to be given to the wrong doers.
    • In A.T.S. the law set out accepted relations between rival communities.
    1. In A.T.S. laws were to guide people who belonged to various professions.




    1. What part can a Christian play in the national elections?
    2. A Christian can be honest in whatever role he is playing in election process
    3. Praying for fair, free, just and peaceful elections
    • Being very committed in whatever part he is given to play
    1. Accepting to work in any capacity in and out of polling stations.


    1. Outline the qualities of a good church leader according to New Testament.
    2. Must be above reproach
    3. A husband of one wife
    • Must be temperate
    1. Must have self-control
    2. Must be respectable
    3. Must be able to teach
    • Not a drunkard
    • Not violent but gentle
    1. Not quarrelsome
    2. Not a lover of money
    3. Must manage his family well
    • Must not be a recent convert
    • Must have a good reputation with outsiders
    • Must be hospitable
    1. Must not pursue dishonest gain.


    1. Explain how a Christian can acquire leadership qualities.
    2. A Christian can acquire leadership qualities by going through a theological training institute.
    3. Through experience acquired after long service
    • By learning Christian religious education in school
    1. Through attending seminars on leadership
    2. One can acquire those leadership skills through Gods inspiration
    3. By studying the Bible especially on areas dealing with Christian leadership
    • By emulating other leaders who are successful


    1. Explain the various forms of discrimination found in our modern society.
    2. Education discrimination – here the educated would discriminate the uneducated or the vice versa
    3. Tribal discrimination – Here members of a given tribe would employ or like to associate with members of their tribe at the expense of those who do not belong to their tribe.
    • Language discrimination – here people use their mother tongue in amidst of those who do not understand it. When they do this deliberately then it amounts to language discrimination.  This is becoming common in our public offices.
    1. Class and economic discrimination – here people prefer to associate with those of their social economic class. The rich would associate with the rich and despise the poor.
    2. Discrimination on basis of health – here the health might ignore association with those suffering from dreaded diseases like Aids, T.B from their places f work especially in the private sector. Or when those suffering from physical disabilities are denied employment on this basis.
    3. Discrimination based on age – here people discriminate against those of other age. This is common in churches especially when the old members are opposed to election of the youth to join church councils.
    • Discrimination based on sex – here people prefer to associate with those of their own sex. In the past there were certain jobs which were meant for men or women, but today this is dying out because today women are doing jobs like piloting, mechanical and electrical engineering which were meant for men.  Today men are working as cooks, chefs, which were jobs meant for women.  In one is denied a job on the basis of sex this amounts to discrimination.
    • Discrimination against the minority group. – Here majority group ignore the minority group especially when it comes to issues like allocating positions or property in the entire society.
    1. Religious discrimination – Here people associate with those of their denomination and discriminate others.


    1. As a Christian, what social and religious evils would you condemn in Kenya today?
    2. A Christian in Kenya can condemn oppression of the poor by the rich economically
    3. A Christian can condemn the want on destruction of the viral natural forests in Kenya.
    • A Christian may condemn the high level of bribery and corruption
    1. A Christian may condemn the misuse of public funds by those in leadership
    2. A Christian may condemn evil like murder, rape, violent, stealing etc
    3. A Christian may condemn prostitution which is highly practised in Kenya
    • A Christian may condemn injustices in law courts
    • A Christian may condemn car-jacking which is a common phenomena in our main cities.


    1. Explain problems that may result from good relationship between the state and church.
    2. The church may compromise and fail to condemn social evils committed by the state.
    3. The church may be forced to do corruption
    • Strong relationship between the church and state may make the church to forfeit her legitimate authority which comes from God.
    1. The church may be misused by the politicians to achieve evil political ends at the painful expense of the church
    2. The state may use Biblical teachings and change them to cover their political ideologies.
    3. Strong alliance between church and state may bring politics in church government.


    1. Explain how a Christian can ensure that justice is done Kenya today:
    2. A Christian can propagate justice in Kenya today through preaching against all forms of exploitation.
    3. A Christian can propagate justice by speaking against detention without trial.
    • A Christian can ensure justice by preaching against bribery in law courts and in traffic controls.
    1. He can preach justice by speaking against any forms of dictatorship in any form of leadership.
    2. He can preach against tribalism and racism.
    3. He can condemn strongly the grabbing of poor mans lands by the rich, the grabbing of public plots by the greedy and rich individuals.


    1. From the judgement passed on to Jesus by the Pontius Pilate, what can Christians learn?
    2. Jesus was the son of God
    3. Jesus was not guilty
    • Leaders should not abuse powers given to them.
    1. Christians should not give false witness
    2. One should not be influenced by others to speak lies
    3. One should be fair in passing judgements
    • One should seek to please God but not fellowmen.
    • Leaders should give guidance to those he is leading.


    1. Explain the steps church leaders would take in handling dishonest members.
    2. Help them in avoiding all circumstances which could lead them to dishonest
    3. Forgive the dishonest members
    • They can discipline them
    1. Leaders should set good examples to be followed by dishonest members
    2. Study the circumstances leading to dishonesty
    3. Leaders should pray to the affected members
    • Instead of ignoring them they should be given guidance and counseling
    • They should teach them to lead responsible lives


    1. What is the importance of professional ethics to a Christian?
    2. When a Christian observes professional ethics in his work many other people develop a liking to his profession.
    3. Professional ethics makes a Christian good example to other workmates
    • Professional ethics helps a Christian to improve skills
    1. Professional ethics dictates on how a Christian should relate with his colleagues.
    2. Professional ethics controls a Christian not a reveal professional secrets
    3. Professional ethics controls a Christian form breaking the rules that guides him e.g a male teacher is prohibited from sexual knowledge of his female student.




    1. How can Christian Youth serve God today?
    2. By contributing money in aid of church activities
    3. By singing in the choir by providing labour in the church e.g sweeping church, cultivating in church compound, watering flower beds etc.
    • By teaching in Sunday schools
    1. By taking pair in communal work.
    2. By worshipping God in the church through praying and reading the Bible
    3. A Christian youth who is educated can also teach the adults
    • By participating in societies like Y.C.S, U


    1. What do you think the Kenyan Church should do to curb abortion which is increasing at an alarming rate?
    2. The church should emphatically teach that life is a gift from God hence it should not be terminated easily.
    3. The church should outrightly condemn it as sinful and unnecessary
    • The church should teach parents to love their pregnant daughters.
    1. The church should provide homes to the unmarried mothers
    2. The church should fearlessly teach sex education to all especially abortion
    3. The church should encourage the youth to share ideas on sex and about abortion.
    • The church should build homes for unwanted children.
    • The church has a duty to guide and counsel pregnant girls.


    1. How can the church promote peace in modern society?
    2. The church should participate in choosing just leaders
    3. The church should make peace between various groups of people
    • Th church should participate in social activities both at family level and at national level.
    1. The church should be mindful of other peoples welfare
    2. The church should aid in bringing people in different backgrounds together.
    3. The church has a role of strengthening national consciousness.
    • The church has a duty of fighting poverty, ignorance, oppression and sickness
    • The church should fight against prejudice.
    1. The church should serve her role as a servant where she is required to do so.


    1. In detail explain ways in which the modern church can participate in political issues of Kenya as a country.
    2. The church should help in negotiations to end statement like in the ongoing constitutional review
    3. The church should always mediate between the citizen and the leaders of the country.
    • The church should participate in the election process.
    1. The church should always act as the conscience of the state.
    2. The church should participate in offering civil education to the voters although the state is opposed to it today.
    3. The church has a prime duty of praying to the state
    • The church should fearlessly condemn the evils in the state.
    • The church should word hand in hand with political leaders in the socio-economic development projects like building schools, hospitals and church.


    1. Explain problems that are hindering effective church

    influence in the social life of the community.

    1. Lack of money to spread the gospel
    2. There are wrangles within the churches
    • Today we have emergency of devil worship, several cults and communism in our society.
    1. Some church leaders involving themselves in immorality which gives the church a big blow.
    2. Strong negative influence from science
    3. Lack of appropriate training of church leaders
    • Some church members practicing self-righteousness.
    • Lack of accountability and transparency in church funds
    1. When social classes and practised in the church




    1. Explain what steps should churches take to retain the youth in

    their churches.

    1. The Church should encourage the youth to have church weddings and support those who cannot afford such ceremonies.
    2. The church should learn to accommodate modern styles of dressing during church worship.
    • For the church to attract the youth, they should start English service to cater for their interests.
    1. The church should start organising guidance and counselling to make them aware of their role in the church
    2. The church should involve the church in various church activities much liked by the youth
    3. The church should organise youth rallies and crusades which are very much liked by the youth.
    • The church should have some of them in leadership roles i.e in church council
    • The church should allow them to form youth groups
    1. The church should allow them to sing in the church using modern tunes and styles
    2. The church should provide recreational facilities to the youth because they have a lot of energy for the same
    3. The church should provide employment opportunities to them and also strongly recommend for employment elsewhere.





    1. Explain how Christians are using science and technology to spread the Gospel today.
    2. Archeological discoveries are confirming the truth of the Gospel.
    3. Medicines have helped Christians to do the healing ministry which is part of spreading the gospel.
    • Scientific researches have been adopted by the church because they help the church in changing to modern methods and approaches.
    1. Tools like radios, T.V.s, Video cassettes and cinemas are used to preach the good news.
    2. Christians today are using public address systems when preaching in crusades and in big churches
    3. The knowledge of architecture has enabled the church to build big churches like the church of Dr. David Logicho in South Korea which as a sitting capacity of 350,000 people. This is the largest church in the world.
    • Different modes of transport like air, water, rail and road have enabled evangelists and other ministers to preach in many parts of the world.
    • Christians today are spreading the Gospel through the print media e.gtypewriter’s, computers and printing machines.
    1. Churches use telephones, fax machines and postal services to spread the gospel.
    2. Modern advancement in agriculture and commerce has improved peoples income which in inturn used in spreading the gospel.


    1. Give five reasons why some Christians are opposed to the use of artificial contraceptives.
    2. It lowers the dignity of the persons involved
    3. Artificial contraceptives have a lot of risks on the lives of people involved.
    • It is an immoral act.
    1. It is only God who has the sole duty of creating giving human life, hence artificial contraceptives is wrong.
    2. It is opposed because it is unnatural way of having a child.


    1. What would you advice a patient to do while on medications?
    2. One should be advised to hide drugs from children
    3. One should take full dose as per the physician’s instructions.
    • One should never use expired drugs because they can cause instant death
    1. One should store medicines in cool dry places
    2. One should never share drugs with other patients
    3. It is advisable that one should not treat himself unless he/ she is a medical practitioner.


    1. Give reasons why a few Christians are opposed to family planning programmes.
    2. They argue that it is a way of promoting prostitution
    3. They argue that most of the family planning methods have serious effects.
    • Others say that they opt to use the natural method because it has no medical complications.
    1. Others argue that using of family planning methods is a clear indication that they do not trust God to give them the children they would need.
    2. Other Christians argue that they are following God’s command “multiply and fill the earth” – Genesis chapter 1:.


    1. Explain how a Christian should treat people suffering from AIDS.
    2. A Christian should advice AIDs patients to take drugs according to physicians instructions.
    3. Christians should show them love because they are children of God
    • Christians should preach to them and convert them before they die because it is a terminal disease.
    1. Christians should not disassociate themselves from AIDs patients but rather they should keep company with them.
    2. Christians should feed and cloth those suffering from AIDs.


    1. Why do you think majority of men do not accept vasectomy in Kenya?
    2. Many argue that once one undergoes vasectomy it is irreversible.
    3. Others argue that it causes misunderstanding in the family
    • Some fear to be looked down upon by other fellow men even women
    1. Others argue that it interferes with the perfect creation of God.
    2. Others say it has several side effects.
    3. Others refuse it simply because they do not know anything about it.


    1. What are some of the problems that may result from the advertisement of condoms?
    2. It will encourage the youth to commit fornication and the married adultery.
    3. The S.T.D. may increase because condoms cannot give full quarantee that one cannot conduct the S.T.D. when using them.
    • There will be unwanted pregnancies because some condoms are known to be defective.
    1. The youth would want to experiment on them because they are very adventurous.
    2. There will be a lot of moral decay in the society.







    1. In detail describe the religious significance of the environment in traditional African communities.
    2. All believed that it was their religious duty to make care of the environment.
    3. Each community believed that their homeland was a gift from God.
    • To the African people the following environmental phenomenas revealed that nature of God: – stars, moon, sun, eclipse, rain, clouds, thunder and lightening.
    1. In many societies major oaths were taken by one taking the soil as a symbol of environment.
    2. Some communities had heavenly bodies which were considered sacred.
    3. Many African communities had their shrines where they worshipped in certain environmental places e.g trees, rivers, mountains, hills, rocks and forests.
    • Rites of passages were connected to the environment e.g circumcision blood flowed to the soil to bind the initiates to the ancestors, birth day.
    • The environment showed the relationship between God and people at given times e.g drought, floods, epidemics.


    1. Explain how science and technology has improved the quality of human life.
    2. Due to many discoveries in medicine many diseases are now brought under control.
    3. Due to advancement in transport and communication the quality of human life has greatly been influenced. Today one can be flown to Europe within hours for treatment incase he/ she cannot be treated in Kenya.
    • Due to advancement in science and Technology improvement in fuel production which inturn improves the quality of human life.
    1. Science and technology has led to production of good quality textiles which inturn are improving the quality of human life.
    2. Advancement in science and technology has led great production of food hence improvement in human life
    3. Today we have good supply due to improvement in science ad technology.
    • Due to advancement in science and technology we have good houses which improve the quality of human life a great deal
    • Electricity and electrical appliances have greatly improved the quality of human life.


    1. List five technological activities which are threatening mans life.
    2. Pesticides and fertilizers which have negative effects to man.
    3. Remains from nuclear weapons have long lasting effects e.g Bombs dropped at Nagasaki and Heroshima in the second world war are still a threat to human life even today.
    • Carbon monoxide emitted from industries is ruining the ozone layer which inturn allows dangerous ultra-violet rays from the sun.
    1. Toxic gas from industries are causing chest diseases.
    2. Cutting down trees from timber and paper causes deforestation which inturn results to desertification.


    1. Explain the benefits of modern science and Technology to mankind.
    2. Modern Science has come up with modern medicines which improves human life.
    3. Modern Science has greatly improved mans environment
    • Modern science has boasted food production.
    1. Modern science and Technology has brought unity of mankind as mankind can communicate from all earners of the world.
    2. Science and technology has greatly improved communication.
    3. Science and technology has brought unity of mankind as mankind can communicate from all corners of the world.
    • Through use of science and technology man can easily control the universe.


    1. How can Christians help to protect the environment?
    2. Supporting environmental programmes with finances.
    3. Teaching other people on how to preserve it for example soil conservation, tree planting, cleaning the environment, good farming methods and afforestation.
    • In taking part during environmental days.
    1. Teaching others the importance of the environment e.g for beauty, prosperity and for healthy.
    2. Christians should condemn in the strongest terms possible the senseless destruction and exploitation of the environment.
    3. Be ready to work in protecting the environment e.g in building gabions, planting trees, cleaning the city, cleaning river beds.
    • Planting flower and tree nurseries from where other people could get seedlings to plant.
    • Desert from all activities that destroy environment like poaching, cultivating on steep slopes, falling trees, encroaching on catchment areas.
    1. Giving ideas on conservation to others.
    2. Taking good care of their homes, shambas.


    1. From the creation account, – explain the relationship that should exist between human beings and the environment.
    2. Man had dominion over the environment
    3. Man and environment depend on each other.
    • Man and environment were both created by God hence should appreciate the environment as Gods creation.
    1. Man has a duty to take care of the environment
    2. The environment was created to be used by man.


    1. Outline the importance of trees to mankind.
    2. Trees act as wind breakers in plantations and settled areas.
    3. Trees provide fuel for cooking
    • Trees provide building materials
    1. From trees we get paper e.gWebuye factory
    2. From trees we got food e.g. some wild fruits are used as food.
    3. Trees provide medicine.
    • Trees prevent soil erosion.
    • Trees especially in forested areas provide water catchement.


    1. Define the term Euthanasia: Give reasons for and against euthanasia.
    2. The term Euthanasia is a Greek word meaning “Mercy killing” or painless death.
    3. Reasons for Euthanasia:
    4. Those who advocate for it say that they have compassion for one who is undergoing unbearable pain.
    5. They argue that life is survival for the fittest
    • They argue that one has a right to choose death without suffering
    1. Since medical expenses may be high, euthanasia may be a way of relieving the economic burden.
    2. Others argue that there is no point of keeping a person who will obviously die.


    Arguments against Euthanasia:

    1. Euthanasia equals murder
    2. Euthanasia is a pure materialistic concept of life
    • Others say that those who accept Euthanasia are simply committing suicide.
    1. Doctors who administer Euthanasia may never be trusted by their patients.
    2. Others argue that euthanasia is against Bible which condemns murder
    3. Negative and positive euthanasia is likewise murder when done without the consent of the suffering person.
    • Euthanasia renders human life meaningless.
    • Those who administer or allow euthanasia prove that they have no love and care for the drying.
    1. Medical ethics forbids euthanasia.
    2. Euthanasia is an open rejection and rebellion against God.


    1. List atleast five forms of artificial contraceptives.
    2. Condoms
    3. Diaphragms
    • Hormonal pills
    1. Injections e.g Depo-Provera
    2. Foaming pills and jollies
    3. Intra uterine devise (IUD) also “loop”
    • Tubal-ligation.






    1. What are the causes of sexual abuse in modern society?
    2. Lack of guidance and counselling of the youth.
    3. Poverty
    • Influence of drugs
    1. Today there is less emphasis on sex education
    2. Influence from pornographic literature and films.
    3. Light or lack of punishment to sex offenders
    • Great influence from Western culture
    • Total breakdown of traditional taboos governing sex.


    1. Briefly explain what the traditional African initiates were taught about sex during initiation.
    2. They were taught the time or period in which they could abstain from sexual relationships.
    3. They were instructed on how to conduct themselves in from of members of the opposite sex.
    • They were taught about the intimacy of female to male relationships
    1. They were given a detailed instruction by courageous tutors on their own procreative systems
    2. They were taught that sex was sacred and important
    3. They were taught that the right place of sex was only in marriage
    • They were fully tutored on all the taboos connected with sex.


    1. Why do you think Christians are against fornication.
    2. Fornication is a source of contracting Standards.
    3. Fornication is condemned in the Bible i.e fornicators are among those who will not inherit the kingdom of God.
    • Christians condemn fornication because it does not achieve one purpose of sex which is fulfillment.
    1. A girl who involves herself in fornication in never trusted in marriage in future marriage because she has broken her virginity.
    2. It may result to unwanted pregnancies.


    1. What ways were used by the Africans to prevent the abuse of sex?
    2. Polygamy was allowed in many African communities to reduce or even control the abuse of sex.
    3. Sex offenders were severely punished or fined.
    • The young were given serious guidance and counselling on matters pertaining to sex.
    1. Boys and girls could only mix in the presence of responsible adults.
    2. Sex was strictly for the married people.
    3. Rigid sexual taboos were practiced in all African communities.
    • Young and mature girls were strictly monitored by the parentse.g a young child could accompany a mature girl to the river, to the bush or even to the villagers and relatives homes to ensure that she could not talk to boys on the way.


    1. What are the effects of irresponsible sex?
    2. It can led to social evils like rape, drug abuse
    3. It can result to early pregnancies and forced marriages
    • It can lead to the spread of sexually transmitted diseases like AIDs, Syphilis, Gonorrhea etc.
    1. It causes single parenthood.
    2. It brings health problems especially to young girls when they give birth.
    3. It can cause divorce.
    • It causes or leads to prostitution or even homosexuality in extreme cases.
    • It leads to birth of illegitimate children
    1. It causes crime among young children e.g the parking boys
    2. It causes abortion to avoid the unwanted children.


    1. Give atleast five examples of deviant sexual behaviour found in our modern society.
    2. Rape
    3. Abortion
    • Prostitution
    1. Homosexuality
    2. Bestiality
    3. Lesbianism


    1. What are the causes of prostitution?
    2. Prostitution has been made by some people an economic activity to earn living from or generate some income.
    3. Some men and women turn to prostitution because their sexual demands are not met in their marriage relationship.
    • Especially among the youth, peer group influence and pressures may lead to entering and practising prostitution.
    1. Phonographic literature and films dealing with loose sexual information lure people to indulge sexual immoralities.
    2. As a result of separation or divorce, the affected may need company for sexual relation or money which may result to practising prostitution.
    3. Some women may leave their rural homes to look for jobs and if they fail, are forced to result to prostitution.
    • Extreme poverty.


    1. What are the evils of prostitution?
    2. It undermines the mutual and companionship aspect of sex
    3. Through prostitution, deadly sexually transmitted diseases are passed on.
    • It is a source of moral and spiritual decay
    1. Where prostitution is rampant, crime rate is quite high
    2. Some times it leads to unwanted pregnancies
    3. It encourages sexual crimes such as abortion
    • Prostitution may make young girls loose their dignity in society or their dignified ways of earning a decent living.
    • Where couples engage in the practice, they loose confidence to one another and the family may end up breaking.
    1. Misuse of money
    2. Children brought up where prostitution is rampant are likely to develop diligent behaviours.
    3. It undermines the purpose of sex in marriage / sex become a pure physical satisfaction.


    1. Explain both the similarities and differences between the traditional and Christian understanding of marriage.


    1. In both marriage is seen as covenant relationship
    2. In both marriage is seen as a social affair as many people are invited to attend the marriage feasts.
    • In both marriage is aimed at providing mutual love
    1. Both believe that marriage is sacred and that it is the divine will of God.
    2. In both marriage enables man and woman to have new responsibilities.
    3. Marriage promotes the social status the new couple in both tradition and Christian societies.
    • In both marriage brings about new ties of relationships. In both the young couple gets new friends and relatives e.g brothers, sisters-in-law.








    1. Traditional African marriage allows polygamy while Christian marriage is strictly monogamous.
    2. Christian marriage unites a man and a woman while traditional African marriage unites two families – the family of the man to the family of the woman.
    • Christian marriage ends with the death of one partner while Traditional African marriage continues even long after the death of one partner in that a woman can continue bearing children to the deceased husband.
    1. In traditional African marriage one does not die but lives through the birth of this children who continue his name after his death while Christianity gets immortal life through salvation by the blood of Jesus Christ.
    2. In Christianity it is not a must for everyone to marry for some have celibacy for religious reasons, while in traditional African societies it was a duty / a must for everyone to marry and raise a family.
    3. Marriage without children in traditional African society was not complete while in Christianity the marriage is complete and acceptable without children.
    • A wife can have children for her husband incase the husband been important but this is unacceptable in Christianity for it is sin of sexual immorality.
    • In traditional African marriages, a woman was married to the whole family or even clan but in Christianity a woman belongs to one man who has all rights over her.


    1. Explain the types of marriages found in Kenya today.
    2. Christian marriage:

    This is conducted in church following Christian teaching.  It is    conducted by Pastor, Rev., Priest or even a Bishop.  There are many family members and Christians who act as witnesses.

    1. Islamic marriage:

    This is conducted according to Islamic teaching.  A Kadhi conducts it.  There are very many witnesses who include Islamic faithful, friends and relatives from both families.

    • Traditional African marriage:

    These are marriages conducted following traditional Africans customs.  These marriages are also called customary marriages.  These are the majority in Kenya.  These marriages differ from one community to another.

    1. Civil marriages:

    These are conducted at the District commissioner’s office.  There are very few witnesses.  They follow the laws of Kenya and incase of divorce the same office authorises though it is done at law courts.


    1. What are some of the reasons given by Christians for celibacy?
    2. Some claim that they want to follow the example of Jesus who had no wife.
    3. Others follow Jesus teaching that they leave everything including wives for the sake of the kingdom.
    • Others especially women want to follow the example of barren women like Elizabeth who late became the mother of John the Baptist.
    1. Others say they only want to be married to Christ as they cannot be fully committed if they got earthly marriage.
    2. Others say they want to remain virgin like the ten virgins of the Bible hence some become Nuns and sisters.


    1. Explain the secular reasons for remaining single today.
    2. Some people prefer co-habiting to real committed life.
    3. Others claim they have missed a “Mr right” or “Miss right”.
    • Girls who have illegitimate children have difficulties in getting husbands.
    1. Other girls spend a lot of their life in education only to find that they have become too old to attract a man for marriage.
    2. Some girls choose to lead a single parenthood rather than to marry.
    3. Others say they would rather not marry than fail in their careers – for example a lady working with armed forces in Kenya would choose to remain rather than leaving her career to get married.
    • Men fearing the highly educated women like professors
    • Others who are selfish would not like to share their earnings with any one else hence they decide not to marry.
    1. Some men may remain single because of physical defects – Eunuchs.




    1. What was the importance of children in traditional African communities?
    2. Children were to inherit the parents’ property after their death. Inheritance was strictly for boys.
    3. In traditional African society children were perceived as blessings from God.
    • Children were very important in traditional African societies because they continue family and clan through procreation. That is, they kept the fire of life burning.
    1. Children completed a marriage for a marriage without children was not complete and binding.
    2. In traditional African societies one got respect in the society according to the number of children one had. The more the children the more the respect one received from his community.
    3. Children in traditional African societies provide labour force. Many children meant higher labour force and this could make one rich.  Also one who had many girls he get a lot of dowry when the girls were married.


    1. Discuss the African view that in traditional African communities a woman is married to the whole clan.
    2. It was accepted traditionally that can elders or age mates of the husband could discipline the woman if she misbehaved.
    3. If a husband dies a brother or a kinsman takes over the wife
    • Clan elders resolved quarrels between husband and wife incase any arose.
    1. Before the young couple could make a decision they consulted their clan members.
    2. Clan members shared marriage expenses by contributing food, goats for dowry even working on the wedding day. This brought in the idea that the wife belonged to them.
    3. After marriage most of the members of the clan could visit the married woman and she was expected to show hospitality at all times.
    • Clan members collected the bride and brought her to her new home on the marriage day hence the wife belonged to them.
    • Everyone took any part in the ceremonial and the rituals connected with marriage therefore everyone felt the wife belonged to each one of them especially them. She could be refereed to as “our wife”.
    1. In some communities the kinsmen played a great role in choosing the bride.
    2. Since the woman belonged to the whole clan she was supposed to participate in all clan functions.
    3. A kinsman was called upon to raise up children if a man was impotent.
    • In some communities like the Maasai, intimate friends could share wives.
    • A wife was supposed to know all the clan members immediately she was married.
    • Once a woman got married she was supposed to perform all household chores for the whole clan without complaining.


    1. What difficulties can be encountered in maintaining this practice of a woman being married to a whole clan in modern societies?
    2. Employment and mobility have kept women away from their clansmen and has made them outward looking.
    3. Some people pay more loyalty to their churches than the clans hence the idea of a wife being a clan wife does not arise.
    • Some couples marry without involving their clan members.
    1. There has been breakdown of clan solidarity and kinship ties.
    2. The cost of living today makes it difficult for those involved to entertain the clansmen easily.
    3. Women liberation movements cannot accept this practice at all.
    • Today society is tolerant to single parenthood therefore this practise is quite unacceptable in traditional African society.
    • Mixed marriages across tribal and racial lines make it difficult to uphold this traditional African practice or value on marriage.
    1. Conditions of habitation in urban areas cannot allow this practice.
    2. Society has changed attitude towards women for example today women may own property or even inherit property form their parents.
    3. Migrations both rural to urban and rural to rural migrations have separated members of the clan from other members.
    • Christian teaching on marriage emphasize the responsibility to the nuclear family rather than the extended family.
    • Western education has exposed learners to Western ideas and values that conflict with this practice in African marriages.



    1. What are the causes of conflict in marriage in Kenya today?
    2. Lack of children – many a times men blame their wives and strife starts in the family.
    3. Selfishness on the part of husband or wife.
    • Negligence of ones responsibilities. Here a man neglects his fatherly duties or the wife neglects her motherly duties as the homemaker.
    1. Unfaithfulness on the part of husband or wife especially on matters related to sex.
    2. Influence of traditional African practices for example if a man wants to marry a second wife and his first wife resists, or a man spends a lot of money on the extended family especially when the wife does not accept this practice friction begins in marriage.
    3. When the husband or wife takes so much drug taking especially alcohol.
    • Use of misuse of family money. Here either the husband or wife uses family money without information of the other and especially when it is used for the intended purpose.
    • Influence from Western education or religion or modernity or even women’s liberation movement liberation movement which makes not to accept the wives traditional role in marriage.
    1. In cases where the wife is more senior position than the man, if the wife transfers the same seniority at home conflicts sets in that home.
    2. Extended family may cause conflicts in marriage if there is interference especially when in-laws start coming in between the married couple.
    3. Wife beating especially in Kenya today when such a practice is becoming a thing of the past.


    1. How can a Christian couple ensure a successful marriage?
    2. The two should share their happiness and sorrows.
    3. They should treat each other as equals as they are equal before the eyes of God
    • They should give conjugal rights to each other
    1. The two should practice understanding, tolerance and forgiveness.
    2. They should consult each other in important decisions affecting their family.



    1. Why do you think the church disapproves of divorce?.
    2. Marriage after divorce is regarded to be equivalent to adultery.
    3. It is Biblically wrong and Christ disapproves of it.
    • Divorce cancels the permanence of marriage that was intended for man at the beginning.
    1. Divorce is not an option for two believers. Otherwise marriage loses meaning.
    2. Reconciliation / love should be the guiding principles in married life.
    3. The partner at fault should accept his/ her mistakes to avoid divorce.
    • Marriage is a symbol of Christ and the church so divorce devalues the meaning or the symbol of unity and love.
    • Divorce brings insecurity to the children.
    1. Divorce disrupts family life.
    2. Marriage is sacred and therefore should never be dissolved.


    1. In details outline the consequences of divorce in contemporary society.
    2. It causes economic strain on one partner who is left with the children.
    3. It results to single parenthood.
    • It causes great enemy to the two partners
    1. It causes deep suffering to the children
    2. It may lead to prostitution to the two partners
    3. Children would lack security because they are brought up by one parent especially the mother.
    • It causes juvenile delinquency.
    • It leads to failure in achieving family goals.
    1. It leads to adultery
    2. In extreme cases it may lead to one committing suicide.
    3. Divorce causes deep frustrations to both partners affected.
    • It leads to children to grow without total parental love.


    1. Explain the traditional African understanding of the family.
    2. An African family is composed of the living, the dead ancestors and the yet to be born members.
    3. In traditional African community many nuclear families which were related through blood, marriage or adoption formed an extended family. This was the most common feature of African families since the idea of a nuclear family is foreign to the Africans.
    • In traditional African a family without children was incomplete and unnecessary. The chief purpose of marrying was procreation to have a family and continue it.
    1. Polygamous marriages were common features of many traditional African families. The more the number of wives and children one had the more he was respected in the given society.
    2. An extended families were a common feature because it had many members who shared responsibilities like, education of children, raising of dowry, helping bereaved families, supporting widows, supporting week members of the family in times of famine and misfortunes and doing communal work like cultivation, construction of houses etc.


    1. How can the modern society prevent prostitution?
    2. The governmental organisations and churches can join hands together and give them skills which make them start income generating activities as an alternative to prostitution.
    3. Other members of the society should treat them with love but not call them “Malaya” (prostitutes) because this would demoralise them the more.
    • The government should enlighten the community through mass media about the dangers of prostitution because some practice it due to ignorance of the side effects of the practice. This would also deter the would be prostitutes.
    1. The prostitutes should be talked to by qualified guidance and counselling personal and this can help a great deal. The same services should be extended to the would be abusers of sex.
    2. People who engage in prostitution should be encouraged to go to church where they can be taught sound morality.


    1. Explain the Christian understanding of the family.
    2. To Christians a family begins with marriage between a man and woman who agree to live together for life.
    3. The chief purpose of having a Christian family is mutual love and companionship as opposed to traditional African which is procreation.
    • A Christian family is an example of the relationship between Christ and the church that is why Paul directed that husbands love their wives as Christ loved the church – Ephesians chapter 5:25.
    1. In Christian understanding, a childless family is still a complete family
    2. A Christian family is purely monogamous.


    1. Briefly explain the various kinds of families in Kenya today.
    2. Single Parent Family.

    This family is made up of one parent either man or woman and children.  This family may result from death of one marriage partner, or separation in marriage or children born by a girl and she fails to get a marriage partner or when a man has a child with a girl and the man is forced to carry the child as with the customary practice of the Luhya and some coast communities.

    Here a woman is married to at least two husbands.  This is commonly practised in India.  It is very rare in Kenya.

    • Polygamous family.

    Here a man marries more than one wife and he raises children.  This type of family was common in African culture though it is slowly dying out because of economic strain.

    1. Nuclear family.

    This is composed of a man, wife and children.  This is the type of family which is mostly recommended by Christians today.  It is the most common due to Christianity, western education and also due to economic pressure.

    1. Extended family.

    This is composed of many nuclear families.  Here an old man may have twelve sons who marry to have each a nuclear family. When all these many nuclea families use one family name of the old man, then it is an extended family.


    1. Why do young people seek church weddings?
    2. Christian marriage is permanent
    3. The church gives guidance and counselling to the couple.
    • Church wedding enables couple celebrate marriage with friends, relatives etc.
    1. Church wedding enables one to declare publicly that he/she is married
    2. Marriage is ordained by God hence the great desire to seek it.
    3. It helps the couple to be strong in faith as their best couple helps the young couple in matters of faith.
    • The young Christians seek church weddings so as to get a certificate.
    • The youth would seek church weddings because they know their marriages will last long for they fear to break vows they made in church infront of a great congregation.
    1. The young seek church marriages so as to get God’s blessings.
    2. Church marriages helps to couple to work their salvation as one as they will be helping each other in their Christian walk to heaven.
    3. Because marriage is sacred.
    • It makes couple become members of Christian community
    • To avoid non-Christian marriage.
    • It enables the couple to declare in public that they are married.


    1. Why did traditional African communities prefer to have extended families to nuclear families?
    2. Extended family had many relatives than a nuclear family hence many people would join together in consoling members who lost a member.
    3. It was easier for an extended family to pay dowry than a nuclear family.
    • In terms of work force an extended family has many members hence they could do a lot of work as compared to a nuclear family.
    1. It was easier for an extended family to help the orphaned children than in a nuclear family.
    2. In times of hardship like famine the richer members of the extended family would easily help the poor members of the family while this is not possible in a nuclear family.
    3. An extended family is stronger in defence than a nuclear family.


    1. Why do you think it was mandatory for everyone to marry in traditional African communities?
    2. It was a way of proving ones fertility
    3. Unmarried people were never respected in traditional African societies no matter how old one was.
    • It was only through marriage that one would be remembered after being named by their children.
    1. Marriage in traditional African communities joined two families together therefore one would marry to have many relatives and friends.
    2. One married to continue the fire of life burning through procreation as the idea of adoption of children is alien to Africans.


    1. Define the term abortion. What are some of the reasons advanced for and against abortion?

    Definition  –  Abortion is the willful removal of the foetus from the mother’s body while it cannot lead independent life.

    Reasons for abortion:

    1. Some people argue that abortion would be justified in pregnancy were as a result of rape.
    2. Others argue that abortion may be justified if done to save the life of the mother, the child or both.
    • Others say that abortion can be justified on economic grounds i.e if the child to be born is going to be a great economic burden.
    1. Others argue that abortion can be justified when the child to be born is likely to be physically deformed.
    2. Others argue that abortion can be justified if a schoolgirl becomes pregnant and wishes to pursue her studies.
    3. Others argue that abortion can be justified if a couple have ‘accidental pregancy’ and they feel they do not need the child or even unmarried people who get pregnancy out of uncommitted love.


    1. Reasons against abortion.
    2. Many Christians especially the Catholics argue that abortion equals murder irrespective of the age of the foetus.
    3. They argue that all effort should be made to save the life of the mother and the child but not just to result to abortion.
    • On the view that the child to be born is likely to be physically deformed – they argue that it is not possible to prove this with certainty. They say this is a serous issue that should have no guesswork.
    1. On the argument pertaining to economic burden – they argue that such children could be taken to children’s homes for the orphans and destitute.
    2. On pregnant schoolgirls they argue that the same should give birth first and are allowed to continue with her studies.
    3. If abortion is made freely, many will abuse sex.


    1. Discuss in detail factors that are enhancing prostitution today.
    2. The youth will mostly get involved in prostitution due to peer group pressure.
    3. Others are indulging in prostitution due to lack of partners as a result of divorce.
    • Others are getting into prostitution due to unfulfilled sexual desires from their spouses.
    1. Children born and brought up by prostitutes would turn to be prostitutes when they grow up.
    2. Today we have many sugar mammies and sugar daddies who are seriously promoting prostitution.
    3. These days we have very many video and cinema halls, which are showing pornographic videos and films that are leading many to indulge in prostitution.
    • The movement from rural areas to urban areas is in a great deal promoting prostitution.
    • Extreme poverty drives many young and old men to prostitution especially if they have no other source of livelihood.
    1. Great desire for sex promotes prostitution even among the married people.


    1. Explain the problems associated with childlessness in marriage today.
    2. In extreme cases it may lead to divorce.
    3. Also extreme cases may lead to suicide especially the woman if the husband adversely accuses her of barrenness.
    • Childless couple always feel incomplete
    1. A man in childless family may engage in heavy drinking to cover frustrations.
    2. Childless couples may result to unfaithfulness to prove their fertility
    3. Childless couple may easily be tempted to steal children.
    • It is easy for childless couples to hate children or those who have children.
    • Many childless couples have constant war amongst themselves because they keep blaming each other.




    1. Explain methods used by Africans in choosing life partners.
    2. In many communities parents of the boy chose the girl to be married to their son.
    3. The boyskingsmen could also choose a suitable girl for their boy.
    • A mature boy was also allowed to choose marriage partner then sought the consent of his parents who gave an approval.
    1. In some other communities mature boys and girls meet and when they fall in love, each consulted their parents who in turn went ahead with payment of dowry.
    2. A marriage partner could be chosen by the boys age mates but sought the parents consent. This method was used in a few communities.
    3. In other communities, for example the Kamba, father of a girl could give his girl to be married by a son whose father is a big friend. In this case the consent of the boy and girls was sought.


    1. Discuss the factors that make some people abstain from marriage.
    2. Early pregnancies of girls make them not find willing men to marry them hence opt to lead single parenthood.
    3. Many fear to fail in marriage in particular if they know of their friends who have failed in marriage.
    • Some are barren (women) or impotent (men) hence see no reason of committing themselves into marriage.
    1. Others are celibate i.e they choose not to marry so as to serve God as priests, nuns, monks etc.
    2. Others decide not to marry if they have heavy family burdens to carry.
    3. Others sacrifice their marriages on the altar of their loved careers e.g women who join the military forces may stick into their career at the expense of marriage.


    1. Explain what Paul taught the Corinthians about marriage.
    2. Paul taught the Corinthians not to marry non-Christians – the believers should not be yoked together with non-believers.
    3. He taught them to choose celibacy like him if they wanted to serve God better.
    • Paul taught those who separated or divorced not to seek marriage again so long as their spouses were living otherwise that be equal to adultery.
    1. He taught the Corinthian church that those who lost their spouses could re-marry to avoid temptations to sexual immorality.
    2. Paul taught the Corinthian church that marriage was permanent hence there was no room for divorce.
    3. He advised the Corinthians that those who are married should not deny each other their conjugal rights.
    • Paul advised the married Corinthians not to separate for long to avoid the sin of immorality.


    1. Explain the problems a Kenyan youth would encounter today.
    2. The spirit of materialism as everybody today wants to acquire more and more can catch up a youth.
    3. A youth today is faced with problems of pre-marital sex.
    • A youth may be caught up in tribal conflicts.
    1. Today the youth are faced with acute problem of unemployment.
    2. Today’s youth is experiencing problems of broken families. Today divorce is on the increase resulting to single parenthood.
    3. Today’s youth does not know which culture to follow, modern (western) or traditional culture.
    • Temptations to engage in drug abuse are a today’s problem to the youth.


    1. Explain methods through which Christians can resolve misunderstanding between parents and their children.
    2. By Christians being role models to be followed
    3. Through prayers christens can bring proper understanding
    • Christians can provide guidance and counselling to both children and their parents
    1. Christians can solve misunderstandings by being frank in their judgement
    2. By committing children to Gods will.
    3. By seeking help from church ministers.


    1. What are the characteristics of an ideal Christian family?
    2. An ideal Christian family is monogamous
    3. An ideal Christian family exercises great degree of tolerance among the members.
    • Lover governs in an ideal Christian family.
    1. In an ideal Christian family parents guide their children in spiritual issues.
    2. An ideal Christian family is one that is started by God.
    3. In an ideal Christian family members help each other.
    • An ideal Christian family is live-long
    • Children have great respect towards parents in an ideal Christian family.
    1. In an ideal Christian family members pray together daily
    2. Forgiveness dominates an ideal Christian family.
    3. Incase children misbehave in a Christian family they are given discipline in great love.


    1. What do you think children should be told about God at an early age?
    2. To give them a sense of belonging to the Christian community
    3. To instill in them an awareness of God.
    • To follow the example of Christ.
    1. To be conversant with the true teaching of their church
    2. To learn how to trust, obey and give themselves to God.
    3. To learn how to communicate to God through prayer.
    • To acquit themselves with the religious practices of their church
    • To enable them become members of the church.


    1. Explain briefly the side effects of rape in Kenya.
    2. Today most of the rapists are being imprisoned with canning
    3. Rape may result to unwanted pregnancies.
    • Ladies who are raped do not forget the experiences throughout their lives.
    1. The raped ladies may loss dignity in their societies.
    2. Rape results to contracting of STD and AIDS which is most prevalent those days.
    3. Rape in extreme case may make the victim to commit suicide. The lady may commit suicide due to the social stigma or the man may commit suicide while fearing the punishment that follows after he is arrested.


    1. Why do you think there are some many cases of divorce today?
    2. One cause of divorce today is domestic violence – men beating their wives or wives beating their husbands.
    3. Increased extra marital sex.
    • Lack of communication between the married people.
    1. Childlessness caused by impotence of men or infertility or bareness of women.
    2. Religious differences among the married members
    3. Cultural differences caused by people who are married from difference cultures e.g a Luhya marrying a Boran.
    • Sexually transmitted diseases e.g Aids.
    • Great gap in education level between the husband and wife.
    1. Differences caused by people’s careers. Some people value their careers more than their marriages.


    1. What was the important of polygamy in Traditional African Societies?
    2. In Traditional African communities polygamy was a sign of prestige.
    3. Polygamy increased chances of each woman getting married
    • Polygamy ensured that incase one wife was barren the others could bear children.
    1. Many wives gave birth to many children which inturn ensured large labour force.
    2. Polygamy reduced cases of sexual immorality.


    1. What steps can the church and state take to control irresponsible sex?
    2. Government and church should train guidance and counseling personnel to vigorously counsel students in schools and even adults.
    3. The government should have severe punishment to the sex abusers e.g President Moi on 30/06/2001 suggested that whoever transmits Aids trough rape should be hanged.
    • Conduct family life and sex education to the youth as well as the mature people.
    1. Set strict laws controlling sex behaviours.
    2. The government may refuse licences to areas encouraging immorality
    3. The churches should teach sound doctrine on matters pertaining to sex abuse.


    1. Why do you think Christian families have difficulties living peacefully together?
    2. Permissiveness and peer group pressure
    3. Unfaithfulness on the part of married partners.
    • Drug abuse by parents and mature children
    1. Bareness for the wife, impotence for the husband or S.T.D.s
    2. Lack of tolerance on the married partners.
    3. Religious differences can bring lack of harmony in the family.
    • Lack of dialogue between the marriage partners and even between parents and children.
    • Greed for wealth can cause differences in the family.
    1. Refusal of conjugal rights by any part of the marriage partner.
    2. Misuse of family resources e.g selling family properties secretly.
    3. Cultural differences especially where the husband and wife do not come form same ethnic community.
    • Generation gap between parents and children
    • Child abuse, which is on the increase when, parents (some) are beating, raping, playing sex with their children.
    • When family members are separated for long
    1. Criminology among children.


    1. State five conditions under which Traditional African communities granted divorce.
    2. If the woman had broken her virginity before marriage
    3. If one has inherited diseases
    • Failure to honour and respect in-laws
    1. Failure to pay dowry.
    2. If one partner became a thief
    3. If one partner became cruel to the other
    • If couple was related by blood.


    1. How has money economy changed the Traditional of African concept of Bride wealth?
    2. Today bridewealth is longer shared by the extended family of the bride but only given to the brides father.
    3. Money given as dowry de-humanises the bride rather than make her feel accepted in the community.
    • It is no longer seen as a token of appreciation but as a “price”.
    1. The girl is seen as an investment by her father which can be purchased as a commodity by her husband.
    2. It is no longer fixed, but it can be bargained.
    3. It is now paid in cash money and not in form of animals and other gifts.
    • Nowadays there is greed and exploitation by the brides father.
    • Instead of dowry being a cementing factor between the two families and also the couple it has become a cause of disharmony and friction.
    1. These days dowry is fixed according to the status, education and position of the girl.


    1. Give reasons why you think Christians make vows in marriages.
    2. To make marriage permanent
    3. To have a companion
    • To obey God’s command
    1. To show how they love each other
    2. To procreate for continuity
    3. To provide good atmosphere for blessing
    • To show to the public their intentions
    • To declare total commitment to each other.


    1. Explain how alcoholism has affected marriage in Kenya today.
    2. Alcoholism may lead to loss of job due to failure to carry out ones duties consequently leading to financial constraints in the home.
    3. Alcoholism brews quarrels and fights between couples
    • Alcoholism endangers ones family in that it may cause fatal accidents.
    1. Alcoholism leads to misuse of family finances at the expense of basic family needs.
    2. Alcoholism may lead to malnutrition of children due to lack of balanced diet.
    3. Alcoholism may make the husband to be absent from home hence abdicating family responsibilities.
    • Alcoholism may cause death of both parents reducing children to poor orphans.
    • The spread of STD / AIDS is prevalent among alcoholics.
    1. Alcoholism lowers the social status of the family especially when the wife is an alcoholic in our African setting.
    2. Alcoholism is a major cause of immorality hence unfaithfulness.
    3. Alcoholism is causing terminal sicknesses like kidney failure liver disease etc.
    • Alcoholism may cause birth of deformed children especially for expectant mothers who suffer from foetal alcoholic syndrome.



    1. What were the duties of children towards parents in Traditional African societies.
    2. Children helped their parents on daily work.
    3. Children were supposed to obey or respect their parents
    • They were supposed to remember their parents after their parents death
    1. Children had a duty of looking after and inheriting their parents property
    2. Children were supposed to give their parents decent burials
    3. Children had a duty of caring for their parents during parents old age.
    • Children must name their offsprings after their parents.


    1. Why was marriage in traditional African communities seen as a covenant?
    2. Breaking of marriage had serious consequences
    3. Ancestors were involved to protect and bless marriages
    • It bound two families together
    1. There are witnesses
    2. Vows are made promising to be loyal to each other.
    3. There is a ceremony to express the relationship
    • Conditions are set e.g payment of dowry.


    1. What are the causes of unfaithfulness among the married today in Kenya?
    2. Peer group pressure
    3. Lengthy separation between the couple.
    • Lack of sexual satisfaction by one partner
    1. Lack of dialogue in marriage.
    2. Lack of self control
    3. Addiction to alcohol may easily lure one into extramarital sex any partner can fall victim to this.
    • Threats from bosses at places of work mostly on married women one can yield to such pressures to safeguard ones job.
    • Poverty can push a married woman to engage in adultery for economic gains.
    1. Unfaithfulness in marriage can result from lack of interest in the marriage partner.
    2. Need for revenge – a married woman can easily fall victim to unfaithfulness if she discovers that her husband does it.


    1. What was the significance of marriage in African Traditional communities?
    2. Marriage was importance because it promoted ones status in community
    3. Through marriage one gives birth to children who continue his family lineage after death.
    • Marriage is importance because it enables one to get legitimate children.
    1. Through marriage one proves that he is a good leader especially if he manages his family well
    2. It is only through marriage that one can raise a family.


    1. What are the initiates taught about sex?
    2. The secrets and mystery of man and woman relationship
    3. How to approach and behave towards members of the opposite sex.
    • There own procreation systems
    1. When the refrain from sexual relationships
    2. The place and importance of sex in marriage
    3. They were taught sex was sacred.


    1. In details outline how Kenyan churches help to strengthen marriage bonds:
    2. During weddings, churches ensure that the bride and bridegroom exchange vows which they are expected to keep till death separates them.
    3. Churches hold prayers for families
    • Churches write books and materials on family life.
    1. Churches organise guidance and counselling to those preparing to marry.
    2. Churches provides pastoral care to families both young and old
    3. Churches organise couples’ seminars and workshops
    • Churches provide teachings on how to have successful Christian marriages.
    • Church members provide both moral and material support to families in times of hardships like sickness and even when they are bereaved.
    1. Churches intervene when there are misunderstandings between husband and wife.
    2. Churches prepare family life programmes which enlightens the parents and children on their duties in a family.
    3. Christian churches do not encourage divorce hence this stand makes couples to stay together.
    • Some churches discipline errant members in matters pertaining to marriage.
    • Churches encourage members to hold family prayers at home which inturn unite the family.


    1. Why do you think polygamy cannot work in modern Kenya?
    2. Polygamy breeds quarrels and fights in families
    3. Polygamy reduces women to inferior positions in marriage relationships
    • Polygamy results to bitterness between co-wives and their children.
    1. Polygamy brings problems of dirding inheritance after the man dies that is why we have court tussles ranging burial places to who should get what in ones estates.
    2. Some women may give love portions to the man while trying to posses him and they may lead to his death.
    3. Polygamy can easily lead to sexual promiscuity
    • Polygamy can easily cause poverty where a man has very many wives and children to support.
    • Polygamy can drive a man to mental confusion in particular when the man is torn between the wives.
    1. Polygamy can cause great rivalry which can result to murder or suicide.
    2. Polygamy results to favourism to one wife or certain children at the expense of the others.


    1. What are the obvious results of uncontrolled sex among the youth?
    2. It may lead to the youth dropping from school.
    3. Unwanted pregnancies
    • There are high chances of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
    1. Frequent quarrels with the parents especially when they are trying to correct the youth.
    2. It may lead to single parenthood
    3. Some girls may be forced to abort
    • It may cause a psychological stigma to the affected girls especially if they do not marry and are leading miserable life.


    1. Outline the main causes of sexual immorality among the youth in today’s world.
    2. Peer group pressure forces the youth to indulge in sexual immorality.
    3. Lack of relevant education to the youth
    • Drugs abuse among the youth especially the abuse of alcohol.
    1. Pornographic films and literature
    2. Parents have neglected their roles as role models and counsellors to their own children.
    3. Influence from T.Vs, Videos etc.
    • Lack of privacy as found in urban areas where a couple shares a single room with mature youth.
    • There is a lot of permissiveness in our modern society.
    1. Unemployment that is the order of the day even among university graduates so leading many to indulge in sexual immorality.
    2. Today we have condoms in all public places. This is encouraging the youth to involve themselves in sex abuse without fear of contracting S.T.Ds and even becoming pregnant.
    3. The youth lack people who can set good examples for them to follow.
    • Frustration is leading many youth into sexual abuse.


    1. What steps did Traditional African societies take to ensure there were few pregnancies before marriage?
    2. Opposite sexes respected each other.
    3. Sound sex education was given to the youth.
    • There was severe punishment to the girls who became pregnant before marriage.
    1. Boys and girls were not allowed to mix in the absence of responsible elders.
    2. Virginity was highly valued in many traditional African societies
    3. Mothers monitored their daughters’ conduct to safeguard against any sex abuse.
    • Young men who misbehaved were heavily fined or given bad nicknames.
    • The youth were explicitly explained the dangers of irresponsible sex.
    1. There were rigid taboos on sex relationships, which were observed.
    2. List down way in which a Christian can show responsibility in the community.
    3. A Christian can evangelise to the non-Christians.
    4. A Christian visit and pray for the sick
    • A Christian can lead an exemplary life that can be coveted by everyone.
    1. A Christian can care for the needy
    2. A Christian can share in the problems of others.


    1. Critically examine factors that may undermine marriage in our modern Kenya:
    2. When in-laws become key decision makers in any marriage
    3. The current economic problems facing Kenya
    • Alcoholism is the major undermines to Kenyan marriage
    1. Negative peer group pressure i.e one is advised wrongly on issues pertaining to marriage.
    2. Rampant S.T.Ds especially AIDS
    3. Conflict emanating from inter-cultural marriages
    • Differences as a result of different faith e.g catholic married to S.D.A.
    • The great pressure exerted by the women’s liberation movement is a sending negative signals in some marriages.
    1. Increased incidents of extra-marital sex among the married
    2. Deviant children are undermining marriage because parents blame each other when children become ill-behaved. In many cases the man blames the wife and conflict sets in.


    1. Explain how a Christian marriage qualifies to be a modern covenant.
    2. In marriage there is a sign of a ring and a marriage certificate.
    3. There are conditions – both take marriage vows promising to stay together till they die.
    • We have a church wedding ceremony
    1. In Christian marriage we have joining together of a man and a wife which are the two parties involved.
    2. In a Christian marriage there are so many witnesses including parents, relatives, best couples and friends.
    3. There are consequences.




    1. What are the problems that are resulting from inter-cultural marriages:
    2. There are problems of inheritance because different cultures have different beliefs on inheritance.
    3. There will be problems in the way they view the role of women/ men in marriage and this opposed view can bring conflict in marriage.
    • Different cultures have different norms, which are likely to bring conflicts in inter-cultural marriages.
    1. Different cultures have different taboos, which may also bring conflict in marriages.
    2. The feelings by one partner that his/her partner’s cultures are primitive salvage or uncivilised.


    1. Explain the significance of dowry in African Traditional Society.
    2. Dowry in A.T.S. was a goal for marriage
    3. Dowry showed appreciation by the boys family to the girls family
    • It was a sign of the girls presence in her home.
    1. It served as a compensation to the loss of the girl
    2. It was a constant reminder that the girl was not cheap.


    1. Give reasons why many people today are for monogamous marriage.
    2. If is not easy to contract sexually transmitted disease especially when the partners are faithful.
    3. It is easy to plan a monogamous marriage
    • A couple have a small family to bring up
    1. Such a marriage has fewer problems
    2. It is an ideal marriage especially when the parents are good models to their children.


    1. Explain how the modern church can rehabilitate prostitutes.
    2. The church can rehabilitate prostitutes by showing them love.
    3. The church should try to give prostitutes an alternative means of earning a living e/g providing them with employment.
    • The church should visit the prostitutes regularly
    1. The church should give these prostitutes food and assist them to meet their basic needs
    2. The church members should encourage them to go to church where they can hear sound Christian doctrine.
    3. The church should give them some technical skills, which would help them to be self-employed.


    1. Explain how marriage in traditional African communities contributed to the social relationship in the communities.
    2. Marriage controlled behaviour of individuals within the relationship
    3. Any marital differences were solved by the family of the community
    • Marriage brought together the two families involved
    1. Marriage encouraged assisting each other in that one felt obliged to educate his sisters and brother in-law
    2. Marriage encouraged sharing of meals and ceremonies. During marriage feasts, all people were involved and they enjoyed themselves.
    3. Children who were born out of marriage formed a link between the families and ancestors.


    1. Explain the African concept on human sexuality.
    2. In Traditional African societies it was highly valued and preserved till marriage
    3. Africans believed and taught that sex was sacred and secretive
    • The full meaning of sexuality was fully realised in marriage
    1. Sex offenders were severely punished.
    2. It was only through sex that life was transmitted.
    3. It was a taboo to expose sex organs
    • In traditional African communities it was prohibited to talk about sex in public.
    • In African traditional communities agemates were allowed to talk about sex in detail because they underwent same circumcision knife.


    1. List down the new privileges enjoyed by a newly circumcised youth in traditional African communities.
    2. One stood a chance of being chosen as a community leader.
    3. An initiate was allowed to marry.
    • Graduating from initiation enabled one to be respected by the community. Many African communities have no respect for the uncircumcised e.g the Kikuyu community call one “kihii”
    1. After initiation one could own property.
    2. After initiation one was allowed to pour out libation and offer sacrifices.
    3. After initiation one could become an elder
    • Initiation enabled one to change his/ her status. One became a husband/ wife, father/ mother.


    1. Explain the similarities found between Old Testament and African and African traditional marriages.
    2. In both dowry was a must to be paid
    3. Procreation was key factor in marriage, as a result Abraham had to take his maid for the purpose of having a child.
    • In both woman we handled as a property – Ref. Judges 19:24-27.
    1. In both there was wife inheritance
    2. In both polygamy was practised
    3. In both marriage could be arranged – a good example in old Testament is when Abraham arranged marriage for his son Isaac to marry Rebecca.
    • In both they overcame barrenness by marrying a second wife.
    • In both companionship was to be for mutual relationship.
    1. In both when sufficient reasons were given, divorce was granted.
    2. In both marriage brought good relationship between the two families involved, that is why Solomon married daughters of neighbouring kings to ensure peace.
    3. Wife was subordinate to the husband. Sarah called her husband Abraham “my lord” just as the Nigerian women called their husbands.


    1. Outline the importance of courtship in traditional African marriage.
    2. Courtship enabled those involved to get pieces of advice from others who were concerned.
    3. Courtship enabled the involved to negotiate dowry
    • Courtship was important because it enabled one to learn the character of the other person (partner).
    1. Courtship period enabled in-laws, relatives and friends to familiarise themselves with each other.
    2. Courtship period enabled closer understanding between both families
    3. Courtship was important because it allowed the involved to learn the background of each other (partner).


    1. Explain reasons why sex before marriage was rare in traditional African communities.
    2. Africans reduced sex before marriage by allowing early marriages
    3. There was severe punishment for sex offenders
    • The youth followed rigid social norms and taboos
    1. Boys and girls mixed rarely and when they did, a mature and responsible elder supervised them.
    2. Sex education for the boys and girls was given during initiation and even continued by the grandparents
    3. Parents and clan members made marriage arrangements for their mature youths.
    • In traditional African communities virginity was highly valued and rewarded.


    1. In your own view, how can the church help single parents?
    2. The church can help single parents by encouraging them to get married
    3. The church provides pastoral care, guidance and counselling to single parents.
    • The church should welcome them and even persuade them to join church seminars on family life.
    1. The church should involve them in all church functions to cultivate a sense of belonging to them.
    2. The church should provide single parents with job opportunities.
    3. The church should involve them in all church functions to cultivate a sense of belong to them.
    • The church should visit them as way of showing love to them which they desperately need.


    1. What do you think can make a modern preacher not to be popular to the society?
    2. When the preacher practices immorality
    3. When one speaks against murder.
    • When a preacher gives inaccurate preaching.
    1. When one condemns corruption and bribery
    2. When one is against the worshipping of wealth and power.
    3. When one condemns the oppression of the poor by the rich.
    • When a preacher misuses the pulpit e.g he engages in politics on the pulpit.
    • When one condemns false preachers.
    1. When the preacher turns to be corrupt.
    2. When he condemns popular leisure activities
    3. When one does not set oneself as a good model
    • When one is not gender sensitive.